THE HEROIC VALUES OF THE CHARACTERS IN
THE CHRONICLES OF NARNIA: THE LION, THE WITCH AND
THE WARDROBE NOVEL BY CLIVE STAPLE LEWIS
Submitted as a Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for Sarjana Degree of English Department Faculty of Letters and Humanities UIN Sunan Ampel
ILMA NUR KHAULA Reg. Number: A03212043
FACULTY OF ARTS AND HUMANITIES
STATE ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY OF SUNAN AMPEL
Ilma Nur Khaula. 2016. The Heroic Values in The Chronicles of Narnia: The Lion, The Witch, and The Wardrobe Novel by Clive Staple Lewis. Thesis. English Department. Faculty of Letters andHumanities. States Islamic University Sunan Ampel Surabaya.
The Advisor:Sufi Ikrima Sa’adah, M. Hum.
Key words: heroic values, moral greatness
This study aims to reveal how Clive Staple Lewis shows the representation
of the characters and the heroic values ofthe characters in the novel.
This study is a qualitative research that emphasizes object on the novel
The Chronicles of Narnia: The Lion, The Witch, and The Wardrobe. Furthermore, this study used New Criticism theory in processing the data. This theory was used
to analyze the characters and characterizations in the novel.
Based on the analysis, the writer concludes that the characters in the novel
of Clive Staple Lewis do have heroic values. In addition, the writer also describes
the characters such as Aslan, Peter, Susan, Edmund, Lucy, Mr. Tumnus, and Mr.
and Mrs. Beaver that showed heroic actions like moral greatness in the novel.
Ilma Nur Khaula. 2016. The Heroic Values in The Chronicles of Narnia: The Lion, The Witch, and The Wardrobe Novel by Clive Staple Lewis. Thesis. English Department. Faculty of Letters andHumanities. States Islamic University Sunan Ampel Surabaya.
The Advisor:Sufi Ikrima Sa’adah, M. Hum.
Key words: nilai kepahlawanan, kebesaran moral
Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengungkapkan bagaimana Clive Staple
Lewis menunjukkan representasi dari karakter-karakter dan nilai-nilai kepahlawan
dari beberapa karakter di dalam novel.
Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian kualitatif yang menekankan pada
objek yaitu novel The Chronicles of Narnia: The Lion, The Witch, and The
Wardrobe. Selanjutnya, penelitian ini menggunakan teori New Criticism di dalam
mengolah data. Teori ini digunakan untuk menganalisis karakter dan penokohan
di dalam novel.
Berdasarkan hasil analisis, penulis menyimpulkan bahwa karakter-karakter
di dalam novel Clive Staple Lewis mempunyai nilai-nilai kepahlawanan. Penulis
menggambarkan karakter seperti Aslan, Peter, Susan, Edmund, Lucy, Mr.
Tumnus, dan Mr dan Mrs Beaver yang menunjukkan sikap kepahlawanan seperti
kebesaran moral pengorbanan di dalam novel.
Examiner’s Approval Sheet……….. v
Motto ……… vi
3.1 Characters and Characterizations……….. 19
3.1.1 Aslan ……… 19
CHAPTER IV CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION ……… 52
5.1 Conclusion ……….. 52
5.2 Suggestion ……….. 53
WORK CITED ………. 54
K h a u l a | 1
1.1 Background of Study
Literature has been widely known by many people and experts lately. The
term ‘literature’ is more focused to imaginative works that comes up from the
imaginative idea of the writer. It has a beautiful language and the meanings
contained are very deep. Literature can create its own world as a product of the
unlimited imagination (Wellek and Warren 22). Meanwhile, according to Robert
and Henry, literature refers to compositions that tell stories, dramatize situations,
express emotions and analyze and advocate ideas. Based on those definitions, the
writer concludes that literature is a creative work which contains beauty that arises
out of the human ability to create language.
Edgar V. Robert and Henry E. Jacobs (2) classified literature into four
categories or genres: (1) prose fiction, (2) poetry, (3) drama, (4) nonfiction prose.
Prose fiction or narrative fiction includes myths, parables, romances, novels and
short stories. Poetry expresses a conversation or interchange that is grounded in
most deeply felt experiences of human beings. Drama is literature designed to be
performed by actors. Beside, non-fiction prose is literary genre that consists of
news reports, feature articles, essays, editorials, textbooks, historical and
biographical works and the like, all of which describe or interpret facts and
K h a u l a | 2
Prose has two important elements, namely extrinsic and intrinsic elements.
Rene Wellek introduced his instrinsic approach, which essentially is a study of
literary work based on analyzing the internal elements that build that work.
According to Wellek (332) The natural on sensible starting point for work in
literary scholarship is the interpretation and analysis of the works of literary
themselves. After all, only the works themselves justify all our interest in the life
of an author, in his social environment, and the whole process of literature. Rene
Wellek introduced his extrinsic approach such as biography, psychology, social
milieu, ideas, and other arts. They write that research into extrinsic elements often
results in an attempt to establish some casuality between the extrinsic elements
and a study of work.
Wellek further explained that the elements that form the foundation of a
literary work are plot, setting, theme, character, point of view, and style. Although
there are so many elements of novel, the writer just chooses character and
characterization to analyze. Character is one of important element in prose,
therefore, the writer wants to analyze the characters who have heroic values in the
novel The Chronicles of Narnia: The Lion, The Witch, and The Wardrobe.
The Chronicles of Narnia: The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe is one of the novel series written by Clive Staples Lewis. It was first published in 1950 in
UK. It was the first-published book of The Chronicles of Narnia and is the best known book of the series. The book has been published in forty seven foreign
K h a u l a | 3
world. The TIME magazine included the novel in its TIME 100 Best English-language Novels from 1923-2005 (http://entertainment.time.com/).
This book becomes one of the greatest children’s novels which have been
produced. Since the first publication of this book, the popularity of this book is so
great. This book tells about the story of four siblings who accidentally travel into
a fantasy world called Narnia. They are children who become victims during the
World War 2 and evacuated from London to escape from the air raid by Nazis.
