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Submitted as a Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for Sarjana Degree of English Department Faculty of Letters and Humanities UIN Sunan Ampel



ILMA NUR KHAULA Reg. Number: A03212043







Ilma Nur Khaula. 2016. The Heroic Values in The Chronicles of Narnia: The Lion, The Witch, and The Wardrobe Novel by Clive Staple Lewis. Thesis. English Department. Faculty of Letters andHumanities. States Islamic University Sunan Ampel Surabaya.

The Advisor:Sufi Ikrima Sa’adah, M. Hum.

Key words: heroic values, moral greatness

This study aims to reveal how Clive Staple Lewis shows the representation

of the characters and the heroic values ofthe characters in the novel.

This study is a qualitative research that emphasizes object on the novel

The Chronicles of Narnia: The Lion, The Witch, and The Wardrobe. Furthermore, this study used New Criticism theory in processing the data. This theory was used

to analyze the characters and characterizations in the novel.

Based on the analysis, the writer concludes that the characters in the novel

of Clive Staple Lewis do have heroic values. In addition, the writer also describes

the characters such as Aslan, Peter, Susan, Edmund, Lucy, Mr. Tumnus, and Mr.

and Mrs. Beaver that showed heroic actions like moral greatness in the novel.




Ilma Nur Khaula. 2016. The Heroic Values in The Chronicles of Narnia: The Lion, The Witch, and The Wardrobe Novel by Clive Staple Lewis. Thesis. English Department. Faculty of Letters andHumanities. States Islamic University Sunan Ampel Surabaya.

The Advisor:Sufi Ikrima Sa’adah, M. Hum.

Key words: nilai kepahlawanan, kebesaran moral

Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengungkapkan bagaimana Clive Staple

Lewis menunjukkan representasi dari karakter-karakter dan nilai-nilai kepahlawan

dari beberapa karakter di dalam novel.

Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian kualitatif yang menekankan pada

objek yaitu novel The Chronicles of Narnia: The Lion, The Witch, and The

Wardrobe. Selanjutnya, penelitian ini menggunakan teori New Criticism di dalam

mengolah data. Teori ini digunakan untuk menganalisis karakter dan penokohan

di dalam novel.

Berdasarkan hasil analisis, penulis menyimpulkan bahwa karakter-karakter

di dalam novel Clive Staple Lewis mempunyai nilai-nilai kepahlawanan. Penulis

menggambarkan karakter seperti Aslan, Peter, Susan, Edmund, Lucy, Mr.

Tumnus, dan Mr dan Mrs Beaver yang menunjukkan sikap kepahlawanan seperti

kebesaran moral pengorbanan di dalam novel.


Examiner’s Approval Sheet……….. v

Motto ……… vi

3.1 Characters and Characterizations……….. 19

3.1.1 Aslan ……… 19


5.1 Conclusion ……….. 52

5.2 Suggestion ……….. 53

WORK CITED ………. 54


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1.1 Background of Study

Literature has been widely known by many people and experts lately. The

term ‘literature’ is more focused to imaginative works that comes up from the

imaginative idea of the writer. It has a beautiful language and the meanings

contained are very deep. Literature can create its own world as a product of the

unlimited imagination (Wellek and Warren 22). Meanwhile, according to Robert

and Henry, literature refers to compositions that tell stories, dramatize situations,

express emotions and analyze and advocate ideas. Based on those definitions, the

writer concludes that literature is a creative work which contains beauty that arises

out of the human ability to create language.

Edgar V. Robert and Henry E. Jacobs (2) classified literature into four

categories or genres: (1) prose fiction, (2) poetry, (3) drama, (4) nonfiction prose.

Prose fiction or narrative fiction includes myths, parables, romances, novels and

short stories. Poetry expresses a conversation or interchange that is grounded in

most deeply felt experiences of human beings. Drama is literature designed to be

performed by actors. Beside, non-fiction prose is literary genre that consists of

news reports, feature articles, essays, editorials, textbooks, historical and

biographical works and the like, all of which describe or interpret facts and


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Prose has two important elements, namely extrinsic and intrinsic elements.

Rene Wellek introduced his instrinsic approach, which essentially is a study of

literary work based on analyzing the internal elements that build that work.

According to Wellek (332) The natural on sensible starting point for work in

literary scholarship is the interpretation and analysis of the works of literary

themselves. After all, only the works themselves justify all our interest in the life

of an author, in his social environment, and the whole process of literature. Rene

Wellek introduced his extrinsic approach such as biography, psychology, social

milieu, ideas, and other arts. They write that research into extrinsic elements often

results in an attempt to establish some casuality between the extrinsic elements

and a study of work.

Wellek further explained that the elements that form the foundation of a

literary work are plot, setting, theme, character, point of view, and style. Although

there are so many elements of novel, the writer just chooses character and

characterization to analyze. Character is one of important element in prose,

therefore, the writer wants to analyze the characters who have heroic values in the

novel The Chronicles of Narnia: The Lion, The Witch, and The Wardrobe.

The Chronicles of Narnia: The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe is one of the novel series written by Clive Staples Lewis. It was first published in 1950 in

UK. It was the first-published book of The Chronicles of Narnia and is the best known book of the series. The book has been published in forty seven foreign


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world. The TIME magazine included the novel in its TIME 100 Best English-language Novels from 1923-2005 (

This book becomes one of the greatest children’s novels which have been

produced. Since the first publication of this book, the popularity of this book is so

great. This book tells about the story of four siblings who accidentally travel into

a fantasy world called Narnia. They are children who become victims during the

World War 2 and evacuated from London to escape from the air raid by Nazis.

They are sent to the house of Professor Digory Kirk located in English

countryside. In this house, they find the wardrobe which leads them into the

fantasy world of Narnia. The adventure begins soon after they meet the magical

creatures who live in Narnia. (

Since the first publication of this book, Lewis was aware of the public

criticisms. At that time it was fashionable for children’s stories to be realistic:

fantasy and fairy tales were seen as indulgent, appropriate only for very young

readers, and potentially harmful to older children, even hindering their ability to

relate to everyday life. Some reviewers thought the tale was obviously moralistic.

In some ways, as Lewis was famous for his religious works and he was

considered as a very obedient Christian, most of his books were influenced by this

aspect. Indeed, The Chronicles of Narnia has a very strong element which indicates the theology of Christian beliefs. ( Furthermore, In

Matt Brennan’s article, he said that Lewis typifies the Biblical character of Jesus


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to children in a this new context in a way that is easy for them to understand; most

importantly, however, children can both relate to and enjoy the fantasy of Narnia.

