A THESIS SYNOPSIS
AN ANALYSIS OF MORAL VALUES THROUGH THE REWARDS AND PUNISHMENTS ON THE SCRIPT OF
“THE CHRONICLES OF NARNIA: THE LION, THE WITCH, AND THE WARDROBE”
DIAN RIZQIYATI 105026000971
ENGLISH LETTER DEPARTMENT LETTERS AND HUMANITIES FACULTY
SOCIAL CONDITION OF AMERICAN SOCIETY IN THE GREAT DEPRESSION ERA IN KIT KITTREDGE: AN AMERICAN GIRL FILM
Submitted to Letters and Humanities Faculty
in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirement for the Degree of Letters
NUR HIKMAH 105026000989
ENGLISH LETTER DEPARTMENT LETTERS AND HUMANITIES FACULTY
Dian Rizqiyati, An analysis of Moral Values through the Rewards and Punishments on the script of “The Chronicles of Narnia: The Lion, the White Witch, and the Wardrobe”. Jakarta: Letters and Humanities Faculty, State Islamic University, January 2010.
This research is aimed to figure out the reward and punishment values in the fantasy literature that is adapted to the cinema using qualitative method. Those values are considered can be a bridge to introduce the moral values to children. Morality is being important issue here because morality is an important thing in the life. In every chances, people often talk and discuss about moral. It means that morality is a base thing to own for the individual to socialize with the family, friends and community. It’s an important thing to have acceptable relationship. Some people argue that the most of young generation have a bad morality. Therefore, parents have to raise the awareness of their children to behave morally. There are many ways that parents can use to grow the moral spirit of their children.
One way that can be used is children’s literature, in this case fantasy literature. Today, literature is not about written form. There are lots of popular fantasy literatures that are adapted to the cinema. Thus there will be more people that can enjoy the story. There will be more children that can receive the messages that are brought by the story. One of them is The Chronicles of Narnia: The Lion, the Witch, and the Wardrobe. This story contains the good values to children. It can be a good means because the story reveals the messages without anger. The interesting plot and characters will lead the children into the enjoyment and comfort. Directly or indirectly, they will get some good messages while they enjoy the story.
Fantasy literature usually shows the battle between the good versus the evil. The good will be rewarded and the evil will be punished. The reward and punishment values that appear in the story can be a good model to children. They will be able to understand the consequence of doing something good such as help friends, respect parents, etc. The consequence is reward. The rewards they can gain are various even though it’s not a kingdom or magical power as in the movie. They will also be able to understand the consequence of hurting somebody else or doing something bad that break the rules. The consequence is punishment. The understanding about bad and good, reward and punishment will stimulate their morality awareness.
AN ANALYSIS OF MORAL VALUES THROUGH THE REWARDS AND
PUNISHMENTS ON THE SCRIPT OF
“THE CHRONICLES OF NARNIA: THE LION, THE WITCH, AND THE WARDROBE”
Submitted to Letters and Humanities Faculty
in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirement for
the Degree of Strata 1
Muhammad Farkhan, M.Pd
ENGLISH LETTER DEPARTMENT LETTERS AND HUMANITIES FACULTY
STATE ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY SYARIF HIDAYATULLAH JAKARTA 2010
The thesis entitled “An Analysis of Moral Values Through The Rewards and Punishments on The Script of The Chronicles of Narnia : The Lion, The Witch, and The Wardrobe” has been defended before the Letter and Humanities Faculty’s Examination Committee on February 01, 2010. The thesis has already been accepted as a partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of strata 1.
Jakarta, February 01, 2010
1. Dr. H. Muhammad Farkhan, M.Pd (Chair Person) ___________ 19650919 200003 1 002
2. Drs. Asep Saefuddin, M.Pd (Secretary) ___________ 19640710 199303 1 006
3. Dr. H. Muhammad Farkhan, M.Pd (Advisor) ___________ 19650919 200003 1 002
4. Danti Pudjianti, M. Hum (Examiner I) ___________ 19731220 199903 2 004
5. Moh. Supardi, M. Hum (Examiner II) ___________
I hereby declare that this submission is my own work and that, to the best of my
knowledge and belief, it contains no material previously published or written by another
person nor material which to a substantial extent has been accepted for the award of any
other degree or diploma of the university or other institute of higher learning, except
where due acknowledgment has been made in the text.
Jakarta, January 2010
In the name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.
First of all, the writer would like to thank Allah SWT for all His favor and
guidance in completing this thesis. All praises belong to Him, the Creator of living things
from being nothing to existence. Many salutation and benediction be unto the noblest of
the prophet and messenger, Muhammad SAW.
In this occasion, the writer would like to express a special thank to:
1. DR. H. M. Farkhan, M.Pd as her advisor, for his guidance and contribution in
finishing this thesis.
2. DR. H. Abdul Chair, M.A as the Dean of Faculty of Adab and Humanities.
3. DR. M. Farkhan, M.Pd as the Head of English Letters Department.
4. Drs. A. Saeffudin, M.Pd as the Secretary of English Letters Department.
5. All of the lecturers in English Letters Department whom she cannot mention one
by one, who have taught and educated her during her study in UIN.
6. her parents, ‘Abah’ Muhammad Sofie and ‘Mama’ Minhatul Maula for giving
their full-financial, spiritual supports, attention, love and all the contribution
during her study and the process of making this thesis.
7. her discussion partner Ahmad Mukaffa for all the time he has been spent together
with her, for all the spirit, attention, suggestions, and love during the study and the
process of finishing this thesis.
8. her lovely friends Wiwit Werdiningsih, Puspa Sari, and Eni Sumarni whom
without she would have been empty in UIN Syahid for giving her supports, new
experiences, and all the joy and fun they have shared together.