They are sent to the house of Professor Digory Kirk located in English
countryside. In this house, they find the wardrobe which leads them into the
fantasy world of Narnia. The adventure begins soon after they meet the magical
creatures who live in Narnia. (narnia.wikia.com/)
Since the first publication of this book, Lewis was aware of the public
criticisms. At that time it was fashionable for children’s stories to be realistic:
fantasy and fairy tales were seen as indulgent, appropriate only for very young
readers, and potentially harmful to older children, even hindering their ability to
relate to everyday life. Some reviewers thought the tale was obviously moralistic.
In some ways, as Lewis was famous for his religious works and he was
considered as a very obedient Christian, most of his books were influenced by this
aspect. Indeed, The Chronicles of Narnia has a very strong element which indicates the theology of Christian beliefs. (narnia.wikia.com/) Furthermore, In
Matt Brennan’s article, he said that Lewis typifies the Biblical character of Jesus
K h a u l a | 4
to children in a this new context in a way that is easy for them to understand; most
importantly, however, children can both relate to and enjoy the fantasy of Narnia.
In this research, the writer chooses The Chronicles of Narnia: The Lion, The Witch and The Wardrobe novel By Clive Staple Lewis because the story is very interesting to analyze more deeply, especially the characters as object of the
research who have heroic values. He makes the story become interested and also
has a big influence for the plot of the story. Based on the explanation above, the
researcher would like to examine the heroic values in the novel The Chronicles of Narnia: The Lion, The Witch, and The Wardrobe through the characters. In this novel the writer uses New Criticism theory. And writer appoints thesis entitled
The Heroic Values in TheChronicles of Narnia: The Lion, The Witch, and The Wardrobe Novel by Clive StapleLewis.
1.2 Statement of Problem
By the background of study above, the statement of problems are
formulated as follows:
1. How is the characterization of the characters in the story?
2. What kind of heroic values have been performed by the characters in the
1.3 Objective of the Study
The same as the number of the problems above, there are also two
objectives offered in this paper :
K h a u l a | 5
2. To identify and describe the heroic values have been performed by the
characters in the story.
1.4 Scope and Limitation
The writer limits the research using New Criticism theory focused on the
characterization, so the writer can analyzes the characterization and identifies
which characters that have the heroic values in the novel The Chronicles of Narnia: The Lion, The Witch, and the Wardrobe. The characters that will be analyzed are Aslan, Peter, Susan, Edmund, Lucy, Mr Tumnus, Mr & Mrs Breaver.
1.5 Significance of the Study
Actually, this research has several significances:
1. Theoretically, it is hoped that this research can be used as a helpful
reference in order to understand the content of the novel and how to apply
New Criticism in this research. This research is also hoped to be studied
by the students, lecturers, or other people who will be interested to the
2. Practically, it is hoped that the research can be used as a reference for the
student who are interested to analyze this novel or the other novel. Finally,
the writer hoped that the whole significances can be additional reference,
especially for people who are studying literature.
1.6 Method of the Study
The research uses library research. Library research works through many
K h a u l a | 6
research to support the topic. The writer also applies qualitative research method.
Qualitative research method uses observation as the data collection method.
1. Data Source
There are two sources of data : the primary data source is the novel The Chronicles of Narnia: the Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe that is written by Clive Staple Lewis. Whereas, the secondary data is taken from some books and
online resources that concern with the novel and the explanation of New Criticism
2. Data Collection
The writer takes some steps in collecting the data. Firstly, the writer finds
the book and the other references to get more data that relates with the problem
and New Criticism theory. Then, the writer focuses with the main source of data
The Chronicles of Narnia: the Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe novel that will be read repeatedly to get deeper understanding. In addition, the writer also does
searching more data about the novel and the theory by web surfing.
3. Data Analysis
In analyzing the data, the writer follows some steps as follows: reading the
whole story of the novel as the primary data, selecting the topic that relates with
the statement of the problems, analizing the data based on statement of the
K h a u l a | 7
1.7 Definition of Key Terms
1. Children’s Literature
The body of written works and accompanying illustrations produced in
order to entertain or instruct young people. The genre encompasses a wide
range of works, including acknowledged classics of world literature,
picture books and easy-to-read stories written exclusively for children, and
fairy tales, lullabies, fables, folk songs, and other primarily orally
transmitted materials. (Stephanie S Halldorson)
A hero is anyone who extends themselves beyond normal human
endurance (character) and returns with a cultural, social, moral, or ethical
K h a u l a | 8
CHAPTER II LITERARY REVIEW
The theoritical bases that will be used in this research is the theory of New
1.1 New Criticism
New Criticism is a literary criticism which concern itself interpretation and
evaluation of the ‘word on the page’ rather than with study of source and
socio-cultural background. The characteristic method of the New Criticism to have a
‘close reading’ of the text is based on the view that the literary work is a self
-sufficient, autonomous object whose success or failure, charm or lack of it are to
be sought within the work itself. The merit of a literary work is to be discerned in
its language and structure and not outside it in the mind of the writer or in the
respondse of the reader. What is more important is the text not the writer or the
reader (Das 24-25).
Eliot and Richard are have the most ideas of New Criticism since the late
1930s to the late 1950s. An alienated world could give new life. This theory
actually focused on poetry but one of the prominent British critics, Mark Schorer
extended his main principles to include analysis of prose fiction. He emphasizes
the fact that in the end prose fiction always manages to fit in all clear
contradictions into a coherent whole (Carter 26-28).
In conclusion, New Criticism focuses only on the intrinsic elements such
as plot, theme, character, setting, point of view, etc. It ignores the extrinsic
K h a u l a | 9
biographical, intellectual, etc. It only focuses on text itself including its
organization and language. Therefore, in order to analyze the character and
characterization in the novel entitled The Chronicles of Narnia: The Lion, The Witch, and The Wardrobe, this research will use New Criticism theory. The following explanations of character and characterization are stated below:
1.2 Definition of Character
Some experts have their own statement about the meaning of character.
Robert DiYanni (55) explained that character is the imaginary people that the
writers create, sometimes identifying them, sometimes judging them. Richard Gill
(127) said that character is generally known as a person in literary work besides
characterization is the way in which a character is created. In this case, character
is only the figure of person that created by the author and characterization
completed it with the physically description, attitude, and even how they think and
act in the text.