In this research, the writer chooses The Chronicles of Narnia: The Lion, The Witch and The Wardrobe novel By Clive Staple Lewis because the story is very interesting to analyze more deeply, especially the characters as object of the

research who have heroic values. He makes the story become interested and also

has a big influence for the plot of the story. Based on the explanation above, the

researcher would like to examine the heroic values in the novel The Chronicles of Narnia: The Lion, The Witch, and The Wardrobe through the characters. In this novel the writer uses New Criticism theory. And writer appoints thesis entitled

The Heroic Values in TheChronicles of Narnia: The Lion, The Witch, and The Wardrobe Novel by Clive StapleLewis.

1.2 Statement of Problem

By the background of study above, the statement of problems are

formulated as follows:

1. How is the characterization of the characters in the story?

2. What kind of heroic values have been performed by the characters in the


1.3 Objective of the Study

The same as the number of the problems above, there are also two

objectives offered in this paper :


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2. To identify and describe the heroic values have been performed by the

characters in the story.

1.4 Scope and Limitation

The writer limits the research using New Criticism theory focused on the

characterization, so the writer can analyzes the characterization and identifies

which characters that have the heroic values in the novel The Chronicles of Narnia: The Lion, The Witch, and the Wardrobe. The characters that will be analyzed are Aslan, Peter, Susan, Edmund, Lucy, Mr Tumnus, Mr & Mrs Breaver.

1.5 Significance of the Study

Actually, this research has several significances:

1. Theoretically, it is hoped that this research can be used as a helpful

reference in order to understand the content of the novel and how to apply

New Criticism in this research. This research is also hoped to be studied

by the students, lecturers, or other people who will be interested to the


2. Practically, it is hoped that the research can be used as a reference for the

student who are interested to analyze this novel or the other novel. Finally,

the writer hoped that the whole significances can be additional reference,

especially for people who are studying literature.

1.6 Method of the Study

The research uses library research. Library research works through many


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research to support the topic. The writer also applies qualitative research method.

Qualitative research method uses observation as the data collection method.

1. Data Source

There are two sources of data : the primary data source is the novel The Chronicles of Narnia: the Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe that is written by Clive Staple Lewis. Whereas, the secondary data is taken from some books and

online resources that concern with the novel and the explanation of New Criticism


2. Data Collection

The writer takes some steps in collecting the data. Firstly, the writer finds

the book and the other references to get more data that relates with the problem

and New Criticism theory. Then, the writer focuses with the main source of data

The Chronicles of Narnia: the Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe novel that will be read repeatedly to get deeper understanding. In addition, the writer also does

searching more data about the novel and the theory by web surfing.

3. Data Analysis

In analyzing the data, the writer follows some steps as follows: reading the

whole story of the novel as the primary data, selecting the topic that relates with

the statement of the problems, analizing the data based on statement of the


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1.7 Definition of Key Terms

1. Children’s Literature

The body of written works and accompanying illustrations produced in

order to entertain or instruct young people. The genre encompasses a wide

range of works, including acknowledged classics of world literature,

picture books and easy-to-read stories written exclusively for children, and

fairy tales, lullabies, fables, folk songs, and other primarily orally

transmitted materials. (Stephanie S Halldorson)

2. Hero

A hero is anyone who extends themselves beyond normal human

endurance (character) and returns with a cultural, social, moral, or ethical


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The theoritical bases that will be used in this research is the theory of New

criticism theory.

1.1 New Criticism

New Criticism is a literary criticism which concern itself interpretation and

evaluation of the ‘word on the page’ rather than with study of source and

socio-cultural background. The characteristic method of the New Criticism to have a

‘close reading’ of the text is based on the view that the literary work is a self

-sufficient, autonomous object whose success or failure, charm or lack of it are to

be sought within the work itself. The merit of a literary work is to be discerned in

its language and structure and not outside it in the mind of the writer or in the

respondse of the reader. What is more important is the text not the writer or the

reader (Das 24-25).

Eliot and Richard are have the most ideas of New Criticism since the late

1930s to the late 1950s. An alienated world could give new life. This theory

actually focused on poetry but one of the prominent British critics, Mark Schorer

extended his main principles to include analysis of prose fiction. He emphasizes

the fact that in the end prose fiction always manages to fit in all clear

contradictions into a coherent whole (Carter 26-28).

In conclusion, New Criticism focuses only on the intrinsic elements such

as plot, theme, character, setting, point of view, etc. It ignores the extrinsic


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biographical, intellectual, etc. It only focuses on text itself including its

organization and language. Therefore, in order to analyze the character and

characterization in the novel entitled The Chronicles of Narnia: The Lion, The Witch, and The Wardrobe, this research will use New Criticism theory. The following explanations of character and characterization are stated below:

1.2 Definition of Character

Some experts have their own statement about the meaning of character.

Robert DiYanni (55) explained that character is the imaginary people that the

writers create, sometimes identifying them, sometimes judging them. Richard Gill

(127) said that character is generally known as a person in literary work besides

characterization is the way in which a character is created. In this case, character

is only the figure of person that created by the author and characterization

completed it with the physically description, attitude, and even how they think and

act in the text.

Character could be individuals as well as mixing the various interests,

emotional and moral principles of individuals (Stanton 33). Character is an

important factor that plays the course of the story. Without the characters, the

story cannot be arranged. In a story there is usually a main character, the

protagonist (good character), antagonist (villain), and a supporting role (another

character who participated build a story).

Character is the life of literature. It is the object of curiosity and attraction,

liking and dislike, respect and blame (Bennet and Royle 60). A character can be


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the character have the mercy of the rich and powerful life. It is because the

characteristic of characters describes a real life in society.

Types of character

The essential function of character is to make the story in the novel

meaningful. Therefore, characterization plays important role in giving the main or

peripheral character selected behavior or typical of personality. Characterization

categorizes kind of character into several types; flat and round character.

According to Perrine, the definition about flat character describes “Flat characters

are characterized by one or two traits; they can be summed up in a sentence.

Though they touch life at only one or two points, may be made memorable in the

hands of an expert author through some individualizing detail of appearance,

gesture, or speech.” (Perrine 67-68)

Based on quotation above, it can be said that flat character just has one or

two basic personalities and they cannot give any great impact in the story. Flat

character is not prominent and they are very monotone. But, in the hands of the

reliable authors, though only one or two action can make a very valuable memory

through words, actions, and gestures.

The other typical of character grouped into characterization is round

character. Different with flat character, the complexity in its personality, mind and

behavior makes round character is difficult to notice in early story. According to

Perrine (67-68), round character can be described as “Round characters are

complex and many-sided; they might require an essay for full analysis and live by


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explains that round character requires comprehensive exploration and even needs

separated analyses to reveal its possibilities of actual personality, mind or

behavior as a subject or object in the novel.