9. Nur Hikmah who has struggled together, Nuraeni, Mudrika, Dewe, Nunik, Asti,
Desta, Nandra, Ivon, and all of friends in class C for all the experience, joy, and
fun in these four years. Let’s keep fighting to gain all of dreams, to make the
Finally, the writer realizes that this thesis is far from being perfect and hopes this
thesis can be used as well as possible.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TABLE OF CONTENTS……… vii
CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION……… 1
A. Background of the Study………... 1
B. Focus of the Study………. 6
C. Research Questions……….. 7
D. Objectives of the Study……… 7
E. Significance of the Study………. 8
F. Research Methodology………. 8
CHAPTER II. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK……… 10
A. Children’s Literature………. 11
1. Fantasy……… 12
2. History of Fantasy Literature……….. 15
B. Morality………. 17
1. Moral Development………. 17
2. Lawrence Kohlberg’s Thought……… 18
C. Reward and Punishment……… 21
1. Reward ……… 21
2. Punishment ……… 22
3. Religion concept of reward and punishment ……… 24
D. Film……… 28
CHAPTER III. ANALYSIS……… 30
A. Data Description……… 30
B. Corpus……… 31
C. Data Analysis………. 1. Analysis of Rewards……… 35
2. Analysis of Punishments………. 42
3. Analysis of Moral Messages……… 47
CHAPTER IV. CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION………. 54
A. Conclusion………... 54
B. Suggestion……… 55
A. List of figures ………. 58
B. A glance of film……….. 61
C. A Film script ………. 64
CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION
A. Background of the Study
For most parents and certainly for society, the development of morality in
children is a great importance. Parents always question the moral message of what their
children read and watch. They give an extra attention to avoid children of having bad
behavior. It’s getting more anxious when some adults and experts suppose that the now
generation is having moral degradation. It pushes parents to be more alert of their
children’s morality development.
Parents want their children to adopt the rules of the society in which they live to
avoid breaking rules or giving offence, and to behave “properly” when they’re away from
home or not being observed, and not just when their parents are standing over them.1
Because of that, parents try to guide their children to behave well by giving them
understanding about right and wrong.
By understanding the right and wrong, children will understand how to behave
morally. Then, they will have no difficulties to socialize and have acceptable relationship
with family members, friends, and larger environment where they live. It’s a base need of
human to be accepted by others. Therefore, parents obviously start giving the base
principle of morality to their children early. Each parent has a different way to do this.
Sometimes, some parents demand their children without giving a real explanation.
In fact, they often send a message by the anger. Unfortunately, to grow the moral spirit in
Helen Bee, The Developing Child (New York : Harpen and Row Publisher, 1975), p. 298
today’s children, we can’t force them to do this or not to do that. They feel more
comfortable with the message without doctrine.2 Consequently, both parents and various
authorities such as teachers and government have to find out a means that can entertain
children and in the same time it brings the moral message. It’s such a simple but
Literature can be a solution of that problem. When children discover enjoyment in
books, they develop favorable attitudes toward them that usually extend and into a
lifetime of appreciation. It’s because literature basically entices, motivates, and
develops.3 As a reflection of life, it represents the author’s view, belief, dreams, and
hope. To apply those main functions of literature, Fauzil Adhim strictly said that the
author should think hard what values or message they will deliver to the readers.4 It
pushes the authors to be responsible of their work. The qualified work certainly can
transfer a good influence to the readers both adult and child. By using it as a media,
parents and adult can send a message to the children with a fun way.
According to Murti Bunanta, a founder of “Kelompok Pecinta Buku Anak”,
through the book, adult can build good values more effectively. She is certain that
children can gain the humanity, morality, empathy, working hard and artistic value from
books.5 The pleasure of enjoying a literary work makes children conveniently absorb the
message about morality.
Ugik, Manfaat Mendongeng Untuk Anak, Sastra Anak. Accessed on Dec 20th 2008. http://ugik.multiply.com/journal/item/03/manfaat_aktifits_mendongeng_untuk_anak
Donna E. Norton, Through the Eyes of A Child (Ohio : A Bell and Howell Company, 1983), p.5
Fauzil Adhim, Dunia Kata (Bandung : Mizan Media Utama, 2004), p. 36
The message about good and bad is one of the functions of literature to the human
life. It means that literature informs the readers about good and bad, right and wrong.6 It
works with its own unique way as people say that literature educates by entertaining. It’s
good to stimulate child’s moral behavior.
As a means of stimulating child’s moral behavior, there are some major categories
of children’s literature that can be chosen by children themselves or by their parents.
According to Nancy Anderson, the associate professor in the College of Education at the
University of South Florida, there are six major categories of children’s literature. They
are early children picture books, traditional literature, fiction, non-fiction, biography and
autobiography, poetry and verse.7 Literature plays a strong role in children’s
development. It can give a great influence. It was proved by David McClelland’s
research. He found that children’s literature can build the need for achievement that
influences the spirit of entrepreneurship. It shows that children’s literature has a power to
shape one’s characteristic and personality. In fact, people can change a nation by
changing what they read.8 One of mostly chosen book is fantasy that includes fantasy and
The writer will focus on fantasy. People sometimes misjudge the existence of
fantasy for its unreal world. They assume that fantasy is less useful than books which
bring today’s problems of daily living. Against them, Lloyd Alexander argues that
fantasy is of the utmost value for children. He said “fantasy touches our deepest feelings
and in so doing, it speaks to the best and most hopeful parts of ourselves. It can help us
Putri, Pengertian, Fungsi, dan Ragam Sastra, Fungsi Sastra. Accessed on April 11th 2009. http:/sastradewa.blogspot.com/2008/03/pengertian-fungsi-dan-ragam-sastra.html#
Children’s literature, wikipedia.org. Dece 20th 2008.
learn the most fundamental skill of all – how to be human”9 It’s such an interesting way
to help children understand the fundamental skill to be a human. One of the popular
fantasies is The Chronicles Narnia which was created by C.S Lewis in 1950. It has sold
over 120 million copies in 41 languages. It has been adapted several times, complete or in
a part for radio, television, stage and cinema. 10
Nowadays, there are many literary works that are adapted for cinema such as The
Davinci Code, Harry Potter, Twilight, and also The Chronicles Narnia. Therefore, these
literary works can be enjoyed not only by the books addict but the movie lovers can also
enjoy it. For that reason, the writer will analyze the script of The Chronicles Narnia: The Lion, the Witch, and the Wardrobe that was released in 2005. She will try to figure out the reward and punishment values in this story that can be good way to introduce the
moral value to children.