Character could be individuals as well as mixing the various interests,
emotional and moral principles of individuals (Stanton 33). Character is an
important factor that plays the course of the story. Without the characters, the
story cannot be arranged. In a story there is usually a main character, the
protagonist (good character), antagonist (villain), and a supporting role (another
character who participated build a story).
Character is the life of literature. It is the object of curiosity and attraction,
liking and dislike, respect and blame (Bennet and Royle 60). A character can be
K h a u l a | 10
the character have the mercy of the rich and powerful life. It is because the
characteristic of characters describes a real life in society.
Types of character
The essential function of character is to make the story in the novel
meaningful. Therefore, characterization plays important role in giving the main or
peripheral character selected behavior or typical of personality. Characterization
categorizes kind of character into several types; flat and round character.
According to Perrine, the definition about flat character describes “Flat characters
are characterized by one or two traits; they can be summed up in a sentence.
Though they touch life at only one or two points, may be made memorable in the
hands of an expert author through some individualizing detail of appearance,
gesture, or speech.” (Perrine 67-68)
Based on quotation above, it can be said that flat character just has one or
two basic personalities and they cannot give any great impact in the story. Flat
character is not prominent and they are very monotone. But, in the hands of the
reliable authors, though only one or two action can make a very valuable memory
through words, actions, and gestures.
The other typical of character grouped into characterization is round
character. Different with flat character, the complexity in its personality, mind and
behavior makes round character is difficult to notice in early story. According to
Perrine (67-68), round character can be described as “Round characters are
complex and many-sided; they might require an essay for full analysis and live by
K h a u l a | 11
explains that round character requires comprehensive exploration and even needs
separated analyses to reveal its possibilities of actual personality, mind or
behavior as a subject or object in the novel.
The character development probably changes the behavior, mind, or
personality of character. This character development could be irreversible,
reversible or there are even no changes at all from the beginning until the end of
story. This character development can be classified into two groups, such as static
and dynamic character. According to Perrine (69), “The Static Character is the
same sort of person at the end of the story as at the beginning.” Based on the
quotation, overall this character never changes from the beginning until the end of
the story because of the effect of changing event or disorder inter-relationship
with other character.
Meanwhile, Perrine (69) defines dynamic character as: “The Developing
(or Dynamic) character undergoes a permanent change in some aspect of
character, personality, or outlook. The change may be a large or a small one; it
may be for better or for worse; but it is something important and basic: it is more
than a change in condition or a minor change in opinion.”
Contrary to static character, the meaning of dynamic character is a little
change from the character whether it comes in early, middle or the end of story.
The dynamic of character does not measure from the quantity of changing such as
big or just a little but it comes from the significant difference of character
behavior in some events. Therefore, the dynamic character is complex,
K h a u l a | 12
Besides that, characters in a play or in fiction can be divided into two
major characters; protagonist and antagonist. Protagonist is the main character
in the story or a real event. The protagonist experiences conflict caused by
antagonist. Usually protagonist reflects a good side of plays as a central character
in a fiction that represents a hero as readers expected. While, antagonist is always
against the protagonist. Reaske (45) said that the main character of any drama is
known as protagonist the tragic hero and protagonist are same in tragedy for bout
terms describe the central character. The opponent of the protagonist is known as
Character is a person in literary work; characterization is the way in which
a character is created. Characters are all the product of characterization, that is to
say, they have been made in particular way. Characters are what they like because
the way they have been made. The kind of conversation they have, the things they
do, their appearance and so on are he particular ways in which the author has
chosen to characterize of his or her characters. The things that they do and their
appearances are the particular ways in which the author has chosen to characterize
Characterization is an essential component in writing good literature.
Modern fiction, in particular, has taken great advantage of this literary device.
Understanding the role of characterization in storytelling is very important for any
writer. To put it briefly, it helps us make sense of the behavior of any character in
K h a u l a | 13
characterization always leads the readers or audience to relate better to the events
taking place in the story. Dialogues play a very important role in developing a
character because they give us an opportunity to examine the motivations and
actions of the characters more deeply. (http://literarydevices.net/)
Holman (81) says that the creation of these imaginary persons so that they
exist for the reader as life like is called characterization. There are three
fundamental methods of characterization in fiction:
1. The explicit presentation by the author of the character through direct
2. The presentation of the character in action, with little or no explicit
comment by the author. The reader is expected to be able to give attributes
of the actor from the action.
3. The presentation from within the character, without comment on the
character’s inner self, with the expectation that the reader will come to a
clear understanding of the attributes of the character.
From the some points above, the authors usually do that three ways that
helping us to know the personalities of the characters like Holman said. Through
the author’s explicit presentation, the characters’ action, and the characters’
presentation, it is expected that the reader can imagine the fictional character
shown by the author.
Reflection of human life creates a literary work. In this case, authors put
K h a u l a | 14
and their lives, authors reach many inspirations. According to Hudson (12) it
obtained through authors’ experiences, observations, and imaginations. These
reflections are clearly explained by authors in their works. For example, as human
being, we have certain values in our life. Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary
on page 1693 defines value as “beliefs about what is right and wrong”. Value is
develop from the relation of the condition of people around and ourselves. We
cannot separate from this thing because this is focusing to our life. In literary
work, value is an example point which born from the world of life. For example,
in the fiction story, we can find some values such as moral values and family
values. These values bring out by the characters portrayed through the story.
The concept of value is wide. In literary works, we can find the heroism
values. According to Franco (3), heroism is a social activity: (a) in helping others
that really need the assistance; it can be person, group, or community, (b) engaged
in voluntarily, (c) close to possible of risk, (d) in which the actor is disposed to
sacrifice, (e) without any expectations to get the profit of the action. From these
definitions, heroism can be categorized as a moral concept. It is because heroism
is an act which closes to an appearance of someone we called as a hero who full of
courage to spread the kindness in human life. It can be concluded that the term of
heroism cannot be separated from good character, or in literary works it
well-known as a protagonist character.