The character development probably changes the behavior, mind, or

personality of character. This character development could be irreversible,

reversible or there are even no changes at all from the beginning until the end of

story. This character development can be classified into two groups, such as static

and dynamic character. According to Perrine (69), “The Static Character is the

same sort of person at the end of the story as at the beginning.” Based on the

quotation, overall this character never changes from the beginning until the end of

the story because of the effect of changing event or disorder inter-relationship

with other character.

Meanwhile, Perrine (69) defines dynamic character as: “The Developing

(or Dynamic) character undergoes a permanent change in some aspect of

character, personality, or outlook. The change may be a large or a small one; it

may be for better or for worse; but it is something important and basic: it is more

than a change in condition or a minor change in opinion.”

Contrary to static character, the meaning of dynamic character is a little

change from the character whether it comes in early, middle or the end of story.

The dynamic of character does not measure from the quantity of changing such as

big or just a little but it comes from the significant difference of character

behavior in some events. Therefore, the dynamic character is complex,


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Besides that, characters in a play or in fiction can be divided into two

major characters; protagonist and antagonist. Protagonist is the main character

in the story or a real event. The protagonist experiences conflict caused by

antagonist. Usually protagonist reflects a good side of plays as a central character

in a fiction that represents a hero as readers expected. While, antagonist is always

against the protagonist. Reaske (45) said that the main character of any drama is

known as protagonist the tragic hero and protagonist are same in tragedy for bout

terms describe the central character. The opponent of the protagonist is known as


1.3 Characterization

Character is a person in literary work; characterization is the way in which

a character is created. Characters are all the product of characterization, that is to

say, they have been made in particular way. Characters are what they like because

the way they have been made. The kind of conversation they have, the things they

do, their appearance and so on are he particular ways in which the author has

chosen to characterize of his or her characters. The things that they do and their

appearances are the particular ways in which the author has chosen to characterize

the characterization.

Characterization is an essential component in writing good literature.

Modern fiction, in particular, has taken great advantage of this literary device.

Understanding the role of characterization in storytelling is very important for any

writer. To put it briefly, it helps us make sense of the behavior of any character in


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characterization always leads the readers or audience to relate better to the events

taking place in the story. Dialogues play a very important role in developing a

character because they give us an opportunity to examine the motivations and

actions of the characters more deeply. (

Holman (81) says that the creation of these imaginary persons so that they

exist for the reader as life like is called characterization. There are three

fundamental methods of characterization in fiction:

1. The explicit presentation by the author of the character through direct


2. The presentation of the character in action, with little or no explicit

comment by the author. The reader is expected to be able to give attributes

of the actor from the action.

3. The presentation from within the character, without comment on the

character’s inner self, with the expectation that the reader will come to a

clear understanding of the attributes of the character.

From the some points above, the authors usually do that three ways that

helping us to know the personalities of the characters like Holman said. Through

the author’s explicit presentation, the characters’ action, and the characters’

presentation, it is expected that the reader can imagine the fictional character

shown by the author.

2.4 Hero

Reflection of human life creates a literary work. In this case, authors put


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and their lives, authors reach many inspirations. According to Hudson (12) it

obtained through authors’ experiences, observations, and imaginations. These

reflections are clearly explained by authors in their works. For example, as human

being, we have certain values in our life. Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary

on page 1693 defines value as “beliefs about what is right and wrong”. Value is

develop from the relation of the condition of people around and ourselves. We

cannot separate from this thing because this is focusing to our life. In literary

work, value is an example point which born from the world of life. For example,

in the fiction story, we can find some values such as moral values and family

values. These values bring out by the characters portrayed through the story.

The concept of value is wide. In literary works, we can find the heroism

values. According to Franco (3), heroism is a social activity: (a) in helping others

that really need the assistance; it can be person, group, or community, (b) engaged

in voluntarily, (c) close to possible of risk, (d) in which the actor is disposed to

sacrifice, (e) without any expectations to get the profit of the action. From these

definitions, heroism can be categorized as a moral concept. It is because heroism

is an act which closes to an appearance of someone we called as a hero who full of

courage to spread the kindness in human life. It can be concluded that the term of

heroism cannot be separated from good character, or in literary works it

well-known as a protagonist character.

A hero is anyone who extends themselves beyond normal human

endurance (character) and returns with a cultural, social, moral, or ethical lesson


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the need for the audience to take the hero’s journey with them and incorporate the

lessons given, thus concluding that they would have done the same under the

same circumstances, this is what Halldorson said (6).

As a human being, we are really nearby with struggle or effort in our life.

It means that we are hero for ourselves. This is supported by Campbell (18) that

gives definition about hero as the man or woman who has own struggle by

themselves to facing their lives. Moreover, Bernstein (in Gramstad, 1999)

describes the hero as “the man dedicated to the creation and defense of reality,

conforming life, promoting values”. This definition emphasizes to the hero

appearance in literary works. The main point here is a hero carries out the values

by his existence that is heroism values. In addition, Webster’s Ninth Collegiate

Dictionary (in Gramstad, 1913), defines a hero into some different categories.

They are described as follow:

a. A mythological or legendary figure often of divine descent end owned with great strength or ability.

This first category refers to a figure of hero in legend or myth. This figure

is totally illustrated as the abstract figure. The appearance of hero in

legend or myth is supported by his great strength or ability. The hero in

this category also depicted has divine traits.

b. An illustrations warrior

In this term, the definition of an illustrations warrior is a man who joins in

battle or war. The figure of hero in this explanation is illustrated as


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c. A man admired for his achievement and nobles qualities

A hero also can define as a man who gets the achievement. This is making

people respect to himself.

d. One that shows courage.

The figure of hero is cannot separated from bold trait which exist in

himself. It means that a hero should isolate his scare feeling.

From the definitions above, we can conclude that a hero is someone who

has struggle or effort. In a real life, a person can becalled a hero as long as he/she

has struggle in facing of their life. Whereas in literary works the term of hero is

generally depicted as a man who full of bravery.

Furthermore, in The Philosophical Foundations of Heroism, Bernstein (in

Gramstad, 1999) explains the components referring to heroism values of a hero. It

is “Moral greatness”. It is the component that should take place in a figure of

someone who called as hero. This is become as the basic of heroism values. It

considers that hero is identified by his morality. Therefore, it will use further to

analyze the heroic values portrayed in C.S Lewis novel, The Chronicles of Narnia: the Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe.