Fantasy consistently asks the universal question concerning the struggle of good
versus evil, the humanity of humankind, and the meaning of life and death.11 In this
research, the good will be reflected by rewards and the bad will be reflected by
punishment. The reward and punishment values are considered can stimulate children’s
understanding about morality. There are some popular stories that present these values
such as Cinderella and Pinochio.
Cinderella is well-known classic folk tale embodying a myth-element of unjust
oppression or triumphant reward. The title character is a young woman living in
unfortunate circumstances which suddenly change to remarkable fortune. The word
Charlotte S. Huck, Children’s Literature in the Elementary School (New York : Mc Graw Hill, 2004), p. 308
Children’s literature, History, wikipedia.org. Mei 11th 2009.
"Cinderella" has, by analogy, come to mean one whose attributes are unrecognized, or
one who unexpectedly achieves recognition or success after a period of obscurity and
Cinderella is well known as a character who is always patient to face her step
mother and sisters after her father’s death. They always behave rudely and treat
Cinderella as a servant. Her patient and kindness of obscurity and neglect give her
happiness. Birds and mouse befriend with her. The fairy sympathizes to her pain and
sadness. She comes to help her to have a normal life as her step mother and sisters. The
last, the prince is unintended fall in love with her and eventually marry her. Best friends,
nice fairy, and awesome prince are considered as rewards for her patience, tears, and
sincerity. Meanwhile, her step mother and sisters got nothing for their hatred. It’s a kind
of punishment for their scheme and bad behavior.
The second story is Pinocchio. It is a wooden puppet made by Geppeto but
dreams to be a real boy. Sometimes he is naughty and tells lie. Every time he tells lie, his
nose becomes longer and longer. It can be considered as a punishment. When he tries to
be a good boy, and saves his father, he is rewarded by being a real boy.
Those simple stories are expected to inspire children to behave well. Fantasy
consistently asks the universal question concerning the struggle of good versus evil, the
humanity of humankind, and the meaning of life and death.12 In this research, the good
will be reflected by rewards and the bad will be reflected by punishment. The reward and
punishment values are considered can stimulate children’s understanding about
morality.Commonly if people do something bad and hurt somebody else, they just get
nothing from it. In fact, they can’t feel the real happiness.
The worry of parents and adults about morality of now generation pushes them to
find out a fun way to give children the understanding about right and wrong. One of
alternative way is literary work. Nowadays, there are many literary works that are
adopted for cinema. One of them is The Chronicles of Narnia: The Lion, the Witch, and the Wardrobe. The visual literature is considered can create a fun way to introduce the human and moral value to the children.
It attracts the writer to analyze the script of this story and try to break down the
values of reward and punishment. The rewards are the consequence of doing good and
the punishments are the consequence of doing bad. These values are considered can be
the way to give the understanding about base principle to behave morally.
B. Focus of the Study
Morality is a means to socialize with the family, friends and community. It’s an
important thing to have acceptable relationship. Some people argue that the most of
young generation have a bad morality. Therefore, parents have to raise the awareness of
their children to behave morally. Children’s literature can be an alternative to grow the
moral understanding of their children.
Nowadays, there are many literary works that are adopted for cinema. It can give
moral message to the children more effective and exciting. One of them is popular
fantasy novel The Chronicles Narnia: The Lion, the Witch, and the Wardrobe that was firstly published in 1950 and was adopted for cinema in 2005. Related to the way of
stimulating child’s moral behavior, the writer will focus on the reward and punishment
The rewards and punishments value are considered can give understanding to
children about morality. They will understand the consequence of doing good or bad. The
reward and punishment values in the story are considered can be a good model to
children. They can imply those values in their real life but in different ways. Therefore,
they don’t need to frown anymore when their parents are starting to preach about having
good behavior. They will have fun way to learn about life, about how to be human.
C. Research Question
Based on the background and the focus of the study, the writer tries to formulate
the problems to get more specific purpose. The problems are:
1. What kind of rewards and punishments are implied in The Chronicles of Narnia: The Lion, the Witch, and the Wardrobe?
2. How did the author deliver the moral message to children through the
reward and punishment values?
D. Objectives of the Study
This research is aimed to figure out the kinds of rewards and punishments which
appear on the script of The Chronicles of Narnia: The Lion, the Witch, and the Wardrobe. Besides, it’s aimed to figure out how the authors deliver the moral message to children
through the reward and punishment values as an element of Lawrence Kohlberg’s
E. Significance of the Study
The writer expects this research will bring the new experience and insight either
to the writer’s own self or common readers about the alternative way to stimulate the
children’s morality understanding. After reading this research, hopefully the readers can
be inspired to use a literary work either written or visual form as an effective media to
grow the moral spirit of children. She hopes it can enrich the knowledge about the values
and role of children’s literature either in a book or visual version. There’s always a
special message that can be carried from each form of literature.
Hopefully, the research will successfully show the readers that rewards and
punishments value of fantasy story can do more for children. These values can be implied
in the real life they through. This research is also expected to enrich the literature studies
in English Letter Department of UIN.