A hero is anyone who extends themselves beyond normal human
endurance (character) and returns with a cultural, social, moral, or ethical lesson
K h a u l a | 15
the need for the audience to take the hero’s journey with them and incorporate the
lessons given, thus concluding that they would have done the same under the
same circumstances, this is what Halldorson said (6).
As a human being, we are really nearby with struggle or effort in our life.
It means that we are hero for ourselves. This is supported by Campbell (18) that
gives definition about hero as the man or woman who has own struggle by
themselves to facing their lives. Moreover, Bernstein (in Gramstad, 1999)
describes the hero as “the man dedicated to the creation and defense of reality,
conforming life, promoting values”. This definition emphasizes to the hero
appearance in literary works. The main point here is a hero carries out the values
by his existence that is heroism values. In addition, Webster’s Ninth Collegiate
Dictionary (in Gramstad, 1913), defines a hero into some different categories.
They are described as follow:
a. A mythological or legendary figure often of divine descent end owned with great strength or ability.
This first category refers to a figure of hero in legend or myth. This figure
is totally illustrated as the abstract figure. The appearance of hero in
legend or myth is supported by his great strength or ability. The hero in
this category also depicted has divine traits.
b. An illustrations warrior
In this term, the definition of an illustrations warrior is a man who joins in
battle or war. The figure of hero in this explanation is illustrated as
K h a u l a | 16
c. A man admired for his achievement and nobles qualities
A hero also can define as a man who gets the achievement. This is making
people respect to himself.
d. One that shows courage.
The figure of hero is cannot separated from bold trait which exist in
himself. It means that a hero should isolate his scare feeling.
From the definitions above, we can conclude that a hero is someone who
has struggle or effort. In a real life, a person can becalled a hero as long as he/she
has struggle in facing of their life. Whereas in literary works the term of hero is
generally depicted as a man who full of bravery.
Furthermore, in The Philosophical Foundations of Heroism, Bernstein (in
Gramstad, 1999) explains the components referring to heroism values of a hero. It
is “Moral greatness”. It is the component that should take place in a figure of
someone who called as hero. This is become as the basic of heroism values. It
considers that hero is identified by his morality. Therefore, it will use further to
analyze the heroic values portrayed in C.S Lewis novel, The Chronicles of Narnia: the Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe.
Moreover, according to Bernstein (in Gramstad, 1999), moral greatness is
the basic component that really close to someone who called hero. It is because
the term ‘moral greatness’ refers to all virtues that has given to others. It can be
said that moral greatness is contributions of a hero to people’s life.
Based on the definitions above, the writer concluded that a hero is a man
K h a u l a | 17
for the community. So, a hero must have good characteristics for the community
and they can do the same if they are in the same position.
2.5 Review of Related Study
The first research entitled An Analysis of Moral Value through the Reward
and Punishment on the script of The Chronicles of Narnia: the Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe by Dian Rizqiyati. The purpose of the research is to figure out how the author delivers the moral message to children through the reward and
punishment value as an element of Lawrence Kohlberg’s thought of moral
development. She limits the research on the reward and punishment concept of the
script The Chronicles of Narnia: the Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe.
The second research entitled The Aspect of Fantasy in Lewis’The Chronicles of Narnia: the Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe by Asep Shofian.
The purpose of the research to describe characteristic and the function of the
fantasy in Lewis’The Chronicles of Narnia: the Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe. He also limits the problem by examining aspects of fantasy in this novel.
Both researches above describe the difference of discussion with the
researcher’s research study. The first research, it discusses the reward and
punishment moral value of the novel. The second research discuss about the
aspects of fantasy of the novel. The difference of both researches is the
application of the theories. The first researcher applies the theory of reward and
K h a u l a | 18
fantasy. In this research, the writer discusses the intrinsic elements and what kind
K h a u l a | 19
CHAPTER III ANALYSIS
This chapter reveals and discusses the data collection from The Chronicles of Narnia: the Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe; a novel written by C.S Lewis. All of data here were collected and analyzed through some steps explained in the
previous chapter. It covers the finding of characters, characterization, and heroic
performances in the novel The Chronicles of Narnia: The Lion, The Witch, and The Wardrobe.
1.1. Characters and Characterization 1.1.1 Aslan
Aslan is the great lion who isdescribed as the King of Narnia, the King of
Beasts, the Lord of the Wood, and the son of the great Emperor beyond the sea.
As it describes, “I tell you he is the King of the wood and the son of the great
Emperor-beyond-the-Sea. Don’t you know who is the King of Beasts? Aslan is a
lion–the Lion, the great Lion” (45). So, Aslan is described as a King of Narnia, he
is a great Lion.
When the children try to see Aslan’s face, they describe that Aslan has a
golden mane and a pair of large eyes. “For when they tried to look at Aslan’s face
they just caught a glimpse of the golden mane and the great, royal, solemn,
overwhelming eyes; and then they found they couldn’t look at him and went all
trembly” (69). From children descriptions, they notice at his hair, his mane, and
K h a u l a | 20
Aslan is a good leader. He does not discriminate towards his status with
other animals. It is seen when a lion who looks very excited when he hears the
Aslan’s conversation. “Did you hear what he said? Us Lions. That means him and
and me. Us Lions. That’s what I like about Aslan. No side, no stand-off-ishness.
Us Lions. That meant him and me” (95).
Aslan is the only one who isfeared by the White Witch. Even a roar alone
can make the White Witch depressed after hearing his roar. “Haa-a-arrh!” roared
Aslan, half rising from his throne; and his great mouth opened wider and wider
and the roar grew louder and louder, and the Witch, after staring for a moment
with her lips wide apart, picked up her skirts and fairly ran for her life”(79).
Aslan is a powerful figure, even for people who didn’t know who he is yet.
When the name of Aslan is called, the children feel strange in themselves, not
only perceive his power, but also become a little bit more themselves.
“At the name of Aslan each one of the children felt something
jump in its inside. Edmund felt a sensation of mysterious horror.
Peter felt suddenly brave and adventurous. Susan felt as if some
delicious smell or some delightful strain of music had just floated
by her. And Lucy got the feeling you have when you wake up in
the morning and realize that it is the beginning of the holidays or
the beginning of summer”(39).