Moreover, according to Bernstein (in Gramstad, 1999), moral greatness is

the basic component that really close to someone who called hero. It is because

the term ‘moral greatness’ refers to all virtues that has given to others. It can be

said that moral greatness is contributions of a hero to people’s life.

Based on the definitions above, the writer concluded that a hero is a man


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for the community. So, a hero must have good characteristics for the community

and they can do the same if they are in the same position.

2.5 Review of Related Study

The first research entitled An Analysis of Moral Value through the Reward

and Punishment on the script of The Chronicles of Narnia: the Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe by Dian Rizqiyati. The purpose of the research is to figure out how the author delivers the moral message to children through the reward and

punishment value as an element of Lawrence Kohlberg’s thought of moral

development. She limits the research on the reward and punishment concept of the

script The Chronicles of Narnia: the Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe.

The second research entitled The Aspect of Fantasy in Lewis’The Chronicles of Narnia: the Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe by Asep Shofian.

The purpose of the research to describe characteristic and the function of the

fantasy in Lewis’The Chronicles of Narnia: the Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe. He also limits the problem by examining aspects of fantasy in this novel.

Both researches above describe the difference of discussion with the

researcher’s research study. The first research, it discusses the reward and

punishment moral value of the novel. The second research discuss about the

aspects of fantasy of the novel. The difference of both researches is the

application of the theories. The first researcher applies the theory of reward and


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fantasy. In this research, the writer discusses the intrinsic elements and what kind


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This chapter reveals and discusses the data collection from The Chronicles of Narnia: the Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe; a novel written by C.S Lewis. All of data here were collected and analyzed through some steps explained in the

previous chapter. It covers the finding of characters, characterization, and heroic

performances in the novel The Chronicles of Narnia: The Lion, The Witch, and The Wardrobe.

1.1. Characters and Characterization 1.1.1 Aslan

Aslan is the great lion who isdescribed as the King of Narnia, the King of

Beasts, the Lord of the Wood, and the son of the great Emperor beyond the sea.

As it describes, “I tell you he is the King of the wood and the son of the great

Emperor-beyond-the-Sea. Don’t you know who is the King of Beasts? Aslan is a

lion–the Lion, the great Lion” (45). So, Aslan is described as a King of Narnia, he

is a great Lion.

When the children try to see Aslan’s face, they describe that Aslan has a

golden mane and a pair of large eyes. “For when they tried to look at Aslan’s face

they just caught a glimpse of the golden mane and the great, royal, solemn,

overwhelming eyes; and then they found they couldn’t look at him and went all

trembly” (69). From children descriptions, they notice at his hair, his mane, and


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Aslan is a good leader. He does not discriminate towards his status with

other animals. It is seen when a lion who looks very excited when he hears the

Aslan’s conversation. “Did you hear what he said? Us Lions. That means him and

and me. Us Lions. That’s what I like about Aslan. No side, no stand-off-ishness.

Us Lions. That meant him and me” (95).

Aslan is the only one who isfeared by the White Witch. Even a roar alone

can make the White Witch depressed after hearing his roar. “Haa-a-arrh!” roared

Aslan, half rising from his throne; and his great mouth opened wider and wider

and the roar grew louder and louder, and the Witch, after staring for a moment

with her lips wide apart, picked up her skirts and fairly ran for her life”(79).

Aslan is a powerful figure, even for people who didn’t know who he is yet.

When the name of Aslan is called, the children feel strange in themselves, not

only perceive his power, but also become a little bit more themselves.

“At the name of Aslan each one of the children felt something

jump in its inside. Edmund felt a sensation of mysterious horror.

Peter felt suddenly brave and adventurous. Susan felt as if some

delicious smell or some delightful strain of music had just floated

by her. And Lucy got the feeling you have when you wake up in

the morning and realize that it is the beginning of the holidays or

the beginning of summer”(39).

So, the children feel his aura that he is a powerful and great King.


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Aslan is the king who protects the animals. His arrival is really awaited by

the resident of Narnia. This is illustrated when Peter and his sisters get to the

Stone Table.

“Aslan stood in the center of a crowd of creatures who had

grouped themselves round him in the shape of a half-moon. There

were Tree-Women there and Well-Women (Dryads and Naiads as

they used to be called in our world) who had stringed instruments;

it was they who had made the music. There were four great

centaurs. The horse part of them was like huge English farm

horses, and the man part was like stern but beautiful giants. There

was also a unicorn, and a bull with the head of a man, and a

pelican, and an eagle, and a great Dog. And next Aslan stood two

leopards of whom one carried his crown and the other his


Aslan is a noble lion. When he returns to Narnia,everyone there expects

him to beat the White Witch, rescue the betrayer Edmund, bring back spring, and

make everything perfect. Mr. Beaver recites in old rhyme of Narnia that suggests

Aslan can fix everything in a jiffy. “Wrong will be right, when Aslan comes in

sight, at the sound of his roar, sorrows will be no more, When he bares his teeth,

winter meets its death, And when he shakes his mane, we shall have spring again”


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A part of Aslan's nature is playfulness. After he is revived by the

Emperor's magic, Aslan plays with Susan and Lucy, and all three is very enjoy the

feeling of being alive and playing together. There is something simple and

beautifully good about their play.

“Oh, children,”said the Lion, “I feel my strength coming back to

me. Oh, children, catch me if you can!” He stood for a second, his

eyes very bright, his limbs quivering, lashing himself with his tail.

Then he made a leap high over their heads and landed on the other

side of the Table. Laughing, though she didn't know why, Lucy

scrambled over it to reach him. Aslan leaped again. A mad chase

began” (90).

Aslan really knows everything that is going on in Narnia. He definitely

knows what happen with Edmund and the Witch, so he asking about the fourth

child is just a formality. Directly, it can be said that Edmund is a betrayer. “But

where is the fourth?” asked Aslan. “He has tried to betray them and joined the

White Witch, O Aslan,” said Mr. Beaver”(70).

Aslan knows a secret that nobody else did, and it fixed everything. But the

spiritual point is that one great sacrifice can redeem for someone’s betrayal. One

victim can stand in for another, and by doing so, he can free the whole world.

“It means,” said Aslan, “that though the Witch knew the Deep

Magic, there is a magic deeper still which she did not know. Her


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have looked a little further back, into the stillness and the darkness

before Time dawned, she would have read there a different

incantation. She would have known that when a willing victim

who had committed no treachery was killed in a traitor's stead, the

Table would crack and Death itself would start working

backwards” (89).

Aslan takes a responsibility to save Edmund from the Witch by sacrifices

his own life. He did it because he wants to save the citizens in Narnia. So, he must

responsible to face the White Witch.