F. Research Methodology
The method of research used by the writer is qualitative method. The writer
2. The Unit of Analysis
The unit of analysis in this research is script of The Chronicles Narnia: The Lion, the Witch, and the Wardrobe. It was a popular fantasy novel that was firstly published in 1950 created by C.S Lewis. In December 8th 2005, it was adopted for cinema with the
same title. The script was transcribed by Ann Peacock and Andrew Adamson.
3. Data Analysis
The writer used descriptive qualitative analysis on this research. She read and
understood the script of The Chronicles Narnia: The Lion, the Witch, and the Wardrobe.
Then she found the kinds of rewards and punishments that are included. She also learned the theory of Lawrence Kohlberg about moral development. Then, she correlated the
theory of moral development with the reward and punishment values that she has found
and figure out what the moral messages inside those reward and punishment values.
4. The Research Instruments
To get the data, the writer makes herself as the main instrument of this research.
She read and analyzed the film script and the theory of morality by Kohlberg excitedly.
She is going to underline the kinds of rewards and punishment that appear on the script.
5. Place and Date
A. Children’s Literature
Children’s literature is the written word which collectively embraces all the
features, subject matter, characters and settings, the use of vocabulary presented from an
angle of vision which matches the child’s perspective.12 It can be considered as a product
of literature that is created to please, inform, and educate children. It can’t be separated
from children’s life as Bernice Cullinan has suggested that literature can play a
significant role in the children’s life and parents are responsible to provide literature for
The importance of providing literature pushes parents to be careful to choose the
good one. It certainly must open the door on hope and shouldn’t show cynicism and
despair. It reflects the children’s characteristic who are hopeful even if they are trapped in
a hopeless situation. Besides, it should bring new experiences, imaginations, insight of
life, and give children literary shape and structure. Furthermore, it has to do more than
just entertain because children are full of hope, dream, and curiosity about many things.14
More than just entertain, literature can give some intrinsic values to children. It
provides delight and enjoyment that children can learn with a fun way. Children can also
develop their imagination by acquiring new ideas and new ways of solving problems. It
Margaret R. Marshall, An Introduction To The World Of Children’s Books (Aldershot : Gower Publishing Company, 1982), p. 28.
Henry Guntur Tarigan, Dasar-Dasar Psikosastra (Bandung : Angkasa, 1995), p. 2.
Charlotte S. Huck (2004), op.cit. 5
CHAPTER III ANALYSIS
A. Data Description
The function of fantasy is to express imaginative experiences or insights into the
human conditions by images or ideas or possibilities which remain essentially true to
what human know about life and good and evil; observations about the human condition
without preaching. 48
Due to the function above, the human values in the fantasy story can be found
through the kinds of reward and punishment that appear in the story. Commonly, rewards
come to the heroes and heroines meanwhile punishments come to the bad guys. Through
these kinds of rewards and punishments, audience can learn and gain educational or
inspiring message. One of popular fantasy story that brings this message is The Chronicles of Narnia: The Witch, the Lion, and the Wardrobe that has been adapted into film. This fantasy story was written by C.S Lewis in 1950. In December 8th 2005, it was
adopted for cinema with the same title whose script was transcribed by Ann Peacock.
The story is about the Pevensie family; Peter, Susan, Edmund, and Lucy who
were evacuated out to the country. They stayed at a Professor’s house. During a game of
hide and seek, the youngest daughter, Lucy discovered a wardrobe which transported her
to the land of Narnia. They were unaware will encounter amazing adventure for
discovering Narnia. They helped the wise lion named Aslan to restore the peace in Narnia
by fighting against the White Witch, Jadis.
Glenys Smith (1987), op. cit. 265
After examining the script of The Chronicles of Narnia: The Lion, The witch, and The Wardrobe, the writer has collected the data to be analyzed. She has categorized the kinds of rewards and punishments. She finds there are four kinds of rewards and three
kinds of punishments.
Table 1: Table of rewards
No Kind of reward Corpus Scene Moral Message treat others in the right way.
2 Trust to lead the battle
Edmund: Then you’ll have to lead us. There’s a whole army out there waiting to follow you.
27 If one’s responsible of his duty, he may get more trust from others.
Table 2: Table of Punishments
No Kind of
Corpus Scene Moral Message
1 Apology Peter: you little liar.
2 Being arrested Edmund, in chains at the witch’s palace. He
attempts to eat the food he is given, but coughs and spits it out, because of its taste. He then attempts to drink a cup, which is frozen. He then throws it on the tray.
20 Betrayal can result
C. Data Analysis
1. Analysis of Rewards a) Friend
Having friend is one of people’s needs. There’s a time when people need to be
alone or be independent to do their own business. On the other hand, there’s also the time
they need friends to share the burden, laughter, and even tears. For that reason, they will
try to conform to the group’s norm to be accepted. They will start to maintain the good
interactions and good relationship. When they get friends, it means that they have
successfully fulfilled one of their needs. Therefore, having friend is an outcome of
people’s attempt to conform to the group or society where they stand.
Friend is categorized as reward because reward is not just material possession.49
Friend is reward for Lucy’s attainment. Lucy had succeeded to maintain good
communication to Mr. Tumnus, that finally they had good relationship.
When Lucy, the youngest child of Pevensie met Mr. Tumnus for the first time,
she built good conversations with him. They talked about Narnia and also about their
family. She was so warm to Mr. Tumnus by asking his name, and then she introduced
Lucy: if you don’t mind my asking, what are you? ---
Tumnus: I’m sorry, please allow me to introduce myself, my name is Tumnus.
Lucy: Glad to meet you, Mr. Tumnus! *extends hand* I’m Lucy Pevensie. Oh, you shake it!
--- Tumnus: Why?
Lucy: I-I don’t know! People do it when they meet each other.
Elizabeth Hurlock, (1978), op. cit. 399.
The way Lucy treated Mr. Tumnus impressed him. Her warmth and innocence
changed his mind to kidnap her as The White Witch ordered. He felt so guilty to have bad
intention to Lucy. Eventually, he helped Lucy to return to England and befriended.