So, the children feel his aura that he is a powerful and great King.
K h a u l a | 21
Aslan is the king who protects the animals. His arrival is really awaited by
the resident of Narnia. This is illustrated when Peter and his sisters get to the
“Aslan stood in the center of a crowd of creatures who had
grouped themselves round him in the shape of a half-moon. There
were Tree-Women there and Well-Women (Dryads and Naiads as
they used to be called in our world) who had stringed instruments;
it was they who had made the music. There were four great
centaurs. The horse part of them was like huge English farm
horses, and the man part was like stern but beautiful giants. There
was also a unicorn, and a bull with the head of a man, and a
pelican, and an eagle, and a great Dog. And next Aslan stood two
leopards of whom one carried his crown and the other his
Aslan is a noble lion. When he returns to Narnia,everyone there expects
him to beat the White Witch, rescue the betrayer Edmund, bring back spring, and
make everything perfect. Mr. Beaver recites in old rhyme of Narnia that suggests
Aslan can fix everything in a jiffy. “Wrong will be right, when Aslan comes in
sight, at the sound of his roar, sorrows will be no more, When he bares his teeth,
winter meets its death, And when he shakes his mane, we shall have spring again”
K h a u l a | 22
A part of Aslan's nature is playfulness. After he is revived by the
Emperor's magic, Aslan plays with Susan and Lucy, and all three is very enjoy the
feeling of being alive and playing together. There is something simple and
beautifully good about their play.
“Oh, children,”said the Lion, “I feel my strength coming back to
me. Oh, children, catch me if you can!” He stood for a second, his
eyes very bright, his limbs quivering, lashing himself with his tail.
Then he made a leap high over their heads and landed on the other
side of the Table. Laughing, though she didn't know why, Lucy
scrambled over it to reach him. Aslan leaped again. A mad chase
Aslan really knows everything that is going on in Narnia. He definitely
knows what happen with Edmund and the Witch, so he asking about the fourth
child is just a formality. Directly, it can be said that Edmund is a betrayer. “But
where is the fourth?” asked Aslan. “He has tried to betray them and joined the
White Witch, O Aslan,” said Mr. Beaver”(70).
Aslan knows a secret that nobody else did, and it fixed everything. But the
spiritual point is that one great sacrifice can redeem for someone’s betrayal. One
victim can stand in for another, and by doing so, he can free the whole world.
“It means,” said Aslan, “that though the Witch knew the Deep
Magic, there is a magic deeper still which she did not know. Her
K h a u l a | 23
have looked a little further back, into the stillness and the darkness
before Time dawned, she would have read there a different
incantation. She would have known that when a willing victim
who had committed no treachery was killed in a traitor's stead, the
Table would crack and Death itself would start working
Aslan takes a responsibility to save Edmund from the Witch by sacrifices
his own life. He did it because he wants to save the citizens in Narnia. So, he must
responsible to face the White Witch.
Aslan instructs the animals to follow some wolves that are immediately go
to their master after hiding. When the properly time come, the centaurs, eagles,
and other animals follow some wolves to find the White Witch, so they can rescue
Edmund from the White Witch.
“Quick! Quick!” shouted the voice of Aslan. “Centaurs! Eagles! I
see another wolf in the thickets. There–behind you. He has just
darted away. After him, all of you. He will be going to his
mistress. Now is your chance to find the Witch and rescue the
fourth Son of Adam.” And instantly with a thunder of hoofs and
beating of wings a dozen or so of the swiftest creatures
disappeared into the gathering darkness” (72).
Aslan revives the lion statue and other statues in the castle. Aslan does it
K h a u l a | 24
At the first, Aslan blows his breath to the stone lion, and then dwarfs, rabbits, and
centaurs. Then Aslan finds other stone statues and revives them all.
“He was indeed. He had bounded up to the stone lion and breathed
on him. Then without waiting a moment he whisked round - almost
as if he had been a cat chasing its tail -and breathed also on the
stone dwarf, which (as you remember) was standing a few feet
from the lion with his back to it. Then he pounced on a tall stone
dryad which stood beyond the dwarf, turned rapidly aside to deal
with a stone rabbit on his right, and rushed on to two centaurs.”
“For a second after Aslan had breathed upon him the stone lion
looked just the same. Then a tiny streak of gold began to run along
his white marble back–then it spread–then the color seemed to lick
all over him as the flame licks all over a bit of paper–then, while
his hind quarters were still obviously stone, the lion shook his
mane and all the heavy stone folds rippled into living hair. Then he
opened a great red mouth, warm and living, and gave aprodigious
yawn. And now his hind legs had come to life. He lifted one of
them and scratched himself” (92).
Aslan helps Edmund when he gets the punishment that is written at the
Deep Magic where Edmund has to be sacrificed on the Stone Table as a betrayer.
K h a u l a | 25
Edmund from the Deep Magic to the Witch. He does not want everyone know
about what has he said or what agreement that has done with the Witch.
“You have a traitor there, Aslan,” said the Witch. Of course
everyone present knew that she meant Edmund.
“Have you forgotten the Deep Magic?” asked the Witch.
“… You know that every traitor belongs to me as my lawful prey
and that for every treachery I have a right to a kill.” (77)
“Fall back, all of you,” said Aslan, “and I will talk to the Witch
“At last they heard Aslan's voice, “You can all come back,” he
said. “I have settled the matter. She has renounced the claim on
your brother's blood.” And all over the hill there was a noise as if
everyone had been holding their breath and had now begun
breathing again, and then a murmur of talk.” (78-79)
When Aslan talked face to face with the Witch to save Edmund from his
punishment as a betrayer, no one knows that Aslan will do a big sacrifice. He will
replace Edmund to do a punishment on Stone Table. When Aslan arrives at Stone
Table, he is immediately tied by four Hags after that they kicking him, hitting
K h a u l a | 26
“… Four Hags, grinning and leering, yet also (at first) hanging
back and half afraid of what they had to do, had approached him.
“Bind him, I say!” repeated the White Witch.” (84)
“…Then they began to drag him towards the Stone Table.