Aslan instructs the animals to follow some wolves that are immediately go

to their master after hiding. When the properly time come, the centaurs, eagles,

and other animals follow some wolves to find the White Witch, so they can rescue

Edmund from the White Witch.

“Quick! Quick!” shouted the voice of Aslan. “Centaurs! Eagles! I

see another wolf in the thickets. There–behind you. He has just

darted away. After him, all of you. He will be going to his

mistress. Now is your chance to find the Witch and rescue the

fourth Son of Adam.” And instantly with a thunder of hoofs and

beating of wings a dozen or so of the swiftest creatures

disappeared into the gathering darkness” (72).

Aslan revives the lion statue and other statues in the castle. Aslan does it


K h a u l a | 24

At the first, Aslan blows his breath to the stone lion, and then dwarfs, rabbits, and

centaurs. Then Aslan finds other stone statues and revives them all.

“He was indeed. He had bounded up to the stone lion and breathed

on him. Then without waiting a moment he whisked round - almost

as if he had been a cat chasing its tail -and breathed also on the

stone dwarf, which (as you remember) was standing a few feet

from the lion with his back to it. Then he pounced on a tall stone

dryad which stood beyond the dwarf, turned rapidly aside to deal

with a stone rabbit on his right, and rushed on to two centaurs.”


“For a second after Aslan had breathed upon him the stone lion

looked just the same. Then a tiny streak of gold began to run along

his white marble back–then it spread–then the color seemed to lick

all over him as the flame licks all over a bit of paper–then, while

his hind quarters were still obviously stone, the lion shook his

mane and all the heavy stone folds rippled into living hair. Then he

opened a great red mouth, warm and living, and gave aprodigious

yawn. And now his hind legs had come to life. He lifted one of

them and scratched himself” (92).

Aslan helps Edmund when he gets the punishment that is written at the

Deep Magic where Edmund has to be sacrificed on the Stone Table as a betrayer.


K h a u l a | 25

Edmund from the Deep Magic to the Witch. He does not want everyone know

about what has he said or what agreement that has done with the Witch.

“You have a traitor there, Aslan,” said the Witch. Of course

everyone present knew that she meant Edmund.

“Have you forgotten the Deep Magic?” asked the Witch.

“… You know that every traitor belongs to me as my lawful prey

and that for every treachery I have a right to a kill.” (77)

“Fall back, all of you,” said Aslan, “and I will talk to the Witch


“At last they heard Aslan's voice, “You can all come back,” he

said. “I have settled the matter. She has renounced the claim on

your brother's blood.” And all over the hill there was a noise as if

everyone had been holding their breath and had now begun

breathing again, and then a murmur of talk.” (78-79)

When Aslan talked face to face with the Witch to save Edmund from his

punishment as a betrayer, no one knows that Aslan will do a big sacrifice. He will

replace Edmund to do a punishment on Stone Table. When Aslan arrives at Stone

Table, he is immediately tied by four Hags after that they kicking him, hitting


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“… Four Hags, grinning and leering, yet also (at first) hanging

back and half afraid of what they had to do, had approached him.

“Bind him, I say!” repeated the White Witch.” (84)

“…Then they began to drag him towards the Stone Table.

“Stop!” said the Witch. “Let him first be shaved.” (84)

“ … , and for a few minutes the two girls could not even see him -

so thickly was he surrounded by the whole crowd of creatures

kicking him, hitting him, spitting on him, jeering at him.” (85)

So, Aslan is a figure of hero because he have good attitudes like

responsible, always helping, sacrifice, caring, and he fights the White Witch.

1.1.2 Peter

Peter has an adventurous spirit. It is seen when he firstly comes to

Professor’s house, he is excited to explore the house and its surroundings.

“It’s an owl,” said Peter. “This is going to be a wonderful place for

birds. I shall go to bed now. I say, let’s go and explore tomorrow.

You might find anything in a place like this. Did you see those

mountains as we came along? And the woods? There might be

eagles. There might be stags. There’llbe hawks”(3).

Peter is a smart leader in managing strategy. This is shown when he offers


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Witch to help Mr. Tumnus. He also suggested to divide the search into 4 parts to

find Edmund.

“Couldn’t we have some stratagem?” said Peter. “I mean couldn’t

we dress up as something, or pretend to be–oh, peddlers or

anything–or watch till she was gone out–or–oh, hang it all, there

must be some way” (43).

“We’d better divide into four search parties,” said Peter, “and all

go indifferent directions. Whoever finds him must come back here

at once and–“(48).

Peter seems to know how to be a warrior. After receiving his sword from

Father Christmas, he needs no training before slaying Fenris and fighting in the

battle. He also instinctively begins to think like a military tactician. When Aslan

leads his followers to the Fords of Beruna, Peter suggests that they shouldcamp

on the far side of the river to protect them from a night attack by the Witch.

“It was still afternoon when they came down to a place where the

river valley had widened out and the river was broad and shallow.

This was the Fords of Beruna and Aslan gave orders to halt on this

side of the water. But Peter said, “Wouldn't it be better to camp on

the far side - for fear she should try a night attack or anything?”

Aslan, who seemed to have been thinking about something else,

roused himself with a shake of his magnificent mane and said,


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"No," said Aslan in a dull voice, as if it didn't matter. "No. She will

not make an attack to-night."And then he sighed deeply. But

presently he added, “All the same it was well thought of. That is

how a soldier ought to think”(80).

Peter loves his brother and sisters so much. This is seen when he still looks

for a way to help in escaping Edmund, though he knows that Edmund has

betrayed them. “Allthe same,” said Peter in a rather choking sort of voice, “we’ll

still have to go and look for him. He is our brother after all, even if he is rather a

little beast. And he’sonly a kid” (49).

Peter is a responsible person. He takes responsibility for his failings. He

admits to Aslan, without being asked, that his attitudes to Edmund may have

contributed to Edmund’s betrayal.“That was partly my fault, Aslan,” Peter says.

“I was angry with him and I think that helped him to go wrong” (70).

Peter's bravery increases and develops. In spite of his fears, Peter push

himself together and fights. Likewise, when Aslan leaves him in charge of the

battle against the Witch, Peter rises to the event. Although we know that Peter

feels uncomfortable about fighting the battle alone.

“Aslan's mood affected everyone that evening. Peter was feeling

uncomfortable too at the idea of fighting the battle on his own; the

news that Aslan might not be there had come as a great shock to

him. Supper that evening was a quiet meal. Everyone felt how


K h a u l a | 29

good times, having just begun, were already drawing to their end”


Peter may seem great and strong sometimes, but he is always willing to

admit when he is wrong. When Peter knows that there is another world called

Narnia behind the wardrobe, he apologizes to Lucy because her story is true, she

is ready to forgive him right away. “Peter turned at once to Lucy.“I apologise for

not believing you,” he said, “I’m sorry. Will you shakehands?” “Of course,” said

Lucy, and did” (30-31).