In fact, the warmth can make people comfortable to have good interactions.
Positive thought can also push the positive actions. In sum, being positive and having a
good interaction to others are the good starting point to make friends.
Tumnus: I’m kidnapping you. It’s the White Witch, the one that makes it always winter, and never Christmas. She told me that I, if I ever was to come across a son of Adam or a daughter of Eve, I am supposed to turn it over.
--- Lucy: But I thought you were my friend. ---
Tumnus: No matter what happens, Lucy Pevensie, I’m glad to have met you. You’ve made me feel warmer than I’ve felt in a hundred years.
Tumnus: Go… Come on, go!
After examining the corpus about the meeting between Lucy and Mr. Tumnus, the
writer finds that Lucy had the criteria of the first stage of Kohlberg’s Conventional
level50. In this stage, children begin to maintain good interaction with peers, family, and
also school. It can be seen that Lucy had made a good interaction with Mr. Tumnus. It
indicates that Lucy started to believe that good behavior will please others. It can
motivate children to conform to the social expectations that they must treat others in the
right way to gain the good social acceptance.
Helen Bee (1975), op. cit. 311
b) Trust to lead the battle
Before leaving England to have a shelter in Professor’s house, mother asked Peter
to take care of his siblings. He listened to his mom’s request and he always tried to
protect his siblings. He consoled Lucy, he tried to save Edmund from the White Witch,
he protected his sisters when the river melted, and he killed the wolf that chased his
sisters. Aslan saw the Peter’s responsibility to keep his family safe. His responsibility
reflected his love to his siblings and mom. It made Aslan trust Peter to help him fight the
After Aslan died in the stone table at that night, the White Witch’s troopers had
come near to their camp. There wasn’t Aslan who would lead them. Consequently,
Edmund and Narnian troopers trusted Peter to lead the battle. This trust came due to
Aslan’s trust to Peter.
Peter: It is true, he's gone ---
Edmund: Then you'll have to lead us. There's a whole army out there waiting to follow you.
--- Peter: I can't
Edmund: Aslan believed you could. And so do I.
The trust to lead battle is categorized as reward of Peter’s responsibility to keep
his family safe. If Peter wasn’t responsible man, he wouldn’t get this trust. Leading the
battle is not easy duty, thus it has to be delegated to appropriate person. In this case,
Aslan judged that Peters is the one who must lead the battle.
Peter’s responsibility can be classified in the second stage of Kohlberg’s the law
and order orientation level.51 He was identified had the same criteria with this stage. In
this stage, doing one’s duty, respecting authority, and maintaining the social order as it
already exists are all seen “good”. It’s obviously fit with Peter’s case that he did what his
mother asked to take care of his brother and sister. He had done his duty as the oldest
child and it represented his respect to his mom as an authority.
c) Get life back
Sacrificing for others is actually such a big work. However, Aslan sincerely
sacrificed himself to save Edmund. He didn’t think much. The only thing was the unity of
Pevensie. Aslan expected the Pevensie to help him restore the peace in Narnia. It had
been told in the prophecy that two sons of Adam and two daughters of Eve will appear to
defeat the White Witch and restore peace in Narnia. Aslan’s sincerity gave his life back.
In addition, this case included the Christian value. Aslan’s sacrifice symbolized Jesus
who sacrificed himself to save his followers.
Life is categorized as reward because it is the valuable thing. Aslan got his life
back because of his sincerity in sacrificing himself who is blameless to save Edmund’s
Scene : 34
Susan: We saw the Witch, the knife. ---
Aslan: If the Witch knew the true meaning of sacrifice, she might have interpreted the Deep Magic a little differently. For she would know that if a willing victim who had committed no
treachery died in a traitors stead, the Stone Table would crack and death itself would begin to unwind.
Susan: We sent the word that you were dead. Peter and Edmund would have gone to war.
Related to Kohlberg’s stages, Aslan has reached the highest level. It’s the second
stage of Post conventional morality level52. It’s a morality based on respect for others
rather than on personal desires. He sacrificed himself to save Edmund and also to save
Narnia. His intention is not merely to maintain good relationship with others, but more
than that to save his beloved land. He didn’t expect rewards and he didn’t think about his
personal desires. Therefore, his case is fit with the criteria of this level.
d) Being king and queen of Narnia
Since Lucy knew that Mr. Tumnus had been arrested because of her, she intended
to help her. Opponent with her, Peter and Susan didn’t believe the prophecy and didn’t
want to fight. Peter thought he had to keep his family safe. So, he wanted to take them
home. Lucy insisted to stay in Narnia and help them to fight the White Witch. She was
supported by Edmund. Edmund thought that all that time he had been helped the White
Witch. He realized that he shouldn’t help the White Witch and he didn’t want to leave
Narnian behind to suffer for it.
Peter: You are, I promised I'd keep you three safe but there's no reason I can't stay and help.
Lucy: but they need us...All four of us ---
Peter: Lucy it's too dangerous. You almost drowned, Edmund was almost killed!
--- Edmund: Which is why we have to stay.
Elizabeth Hurlock (1978), op. cit. 391.
(All look at him)
Edmund: I've seen what the White Witch can do and I've helped her do it, and we can't leave these people behind to suffer for it.
The news about Aslan’s death encouraged them to fight and defeat the White
Witch. Eventually, they fought against the White Witch to release the suffering of
Narnia. It was also the revenge for the Aslan’s death.
Peter: Are you with me?
--- Orieus: To the death!
--- Peter: FOR NARNIA, AND FOR ASLAN!!!!
Surprisingly, Aslan got his life back because of his sincerity that he could work
together with The Pevensie and Narnian to defeat the White Witch. Finally, they
succeeded to destroy the White Witch and gave the freedom to Narnia. In the end, The
Pevensie is rewarded to be the true king and queen of Narnia.