“Stop!” said the Witch. “Let him first be shaved.” (84)
“ … , and for a few minutes the two girls could not even see him -
so thickly was he surrounded by the whole crowd of creatures
kicking him, hitting him, spitting on him, jeering at him.” (85)
So, Aslan is a figure of hero because he have good attitudes like
responsible, always helping, sacrifice, caring, and he fights the White Witch.
Peter has an adventurous spirit. It is seen when he firstly comes to
Professor’s house, he is excited to explore the house and its surroundings.
“It’s an owl,” said Peter. “This is going to be a wonderful place for
birds. I shall go to bed now. I say, let’s go and explore tomorrow.
You might find anything in a place like this. Did you see those
mountains as we came along? And the woods? There might be
eagles. There might be stags. There’llbe hawks”(3).
Peter is a smart leader in managing strategy. This is shown when he offers
K h a u l a | 27
Witch to help Mr. Tumnus. He also suggested to divide the search into 4 parts to
“Couldn’t we have some stratagem?” said Peter. “I mean couldn’t
we dress up as something, or pretend to be–oh, peddlers or
anything–or watch till she was gone out–or–oh, hang it all, there
must be some way” (43).
“We’d better divide into four search parties,” said Peter, “and all
go indifferent directions. Whoever finds him must come back here
at once and–“(48).
Peter seems to know how to be a warrior. After receiving his sword from
Father Christmas, he needs no training before slaying Fenris and fighting in the
battle. He also instinctively begins to think like a military tactician. When Aslan
leads his followers to the Fords of Beruna, Peter suggests that they shouldcamp
on the far side of the river to protect them from a night attack by the Witch.
“It was still afternoon when they came down to a place where the
river valley had widened out and the river was broad and shallow.
This was the Fords of Beruna and Aslan gave orders to halt on this
side of the water. But Peter said, “Wouldn't it be better to camp on
the far side - for fear she should try a night attack or anything?”
Aslan, who seemed to have been thinking about something else,
roused himself with a shake of his magnificent mane and said,
K h a u l a | 28
"No," said Aslan in a dull voice, as if it didn't matter. "No. She will
not make an attack to-night."And then he sighed deeply. But
presently he added, “All the same it was well thought of. That is
how a soldier ought to think”(80).
Peter loves his brother and sisters so much. This is seen when he still looks
for a way to help in escaping Edmund, though he knows that Edmund has
betrayed them. “Allthe same,” said Peter in a rather choking sort of voice, “we’ll
still have to go and look for him. He is our brother after all, even if he is rather a
little beast. And he’sonly a kid” (49).
Peter is a responsible person. He takes responsibility for his failings. He
admits to Aslan, without being asked, that his attitudes to Edmund may have
contributed to Edmund’s betrayal.“That was partly my fault, Aslan,” Peter says.
“I was angry with him and I think that helped him to go wrong” (70).
Peter's bravery increases and develops. In spite of his fears, Peter push
himself together and fights. Likewise, when Aslan leaves him in charge of the
battle against the Witch, Peter rises to the event. Although we know that Peter
feels uncomfortable about fighting the battle alone.
“Aslan's mood affected everyone that evening. Peter was feeling
uncomfortable too at the idea of fighting the battle on his own; the
news that Aslan might not be there had come as a great shock to
him. Supper that evening was a quiet meal. Everyone felt how
K h a u l a | 29
good times, having just begun, were already drawing to their end”
Peter may seem great and strong sometimes, but he is always willing to
admit when he is wrong. When Peter knows that there is another world called
Narnia behind the wardrobe, he apologizes to Lucy because her story is true, she
is ready to forgive him right away. “Peter turned at once to Lucy.“I apologise for
not believing you,” he said, “I’m sorry. Will you shakehands?” “Of course,” said
Lucy, and did” (30-31).
Peter always loves his siblings. He defends what has been done by
Edmund. He tells Aslan that Edmund proves a great courage and ignore his
“It was all Edmund's doing, Aslan,”Peter was saying. “We’d have
been beaten if it hadn’t been for him. The Witch was turning our
troops into stone right and left. But nothing would stop him. He
fought his way through three ogres to where she was just turning
one of your leopards into a statue. And when he reached her he had
the sense to bring his sword smashing down on her wand instead of
trying to go for her directly and simply getting made a statue
himself for his pains.” (96-97)
Peter feels pity and wants to save Mr. Tumnus the Faun, because he is in
debts to faun that save Lucy from the White Witch. In the fiction describes this
K h a u l a | 30
at his own risk, Mr. Beaver. We can’t just leave him to be–to be–to have that done
Peter defends Lucy when Edmund tries to lie and blame Lucy about
Narnia, the country behind the wardrobe. “Look here,” said Peter, turning on him
savagely, “shut up! You’ve been perfectly beastly to Lu ever since she started this
non sense about the wardrobe, and now you go playing games with her about it
and setting of her again. I believe you did it simply out of spite” (24).
Peter tries save Susan from the wolf who tries to hurt Susan. Although he
does not dare, he still swings his sword toward the wolf.
“Peter did not feel very brave; indeed, he felt he was going to be
sick. But that made no difference to what he had to do. He rushed
straight up to the monster and aimed a slash of his sword at its
side. That stroke never reached the Wolf. Quick as lightning it
turned round, its eyes flaming, and its mouth wide open in a howl
of anger. If it had not been so angry that it simply had to howl it
would have got him by the throat at once. As it was though all this
happened too quickly for Peter to think at all–he had just time to
duck down and plunge his sword, as hard as he could, between the
brute’s fore legs into its heart. Then came a horrible, confused
moment like something in a nightmare. He was tugging and
pulling and the Wolf seemed neither alive nor dead, and its bared
K h a u l a | 31
heat and hair. A moment later he found that the monster lay dead
and he had drawn his sword out of it and was straightening his
back and rubbing the sweat off his face and out of his eyes. He felt
tired all over” (72).
So, Peter is a figure of hero because he have good attitudes like
responsible, always helping, sacrifice, caring, and he fights the White Witch with
his siblings and Aslan, he very loves his sibling so, he protects all of them.
Susan is the oldest girl among the four children in Narnia. Susan often
takes on a motherly role. For example, it is Susan whowants the children to put
on the fur coats from the wardrobe to keep them warm in the snowy weather.