Peter always loves his siblings. He defends what has been done by

Edmund. He tells Aslan that Edmund proves a great courage and ignore his

personal safety.

“It was all Edmund's doing, Aslan,”Peter was saying. “We’d have

been beaten if it hadn’t been for him. The Witch was turning our

troops into stone right and left. But nothing would stop him. He

fought his way through three ogres to where she was just turning

one of your leopards into a statue. And when he reached her he had

the sense to bring his sword smashing down on her wand instead of

trying to go for her directly and simply getting made a statue

himself for his pains.” (96-97)

Peter feels pity and wants to save Mr. Tumnus the Faun, because he is in

debts to faun that save Lucy from the White Witch. In the fiction describes this


K h a u l a | 30

at his own risk, Mr. Beaver. We can’t just leave him to be–to be–to have that done

to him”(44).

Peter defends Lucy when Edmund tries to lie and blame Lucy about

Narnia, the country behind the wardrobe. “Look here,” said Peter, turning on him

savagely, “shut up! You’ve been perfectly beastly to Lu ever since she started this

non sense about the wardrobe, and now you go playing games with her about it

and setting of her again. I believe you did it simply out of spite” (24).

Peter tries save Susan from the wolf who tries to hurt Susan. Although he

does not dare, he still swings his sword toward the wolf.

“Peter did not feel very brave; indeed, he felt he was going to be

sick. But that made no difference to what he had to do. He rushed

straight up to the monster and aimed a slash of his sword at its

side. That stroke never reached the Wolf. Quick as lightning it

turned round, its eyes flaming, and its mouth wide open in a howl

of anger. If it had not been so angry that it simply had to howl it

would have got him by the throat at once. As it was though all this

happened too quickly for Peter to think at all–he had just time to

duck down and plunge his sword, as hard as he could, between the

brute’s fore legs into its heart. Then came a horrible, confused

moment like something in a nightmare. He was tugging and

pulling and the Wolf seemed neither alive nor dead, and its bared


K h a u l a | 31

heat and hair. A moment later he found that the monster lay dead

and he had drawn his sword out of it and was straightening his

back and rubbing the sweat off his face and out of his eyes. He felt

tired all over” (72).

So, Peter is a figure of hero because he have good attitudes like

responsible, always helping, sacrifice, caring, and he fights the White Witch with

his siblings and Aslan, he very loves his sibling so, he protects all of them.

1.1.3 Susan

Susan is the oldest girl among the four children in Narnia. Susan often

takes on a motherly role. For example, it is Susan whowants the children to put

on the fur coats from the wardrobe to keep them warm in the snowy weather.

Sometimes Susan's mothering is annoying the others. On their first night in the

Professor's house, Susan tries to tell Edmund that it is his bedtime. “Like what?” said Susan; “and anyway, it’s time you were in bed. “Trying to talk like Mother”,

said Edmund. Who are you to say when I'm to go to bed? Go to bed yourself” (2).

In many situations, Susan shows that she is the least courageous of the

four children. It is statedwhen she finally joins into Narnia and discovers along

with Peter, Edmund, and Lucy that Mr. Tumnus has been arrested. “I wonder if there’s any point in going on,” said Susan. “I mean, it doesn’t seem particularly

safe here and it looks as if it won’t be much fun either. And it’s getting colder

every minute, and we’ve brought nothing to eat. What about just going


K h a u l a | 32

Susan is lack of courage, but she still wants to help the other. After a

discussion with Peter, Susan, and Edmund about what they should do, she agrees

to help Mr. Tumnus. “I’ve a horrid feeling that Lu is right,” said Susan. “I don’t want to go a step further and I wish we’d never come. But I think we must try to

do something for Mr. Whatever-his-name is –I mean the Faun”(34).

When Aslan goes to the Stone table, Lucy and Susan see him and follow

him. Aslan will replace Edmund’ position to do a punishment. Susan looks at him

who walked slowly and bowed with feeble face. She asks him about his condition

and what has happened that makes him sad.

“Forward they went again and one of the girls walked on each side

of the Lion. But how slowly he walked! And his great, royal head

drooped so that his nose nearly touched the grass. Presently he

stumbled and gave a low moan (82).

"Are you ill, dear Aslan?" asked Susan.”

“No,” said Aslan. “I am sad and lonely. Lay your hands on my

mane so that I can feel you are there and let us walk like that.” (83)

Susan stops the debate between Peter and Edmund. She invites them to

look for Lucy who had left the room. Susan seems anxious because Edmund has

mocked and jeered Lucy. Susan as her old sister feels sorry and worrying her so



K h a u l a | 33

Edmund, who was becoming a nastier person every minute,

thought that he had scored a great success, and went on at once to

say, "There she goes again. What's the matter with her? That's the

worst of young kids, they always -"

"You didn't think anything at all," said Peter; "it's just spite. You've

always liked being beastly to anyone smaller than yourself; we've

seen that at school before now."

"Do stop it," said Susan; "it won't make things any better having a

row between you two. Let's go and find Lucy." (24-25)

So, Susan cannot called as a hero because she just has one

characteristics of a hero that is not enough for Susan to be a hero. She just

loves her siblings very much and take cares of them.

1.1.4 Edmund

Edmund is the third child. He is a naughty boy and does not respect the

people who are older than him. This is shown when he meets the Professor for the

first time.

“…They were sent to the house of an old Professor who lived in

the heart of the country, ten miles from the nearest railway station

and two miles from the nearest post office. He had no wife and he

lived in a very large house with a housekeeper called Mrs.

Macready and three servants, … and Edmund (who was the next

youngest) wanted to laugh and had to keep on pretending he was


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Edmund is a boy who likes complaining. It is described as Susan scolds

him for complaining the rain that fell when they will go to exploring.

“Of course it would be raining!" said Edmund. They had just

finished their breakfast with the Professor and were upstairs in the

room he had set apart for them - a long, low room with two

windows looking out in one direction and two in another.

“Do stop grumbling, Ed,” said Susan. “Ten to one it’ll clear up in

an hour or so. And in the meantime we're pretty well off. There's a

wireless and lots of books” (3).

Edmund also likes to provoke. It is described in a conversation between

Edmund and Peter that are concerned about the animals’ alignment in Narnia,

although Peter has given strong evidence.