Aslan: Bring forth the crowns! ---
(Tumnus and Mr. Beaver bring out the crowns.)
Aslan: (As they put on her crown) To the glistening eastern sea, I give
you Queen Lucy the Valiant. To the great western woods, (puts his crown
on) King Edmund the Just. To the radiant southern sun, (puts crown on)
Queen Susan the Gentle. (crown put on) And to the clear northern skies,
King Peter the Magnificent. Once a king or Queen of Narnia, always a
king or queen.
Everyone: Long live King Peter! Long live Queen Susan! Long live King
Edmund! And long live Queen Lucy!
Being the ruler is a big responsibility. There’s only the right person who can take
this responsibility. For this reason, being the king and queen are categorized as rewards.
The Pevensie got this rewards for their struggle and sincerity to help Narnian to restore
their land by defeating the White Witch.
Related to Kohlberg’s stages, the struggle of the Pevensie and Aslan is classified
in the Post Conventional Level.53 Their struggle doesn’t base on their intention to gain
reward or avoid punishment. They struggle genuinely to give freedom to Narnia. They
love Narnia and they can’t leave Narnian in suffer. It’s fit with the criteria of this stage
where people conform to both social standards and to internalized ideals to avoid
self-condemnation rather than to avoid social censure.
2. Analysis of Punishments a) Apology
The journey to the Narnia is illogic. When Lucy told about her experience, her
siblings didn’t believe her. One night, Edmund, the third child of Pevensie followed Lucy
to the wardrobe and he experienced Narnia himself. After visiting Narnia at that night,
Lucy woke Peter and Susan up. She told both of them that Edmund was there but
Edmund didn’t tell the truth. In fact, he said that Lucy just imagined and couldn’t stop
pretending. It really hurt Lucy that she was sad and cried.
One day, they played cricket at the backyard and they unintentionally broke the
window. Panicky they ran and they found the wardrobe to hide. Eventually, they all
arrived in Narnia. Peter felt sorry to Lucy for being disbelieved and he apologized to
Helen Bee (1975), loc. cit.
Lucy. Peter finally realized that Edmund had told lie at that night. It caused Peter got
angry at him. Peter asked Edmund to say sorry to Lucy but Edmund resisted and Peter
Peter: You little liar! ---
Edmund: You didn't believe her either! ---
Peter: Apologize to Lucy. (He just looks at her) ---
Peter: Say you're sorry! (Peter steps up to him) ---
Edmund: Alright! I'm sorry.
As a guilty person, Edmund certainly had to apologize to Lucy. This case is
obviously relevant to the daily life where people are often hard to say sorry and confess
their mistake. Apology is categorized as punishment because it occurs after the bad or
wrong attitude. It’s the consequence of the wrong act.
By feeling the guilt, children learn that their behavior is not suitable with the
moral codes. This feeling educates them to survive in a society where they live by having
appropriate behavior. 54 Therefore, children will understand the rule in the society or the
groups that they must apologize when they do something wrong. If they didn’t conform
to this rule, they might get bad social acceptance.
The corpus above leads the writer to conclude that Edmund apologize to Lucy
because Peter insisted. Edmund didn’t apologize to Lucy based on his guilt to Lucy.
After examining the corpus, Edmund is classified in the first stage of Kohlberg’s
Preconventional Level.55 It indicates that Edmund apologized to Lucy just to avoid
Peter’s anger. Edmund’s attitude is fit with the criteria of this stage. In this stage,
children’s action is based on the reward or punishment they possibly get instead based on
the intention inside. They act what parents ask to gain their reward or to prevent their
punishment. In this case, Edmund apologized to obey Peter as representative of their
parents. He didn’t apologize based on his own intention to confess his fault.
b) Being arrested
Being arrested can be classified as the hard punishment. It’s terrible experience to
live in a jail with a chain and without family. When people are arrested and taken into the
jail, there’s nothing to do but sorry themselves. They have no freedom to live with
family, no freedom to play and go somewhere, and no freedom to enjoy the world. This
is what Edmund experienced.
When they all arrived in Narnia, Lucy invited them to see Mr. Tumnus but they
found that Mr. Tumnus had been arrested. The Beaver came close to them and invited
them to his house. In his house, they talked about Mr. Tumnus, Aslan, and about the
prophecy that they would be the hero for Narnia. Peter and Susan didn’t believe and they
wanted to go back to England immediately. Unfortunately, they found there was no
Edmund. In fact, he ran from his family to see The White Witch. Edmund never told his
family about his meeting with the White Witch at that night he followed Lucy. Instead of
welcoming Edmund, the White Witch got mad at him for coming alone. She actually
wanted the four of them to be killed to cancel the prophecy. She got angry at him and
then put him in the jail.
White Witch: Then how dare you come alone! Edmund, I ask so little of you
--- Edmund: They just don't listen to me!
White Witch: Couldn't even do that! --- Scene 19:
(Edmund, in chains at the witches palace. He attempts to eat the food
he is given, but coughs and spits it out, because of its taste. He then
attempts to drink a cup, which is frozen. He then throws it on the tray.)
Lucy had ever told Edmund that The White Witch wasn’t the true ruler of Narnia.
Apparently, Edmund had been trapped by White Witch for having Turkish delight and
the authority of being king. His big desire to eat Turkish delight by himself as many as
possible might pushed him to run from his family. It can be indicated as bad intention.
Extremely, it can be considered as betrayal. He had betrayed Narnia that suffer because
of The White Witch. For his bad intention and betrayal, he deserved to accept the
consequence. The consequence in this case is living in the jail.
Lucy: Edmund? Oh Edmund!!!! (hugs her brother) I saw Mr. Tumnus again
and he's fine!!! The White Witch hasn't found out about him helping me!
--- Edmund: The White Witch?