Sometimes Susan's mothering is annoying the others. On their first night in the
Professor's house, Susan tries to tell Edmund that it is his bedtime. “Like what?” said Susan; “and anyway, it’s time you were in bed. “Trying to talk like Mother”,
said Edmund. Who are you to say when I'm to go to bed? Go to bed yourself” (2).
In many situations, Susan shows that she is the least courageous of the
four children. It is statedwhen she finally joins into Narnia and discovers along
with Peter, Edmund, and Lucy that Mr. Tumnus has been arrested. “I wonder if there’s any point in going on,” said Susan. “I mean, it doesn’t seem particularly
safe here and it looks as if it won’t be much fun either. And it’s getting colder
every minute, and we’ve brought nothing to eat. What about just going
K h a u l a | 32
Susan is lack of courage, but she still wants to help the other. After a
discussion with Peter, Susan, and Edmund about what they should do, she agrees
to help Mr. Tumnus. “I’ve a horrid feeling that Lu is right,” said Susan. “I don’t want to go a step further and I wish we’d never come. But I think we must try to
do something for Mr. Whatever-his-name is –I mean the Faun”(34).
When Aslan goes to the Stone table, Lucy and Susan see him and follow
him. Aslan will replace Edmund’ position to do a punishment. Susan looks at him
who walked slowly and bowed with feeble face. She asks him about his condition
and what has happened that makes him sad.
“Forward they went again and one of the girls walked on each side
of the Lion. But how slowly he walked! And his great, royal head
drooped so that his nose nearly touched the grass. Presently he
stumbled and gave a low moan (82).
"Are you ill, dear Aslan?" asked Susan.”
“No,” said Aslan. “I am sad and lonely. Lay your hands on my
mane so that I can feel you are there and let us walk like that.” (83)
Susan stops the debate between Peter and Edmund. She invites them to
look for Lucy who had left the room. Susan seems anxious because Edmund has
mocked and jeered Lucy. Susan as her old sister feels sorry and worrying her so
K h a u l a | 33
Edmund, who was becoming a nastier person every minute,
thought that he had scored a great success, and went on at once to
say, "There she goes again. What's the matter with her? That's the
worst of young kids, they always -"
"You didn't think anything at all," said Peter; "it's just spite. You've
always liked being beastly to anyone smaller than yourself; we've
seen that at school before now."
"Do stop it," said Susan; "it won't make things any better having a
row between you two. Let's go and find Lucy." (24-25)
So, Susan cannot called as a hero because she just has one
characteristics of a hero that is not enough for Susan to be a hero. She just
loves her siblings very much and take cares of them.
Edmund is the third child. He is a naughty boy and does not respect the
people who are older than him. This is shown when he meets the Professor for the
“…They were sent to the house of an old Professor who lived in
the heart of the country, ten miles from the nearest railway station
and two miles from the nearest post office. He had no wife and he
lived in a very large house with a housekeeper called Mrs.
Macready and three servants, … and Edmund (who was the next
youngest) wanted to laugh and had to keep on pretending he was
K h a u l a | 34
Edmund is a boy who likes complaining. It is described as Susan scolds
him for complaining the rain that fell when they will go to exploring.
“Of course it would be raining!" said Edmund. They had just
finished their breakfast with the Professor and were upstairs in the
room he had set apart for them - a long, low room with two
windows looking out in one direction and two in another.
“Do stop grumbling, Ed,” said Susan. “Ten to one it’ll clear up in
an hour or so. And in the meantime we're pretty well off. There's a
wireless and lots of books” (3).
Edmund also likes to provoke. It is described in a conversation between
Edmund and Peter that are concerned about the animals’ alignment in Narnia,
although Peter has given strong evidence.
“They had been travelling in this way for about half an hour, with
the two girls in front, when Edmund said to Peter, “If you’re not
still too high and mighty to talk to me, I’ve something to say which you’d better listen to.”
“What is it?” asked Peter.
“Hush! Not so loud,” said Edmund; there’s no good frightening the
girls. But have you realized what we’re doing?” “What?” said Peter, lowering his voice to a whisper.
“We’re following a guide we know nothing about. How do we
K h a u l a | 35
“That’s a nasty idea. Still–a robin, you know. They’re good birds
in all the stories I’ve ever read. I’m sure a robin wouldn’t be on the wrong side.”
“If it comes to that, which is the right side? How do we know that
the Fauns are in the right and the Queen (yes, I know we’ve been
told she’s awitch) is in the wrong? We don’t really know anything
“The Faun saved Lucy.”
“He said he did. But how do we know? And there’s another thing
too. Has anyone the least idea of the way home from here?” “Great Scott!” said Peter, “I hadn’t thought of that.”
“And no chanceof dinner either,” said Edmund (34-35)
Edmund is also a hatred boy. This is illustrated when he continues to
blame Peter for what happens to him. “… Even as it was, he got wet through for
he had to stoop under branches and great loads of snow came sliding off onto his
back. And everytime this happened he thought more how he hated Peter–just as if
all this had been Peter’s fault”(52).
Edmund always sneers Lucy, especially when Lucy finds a new world in
the wardrobe. This makes their days be unpleasant as in the story states, “He sneered and jeered at Lucy and kept on asking her if she’d found any other new
countries in other cupboards all over the house. What made it worse was that these
K h a u l a | 36
After Edmund comes into the land of Narnia and is given Turkish delight
by the Witch, Edmund is indirectly affected by Witch’s magic and Edmund is in
the side of Witch. So that Edmund tries keep secret about Narnia.
“But Edmund secretly thought that it would not be as good fun for
him as for her. He would have to admit that Lucy had been right,
before all the others, and he felt sure the others would all be on the
side of Fauns and the animals; but he was already more than half
on the side of the Witch. He did not know what he would say, or
how he would keep his secret once they were all talking about
To keep his secret, Edmund lies and pretends that he and Lucy just jokes
about Narnia. This is what makes Lucy sad.
“And Edmund gave a very superior look as if he were far older
than Lucy (there was really only a year’s difference) and then a
little snigger and said, “Oh, yes, Lucy and I have been playing–
pretending that all her story about a country in the wardrobe is
true. Just for fun, of course. There’s nothingthere really”(24).