“They had been travelling in this way for about half an hour, with

the two girls in front, when Edmund said to Peter, “If you’re not

still too high and mighty to talk to me, I’ve something to say which you’d better listen to.”

“What is it?” asked Peter.

“Hush! Not so loud,” said Edmund; there’s no good frightening the

girls. But have you realized what we’re doing?” “What?” said Peter, lowering his voice to a whisper.

“We’re following a guide we know nothing about. How do we


K h a u l a | 35

“That’s a nasty idea. Still–a robin, you know. They’re good birds

in all the stories I’ve ever read. I’m sure a robin wouldn’t be on the wrong side.”

“If it comes to that, which is the right side? How do we know that

the Fauns are in the right and the Queen (yes, I know we’ve been

told she’s awitch) is in the wrong? We don’t really know anything

about either.”

“The Faun saved Lucy.”

“He said he did. But how do we know? And there’s another thing

too. Has anyone the least idea of the way home from here?” “Great Scott!” said Peter, “I hadn’t thought of that.”

“And no chanceof dinner either,” said Edmund (34-35)

Edmund is also a hatred boy. This is illustrated when he continues to

blame Peter for what happens to him. “… Even as it was, he got wet through for

he had to stoop under branches and great loads of snow came sliding off onto his

back. And everytime this happened he thought more how he hated Peter–just as if

all this had been Peter’s fault”(52).

Edmund always sneers Lucy, especially when Lucy finds a new world in

the wardrobe. This makes their days be unpleasant as in the story states, “He sneered and jeered at Lucy and kept on asking her if she’d found any other new

countries in other cupboards all over the house. What made it worse was that these


K h a u l a | 36

After Edmund comes into the land of Narnia and is given Turkish delight

by the Witch, Edmund is indirectly affected by Witch’s magic and Edmund is in

the side of Witch. So that Edmund tries keep secret about Narnia.

“But Edmund secretly thought that it would not be as good fun for

him as for her. He would have to admit that Lucy had been right,

before all the others, and he felt sure the others would all be on the

side of Fauns and the animals; but he was already more than half

on the side of the Witch. He did not know what he would say, or

how he would keep his secret once they were all talking about


To keep his secret, Edmund lies and pretends that he and Lucy just jokes

about Narnia. This is what makes Lucy sad.

“And Edmund gave a very superior look as if he were far older

than Lucy (there was really only a year’s difference) and then a

little snigger and said, “Oh, yes, Lucy and I have been playing–

pretending that all her story about a country in the wardrobe is

true. Just for fun, of course. There’s nothingthere really”(24).

Edmund betrays Peter, Susan, Lucy, Mr. Beaver, Mrs. Beaver, Aslan and

the animals which are good because he considers that the Witch is a good person,

so he prefers White Witch. It describes in the conversation of Mr. Beaver and the

children, “Don’t you understand?” said Mr. Beaver. “He’s gone to her, to the


K h a u l a | 37

In addition, Edmund betrays his siblings because of the influence of food

given by the White Witch. It is described byMr. Beaver when they intend to

looking for Edmund.

“Then mark my words,” said Mr. Beaver, “he has already met the

White Witch and joined her side, and been told where she lives. I

didn’t like to mention it before (he being your brother and all) but

the moment I set eyes on that brother of yours I said to myself

‘Treacherous.’ He had the look of one who has been with the

Witch and eaten her food. You can always tell them if you’ve lived

long in Narnia; something about their eyes”(49).

After Edmund delivers the information to the Witch, she arrests and treats

him very badly, forcing him to march across the damp countryside without a coat,

cold, wet, and hungry. During this journey, Edmund has a small enlightenment

when he sees a group of animals enjoying a feast that Father Christmas gave

them. The Witch is very angry and turns them to stone. Edmund feels sympathy

and pity to them.

“Then she raised her wand. “Oh, don’t, don’t, please don’t,”

shouted Edmund, but even while he was shouting she had waved

her wand and instantly where the merry party had been there were

only statues of creatures (one with its stone fork fixed forever

half-way to its stone mouth) seated round a stone table on which there


K h a u l a | 38

“As for you,” said the Witch, giving Edmund a stunning blow on

the face as she re-mounted the sledge, “let that teach you to ask favour for spies and traitors. Drive on!” And Edmund for the first

time in this story felt sorry for someone besides himself. It seemed

so pitiful to think of those little stone figures sitting there all the

silent days and all the dark nights, year”(65).

Edmund may try to deceive himself. He instinctively has a fundamental

knowledge of good and evil. He knows about the White Witch is an evil, but he

tries to throw away them out with foolish arguments and ridiculous reasoning.

“Because,” he said to himself, “all these people who say nasty

things about her are her enemies and probably half of it isn’t true.

She was jolly nice to me, anyway, much nicer than they are. I

expect she is the rightful Queen really. Anyway, she'll be better

than that awful Aslan!” At least, that was the excuse he made in his

own mind for what he was doing. It wasn’t a very good excuse,

however, for deep down inside him he really knew that the White

Witch was bad and cruel”(51-52).

Edmund saves his power bydamaging Witch’s wand which is able to turn

someone into stone. Edmund swings his sword toward the White Witch's wand in

the last minute battle. He does it without thinking that he will be a stone when the


K h a u l a | 39

“It was all Edmund’s doing, Aslan,” Peter was saying. “We’d have

been beaten if it hadn’t been for him. The Witch was turning our

troops into stone right and left. But nothing would stop him. He

fought his way through tree ogres to where she was just turning

one of your leopards into a statue. And when he reached her he had

sense to bring his sword smashing down on her wand instead of

trying to go for her directly and simply getting made a statue

himself for his pains. That was the mistake all the rest were

making. Once her wand was broken we began to have some

chance–if we hadn’t lost so many already. He was terribly

wounded. We must go and see him”(96).

Edmund is not a hero because he betrays his siblings, he lies to his

siblings, he likes sneering Lucy. So, here Edmund is a naughty boy and

cannot called a hero.

3.1.5 Lucy

Lucy is the youngest and sometimes feels afraid of something, this is

explained as first she meets the Professor. “… but on the first evening when he

came out to meet them at the front door he was so odd-looking that Lucy (who

was youngest) was a little afraid of him” (2).

Lucy loves with the scent and softness of the fur. It is described as she

finds the wardrobe which connects to the world of Narnia for the first time.


K h a u l a | 40

immediately stepped into the wardrobe and got in among the coats and rubbed her

face against them”. (4)

Lucy is a nice girl, she always lends her handkerchief for the other people.

This is described in two different situations, first when Lucy gives her

handkerchief to Mr. Tumnus that continuously crying and didn’t explain anything

what happened. The second time to the Giant that very exhausting and sweating,

he asked who has a handkerchief.