Lucy: She calls herself the Queen of Narnia, but she really isn't.
Examining Edmund’s intention of the case above, it indicates that he failed to
conform to the group norms where he lives. He failed to reach the first stage of
Kohlberg’s Conventional level.56 In this stage, children usually begin to maintain good
social acceptance by the conformity to the group’s norms or rules. In this case, Edmund
Ibid. p. 311.
couldn’t conform to the rules that they should stay together with his siblings and help
Narnia. His environment expected that he did what he was told. What he did wasn’t fit
with the criteria of this stage, therefore he is categorized failed to reach this stage.
c) Lose in the battle
The White Witch is supposed herself as the queen of Narnia. She freezed the
Narnia over hundred years and turned everybody who defeated her into the stone. There
are many Narnian had been stone. As the existence of Pevensie, her power slowly
crumbled. The frozen river slowly melted and the atmosphere got warmer.
After the death of Aslan, the battle between Narnian and The White Witch began.
Peter led the Narnian troopers. The big number of White Witch’s troopers made Peter
asked his troopers to get back. Instead of doing what Peter said, Edmund attacked White
Witch and he was stabbed. Peter directly defended her. When he was almost stabbed,
Aslan came and attacked her. That was the end of The White Witch.
Children can see how the White Witch used her power. She turned Narnian into
stone. They also wanted to take Narnia and killed the Pevensie. Children can see the final
result of White Witch’s bad intention and her violation of responsibility. She had been
destroyed and she would never be the true queen of Narnia. The death or destruction of
“bad guy” is common in the end of fantasy story.
Based on the corpus and analysis above, the White Witch is indicated that she
failed to reach the Kohlberg’s Postconventional level. It is because she couldn’t conform
to the social expectation that the power should bring the goodness. She just prioritized
her own desire to take over Narnia. She couldn’t respect other’s freedom and couldn’t
avoid social censure. It certainly isn’t fit with the criteria of this stage. In this stage,
morality is based on respect for others rather than on personal desires.
(Peter and the Witch fight, then they see Aslan)
(Aslan rushes to kill the Witch, everything disappears)
Aslan: It is finished.
(The three Pevensies reunite)
3. Analysis of Moral Messages a) Treat others in the right way
Through the first kind of reward that Lucy got friend, the author delivered the
message to treat others in the right way. To be accepted in one group or society, childrten
have to understand that they must treat people in the right way. The way Lucy treated Mr.
Tumnus could be a good sample for children. They will understand that nice treatment
can please others and they can make a friend by having nice and warm attitude. When
they can’t treat others in the right way, they will be hard to get good social acceptance
from the environment where they live.
b) The importance of being responsible
Through the second kind of reward that Peter was trusted to lead the battle, the
author spoke about the importance of being responsible. Through this case, the author
tried to inform children that they have to keep one’s trust. When they can’t be responsible
of one’s trust, they will be hard to get more trust from other. Trust is the hard thing to
get. Thus, they have to be responsible when they have given trust to do something by
others. Trust is also the important thing to maintain good relationship with others. People
who can’t keep the trust commonly get the censure from the environment.
Children can also understand when they can be trusted person, people around
them may like them and convenient to make a friend or to have good relationship. By
understanding the importance of trust, they certainly can conform to the social
expectation that need trusted person to befriend or to delegate some duties. If they
successfully get this message, they will be responsible of the duties they get one day.
Children can also learn that they have to do what parents ask. For example, when
parents asked a child to take care of his brother, he has to do it. If he doesn’t, there will
be some consequences. His brother may get harm because there’s no one watch him. It
can result mom’s anger. Consequently, he will be hard to get mom’s trust to do other
things, because mom has seen that he is not responsible to her trust.
Children can understand that they will get more trust after people find that they’re
c) The importance of sincerity
The message that is revealed by the author through the third kind of reward that
Aslan got his life back is about the importance of sincerity. The author informed children
that life is not just about “me”. Life is about “you and me”. Back to the fundamental
principle that mankind is the social creature, they need to share, socialize, and maintain
the good relationship with the society. In the real life, they’ll face the situation where
they have to help somebody else. Sometimes, they have to sacrifice themselves. Perhaps
it’s not as extreme as what Aslan did. At least, they’ve to sacrifice their sake.
In helping others, they need to be sincere and avoid thinking about the rewards that
possibly they get. If they’re sincere to help others, helping will seem easier and often
result an outcome more than they expect. In the Moslem, there is belief that helping
others will not disadvantage the helper. Instead, they may get reward from the
magnificent God if they’re sincere. Children perhaps can expand their knowledge that
they’ll lose nothing by sacrificing their own to others. However, there’s a good result
from the good intention. Sincerity can be implied by giving their money to the beggars. It
can be simple sacrifice that they can do.
d) The values of struggle and unity
Through the fourth kind of reward that Pevensie became king and queen, the
author delivered the message about the values of struggle and unity. Related to children’s
life, it may hard to apply the struggle to fight the colonizer. However, the author tries to
introduce the value of struggle. The struggle is more than just about fighting against the
colonizer. The struggle can be applied in all aspects of life. They need to struggle for the
final exam and they need to struggle to win the school competition. They can apply it in
their school life. If they want to have good report, they need to study hard. The struggle
that they need to do is reducing their playing time that they have much time to study the
lessons. Studying and improving their potential from young age will form them to be the
great young generation. Motherland needs the great young generation to continue the
development. They can struggle for the land as Aslan and Pevensie did through the
potential and intelligence that they have. There are many children who win the
international science competition. That is their struggle for their motherland. It equals
with the struggle of Narnian and Pevensie.
This case obviously can be very good message to children. It can inspire children
to understand the meaning of struggle. By understanding the meaning of struggle to gain
what they dream, they will enjoy the process to reach their dreams.
In addition, the importance of unity is also included in this case. Aslan, The
Pevensie, and Narnian succeeded to defeat the White Witch because they work together.