“But the Faun continued sobbing as if it heart would break. And

even when Lucy went over and put her arms round him and lent

him her handkerchief, he did not stop. He merely took the

handkerchief and kept on using it, wringing it out with both hands

whenever it got too wet to be any more use, so that presently Lucy

was standing in a damp patch” (9).

“Blowed if I ain’t all in a muck sweat,” said the Giant, puffing like

the largest railway engine. “Comes of being out of condition. I

suppose neither of you young ladies has such a thing as a

pochet-handkerchee about you?”

“Yes, I have,” said Lucy, standing on tip-toes and holding her

handkerchief up as far as she could reach” (94).

Lucy is a girl who always wants to know something. It happens when she

find the wardrobe. When Lucy and her brother find a large wardrobe in the empty


K h a u l a | 41

“Nothing there!” said Peter, and they all tropped out again–all except Lucy. She

stayed behind because she thought it would be worth while trying the door of the

wardrobe, eventhough she felt almost sure that it would be locked” (4).

Lucy is a good leader. It is illustrated when she leads his brother and sister

to Mr. Tumnus’ cave.

“Lucy proved a good leader. At first she wondered whether she

would be able to find the way, but she recognized an odd-looking

tree on one place and a stump in another and brought them on to

where the ground become uneven and into the little valley land and

at last to the very door of Mr.Tumnus’s cave”(32).

Lucy is an honest girl. She tries tell the truth about the country in the

wardrobe, but she cannot say it because she will called as a liar and made the story

about Narnia just for fun.

“…She could made it up with the others quite easily at any

moment if she could have brought herself to say that the whole

thing was only a story made up for fun. But Lucy was a very

truthful girl and she knew that she was really in the right; and she

could not bring herself to say this”(14).

Lucy loves her siblings very much. She does not want anything happen to


K h a u l a | 42

“Please –Aslan,” said Lucy, “can anything be done to save


“All shall be done,” said Aslan. “But it may be harder than you

think.” And then he was silent again for some time. Up to that

moment Lucy had been thinking how royal and strong and

peaceful his face looked; now it suddenly came into her head that

he looked sad as well” (70).

Lucy feels fear when she knows there is a new world behind the wardrobe.

But, she still curious and excited to know more about it. She just lets the door

open because if there is something happen to her, she can back to the door as fast

as possible.

“Lucy felt a little frightened, but she felt very inquisitive and

excited as well. She looked back over her shoulder and there,

between the dark tree trunks; she could still see the open doorway

of the wardrobe and even catch a glimpse of the empty room from

which she had set out. (She had, of course, left the door open, for

she knew that it is a very silly thing to shut oneself into a

wardrobe.) It seemed to be still daylight there. “I can always get

back if anything goes wrong,” thought Lucy” (5).

Lucy is anadventurous girl. She is still ready to treat Narnia as a child’s


K h a u l a | 43

“The coats were rather too big for them so that they came down to

their heels and looked more like royal robes than coats when they

had put them on. But they all felt a good deal warmer and each

thought the others looked better in their new get-up and more

suitable to the landscape.

“We can pretend we are Arctic explorers,” said Lucy.

“This is going to be exciting enough without anypretending,” said

Peter, as he began leading the way forward into the forest” (31).

Lucy does not want to go home because she wants to save Mr. Tumnus the

Faun. She feels that the Faun is in trouble for saving her, hiding her from the

White Witch.

“Oh, but we can’t, we can’t,” said Lucy suddenly; “don’t you see?

We can’t just go home, not after this. It is all on my account that

the poor Faun has got into this trouble. He hid me from the Witch

and showed me the way back. That’s what it means by comforting

the Queen’s enemies and fraternizing with Humans. We simply

must try to rescue him”(34).

Lucy saves Edmund and the other animals that are injured in the battle

against the White Witch and her followers. She uses cordial previously given by

Father Christmas.

“And then, almost for the first time, Lucy remembered the precious


K h a u l a | 44

trembled so much that she could hardly undo the stopper, but she

managed it in the end and poured a few drops into her brother’s

mouth” (97).

“I’m sorry, Aslan,” said Lucy, getting up and going with him. And

for the next half-hour they were busy–she attending to the

wounded while here stored those who had been turned into stone”


Lucy is a hero because she has good character such as, she helps

Mr Tumnus from White Witch, she saves her siblings when they were

injured, she is an honest girl, and she joined in a war to save Narnia from

White Witch.

1.1.6 Mr. Tumnus

Mr. Tumnus is a Faun (man half goat). He has curly hair, two horns, a tail,

and a beard like a goat. He wears a red scarf around his neck, just like a human.

“He was only a little taller than Lucy herself and he carried over

his head an umbrella, white with snow. From the waist upward he

was like a man, but his legs were shaped like a goat’s (the hair on

them was glossy black) and instead of feet he had goat’s hoofs. He

also had a tail, but Lucy did not notice this at first because it was

neatly caught up over the arm that held the umbrella so as to keep

it from trailing in the snow. He had a red woolen muffler round his


K h a u l a | 45

little face, with a short pointed beard and curly hair, and out of the

hair there stuck two horns, one on each side of his forehead. One

of his hands, as I have said, held the umbrella: in the other arm he

carried several brown-paper parcels. What with the parcels and the

snow it looked just as if he had been doing his Christmas shopping.

He was a faun”(5).

Mr. Tumnus is a good cooker. This is illustrated when he serves for Lucy

who visits his cave. There are so many dishes have been served by Mr. Tumnus.

“And really it was a wonderful tea. There was a nice brown egg, lightly boiled, for

each of them, and then sardines on toast, and then buttered toast, and then toast

with honey, and then a sugar topped cake” (8).

Mr. Tumnus is a faun who loves reading. It is described as Lucy looks

through the house of Mr. Tumnus and finds a book case that contains several

collections. “… and one wall was shelf full of books. Lucy looked at these while

he was setting out the tea things. They had titles like “The Life and Letters of

Silenus or Nymphs and Their Ways” or “Men, Monks, and Gemekeepers; a Study

in Popular Legend” or “Is Man a Myth” (8).

Mr. Tumnus lives in the woods for a long time, and therefore he knows a

lot about life in the woods of Narnia. This was explained when he tells interesting

story to Lucy.

“He had wonderful tales to tell of life in the forest. He told about


Table would crack and Death itself would start working

Table would

crack and Death itself would start working p.31
figure. In The Chronicles of Narnia: The Lion, The Witch, and The Wardrobe, some
figure. In The Chronicles of Narnia: The Lion, The Witch, and The Wardrobe, some p.59