It can inspire children that they need to understand the importance of team-work. The
unity can be formed through respect each other and trust the leader.
Through this case, children can understand the value of unity. They can apply it in
the school competition. For example, when they join the basketball competition they need
to struggle and work together. They don’t struggle for themselves but for their school.
e) The importance of apologizing
Through the first kind of punishment that Edmund had to apologize to Lucy, the
author delivered the message about the importance of saying sorry. This message
educates children to be responsible for everything they’ve done. If they did something
wrong, they would fix everything as the consequence. If they hurt someone, they should
be brave to say sorry. This message can be simply implied by a child in his daily life. For
example; pencil which he borrowed from his friend is severed, so he should say sorry and
fix it by sharpening it.
In fact, say sorry is not enough. Children need to realize and confess their mistake
before apologizing. The guilt which appears will encourage them to say sorry sincerely.
Therefore, they will apologize based on his intention. They will completely understand
that what they’ve done is not fit with the social expectation. Thus, they will understand
what they should do when they make mistake one day. They need to know that the rule in
group or society is they have to confess their mistake and say sorry if they make a
f) The consequence of betrayal
Through the second kind of punishment that Edmund had been arrested, the
author delivered the message to children about the consequence of the betrayal. They
need to learn that betrayal is the biggest lie. There’s no body who wants to be betrayed
especially by his family. Betrayal can hurt and harm others. It describes to children that
betrayal can cause the bad social acceptance for them. In a group or society, betrayal is
such a big matter. It’s an unacceptable action. People will think twice to have relationship
with unreliable person. Once they betray, it’s hard to get the trust back from people.
From this case, children can understand that betrayal can give big consequences
that bother themselves. The consequences are various. Not as extreme as living in the jail
as Edmund experienced, they may be neglected at least their peers are unwilling to play
together anymore. Children will understand that betray doesn’t conform to the norm of
Edmund’s case also reminds children about the importance of the family. There
are often many debates among siblings in one family. When they’re close, they quarrel
but when they’re apart they miss each other. When one of them faces the problem, the
others feel so worry and try to help. When Edmund had been trapped in the White
Witch’s palace, Peter was so worry and they came to Aslan for help.
By understanding the importance of family, children may learn to keep the unity
among siblings. The rules that may appear among siblings are requirement to love, trust,
and respect each other. When they can conform to these rules, they will have good family
acceptance. In addition, when they fail to conform to these rules they may have censure
from his family.
g) The consequence of power
Through the third kind of punishment that The White Witch lost in the battle, the
author delivered the message to children about the consequence of the power. The author
informs children that if there’s the power, there will be the consequence. They need to
understand that the power that is used incorrectly may bring the bad and terrible
consequence. When the power isn’t used responsibly, it may bother other people.
The power is not just magical power that heroes or witches have. In the real life,
power can be interpreted as authority or physical power. Through this case, the author
informs children that when they have power such as being leader of class, they have to be
responsible. Being leader of class doesn’t mean someone can order classmates to clean
his shoes. Later, it results classmates’ censure and get teacher’s punishment. The physical
power can also be used incorrectly when children don’t know the rules. They may bully
the junior or smaller children.
Therefore, children need to understand the consequence of the power they have.
The power should be used as the function without bothering or disadvantaging others.
Moreover, it will be good to help others with their power such as help friend who is
robbed. Therefore, if the power is used in the wrong way and out of the function it will
bring the censure of the society. If the power is used in the right way, it obviously will
CHAPTER IV CONCLUSION
From the analysis above, the writer found that there are some human values in the
script of The Chronicles of Narnia: The Lion, the Witch, and the Wardrobe. She finds that there are four kinds of rewards and three kinds of punishments. There are rewards
that are given by human and punishments that are given by interference of God. Through
these kinds of rewards and punishments, children can learn about the moral codes. It can
help children to understand how to socialize with the society and conform to the group’s
norms or social expectations.
Commonly, the fantasy story rewards the hero and punishes the evil. In this
research, the kinds of rewards are friendship, trust, life, and authority. While, the kinds of
punishments are nagging, being arrested, and lose in the battle.
Each case of reward and punishment included the stage of Kohlberg’s moral
development level. The first case, Lucy is categorized in the first stage of Kohlberg’s
Conventional level because she had the same criteria with this stage. The second case,
Peter is categorized in the second stage of Kohlberg’s the law and order orientation level.
The third case, Aslan has reached the highest level. It’s the second stage of Post
conventional morality level. The fourth case, Pevensie and Aslan is classified in the Post
Conventional Level. The fifth case, he is classified in the first stage of Kohlberg’s
Preconventional Level. The sixth case, Edmund is categorized that he had failed to
conform to the group norms where he lives. He failed to reach the first stage of
Kohlberg’s Conventional level. The seventh case, the White Witch is indicated that she
had failed to reach the Kohlberg’s Postconventional level.
The author also delivered the moral message through the kinds of rewards and
punishments. There are the importance to treat others in the right way, the importance of
being responsible, the importance of sincerity, and the values of struggle and unity. There
are also the importance to say sorry, consequences of betrayal, and consequences of using
This research gives one alternative way of developing children’s moral behavior.
Adults can use the literature both written and audiovisual as means to support the
development of children’s moral behavior. It’s because the literature usually consist of
moral messages. By enjoying the interesting story, children can gain moral knowledge
through the fun and interesting way. Instead of ordering should do this and shouldn’t do
that even by anger, parents should explain to their children why it should and shouldn’t.
Through the kinds of rewards and punishments that appear in the story, children
can gain some moral messages. They can learn about the good and bad by examining
The interesting story gives the convenience to children to absorb the moral
messages. They will understand the moral knowledge without feeling bored or scared of
parents’ anger. Therefore, children’s literature can be the good means to deliver the moral