Edmund betrays Peter, Susan, Lucy, Mr. Beaver, Mrs. Beaver, Aslan and
the animals which are good because he considers that the Witch is a good person,
so he prefers White Witch. It describes in the conversation of Mr. Beaver and the
children, “Don’t you understand?” said Mr. Beaver. “He’s gone to her, to the
K h a u l a | 37
In addition, Edmund betrays his siblings because of the influence of food
given by the White Witch. It is described byMr. Beaver when they intend to
looking for Edmund.
“Then mark my words,” said Mr. Beaver, “he has already met the
White Witch and joined her side, and been told where she lives. I
didn’t like to mention it before (he being your brother and all) but
the moment I set eyes on that brother of yours I said to myself
‘Treacherous.’ He had the look of one who has been with the
Witch and eaten her food. You can always tell them if you’ve lived
long in Narnia; something about their eyes”(49).
After Edmund delivers the information to the Witch, she arrests and treats
him very badly, forcing him to march across the damp countryside without a coat,
cold, wet, and hungry. During this journey, Edmund has a small enlightenment
when he sees a group of animals enjoying a feast that Father Christmas gave
them. The Witch is very angry and turns them to stone. Edmund feels sympathy
and pity to them.
“Then she raised her wand. “Oh, don’t, don’t, please don’t,”
shouted Edmund, but even while he was shouting she had waved
her wand and instantly where the merry party had been there were
only statues of creatures (one with its stone fork fixed forever
half-way to its stone mouth) seated round a stone table on which there
K h a u l a | 38
“As for you,” said the Witch, giving Edmund a stunning blow on
the face as she re-mounted the sledge, “let that teach you to ask favour for spies and traitors. Drive on!” And Edmund for the first
time in this story felt sorry for someone besides himself. It seemed
so pitiful to think of those little stone figures sitting there all the
silent days and all the dark nights, year”(65).
Edmund may try to deceive himself. He instinctively has a fundamental
knowledge of good and evil. He knows about the White Witch is an evil, but he
tries to throw away them out with foolish arguments and ridiculous reasoning.
“Because,” he said to himself, “all these people who say nasty
things about her are her enemies and probably half of it isn’t true.
She was jolly nice to me, anyway, much nicer than they are. I
expect she is the rightful Queen really. Anyway, she'll be better
than that awful Aslan!” At least, that was the excuse he made in his
own mind for what he was doing. It wasn’t a very good excuse,
however, for deep down inside him he really knew that the White
Witch was bad and cruel”(51-52).
Edmund saves his power bydamaging Witch’s wand which is able to turn
someone into stone. Edmund swings his sword toward the White Witch's wand in
the last minute battle. He does it without thinking that he will be a stone when the
K h a u l a | 39
“It was all Edmund’s doing, Aslan,” Peter was saying. “We’d have
been beaten if it hadn’t been for him. The Witch was turning our
troops into stone right and left. But nothing would stop him. He
fought his way through tree ogres to where she was just turning
one of your leopards into a statue. And when he reached her he had
sense to bring his sword smashing down on her wand instead of
trying to go for her directly and simply getting made a statue
himself for his pains. That was the mistake all the rest were
making. Once her wand was broken we began to have some
chance–if we hadn’t lost so many already. He was terribly
wounded. We must go and see him”(96).
Edmund is not a hero because he betrays his siblings, he lies to his
siblings, he likes sneering Lucy. So, here Edmund is a naughty boy and
cannot called a hero.
Lucy is the youngest and sometimes feels afraid of something, this is
explained as first she meets the Professor. “… but on the first evening when he
came out to meet them at the front door he was so odd-looking that Lucy (who
was youngest) was a little afraid of him” (2).
Lucy loves with the scent and softness of the fur. It is described as she
finds the wardrobe which connects to the world of Narnia for the first time.
K h a u l a | 40
immediately stepped into the wardrobe and got in among the coats and rubbed her
face against them”. (4)
Lucy is a nice girl, she always lends her handkerchief for the other people.
This is described in two different situations, first when Lucy gives her
handkerchief to Mr. Tumnus that continuously crying and didn’t explain anything
what happened. The second time to the Giant that very exhausting and sweating,
he asked who has a handkerchief.
“But the Faun continued sobbing as if it heart would break. And
even when Lucy went over and put her arms round him and lent
him her handkerchief, he did not stop. He merely took the
handkerchief and kept on using it, wringing it out with both hands
whenever it got too wet to be any more use, so that presently Lucy
was standing in a damp patch” (9).
“Blowed if I ain’t all in a muck sweat,” said the Giant, puffing like
the largest railway engine. “Comes of being out of condition. I
suppose neither of you young ladies has such a thing as a
pochet-handkerchee about you?”
“Yes, I have,” said Lucy, standing on tip-toes and holding her
handkerchief up as far as she could reach” (94).
Lucy is a girl who always wants to know something. It happens when she
find the wardrobe. When Lucy and her brother find a large wardrobe in the empty
K h a u l a | 41
“Nothing there!” said Peter, and they all tropped out again–all except Lucy. She
stayed behind because she thought it would be worth while trying the door of the
wardrobe, eventhough she felt almost sure that it would be locked” (4).
Lucy is a good leader. It is illustrated when she leads his brother and sister
to Mr. Tumnus’ cave.
“Lucy proved a good leader. At first she wondered whether she
would be able to find the way, but she recognized an odd-looking
tree on one place and a stump in another and brought them on to
where the ground become uneven and into the little valley land and
at last to the very door of Mr.Tumnus’s cave”(32).
Lucy is an honest girl. She tries tell the truth about the country in the
wardrobe, but she cannot say it because she will called as a liar and made the story
about Narnia just for fun.
“…She could made it up with the others quite easily at any
moment if she could have brought herself to say that the whole
thing was only a story made up for fun. But Lucy was a very
truthful girl and she knew that she was really in the right; and she
could not bring herself to say this”(14).
Lucy loves her siblings very much. She does not want anything happen to
K h a u l a | 42
“Please –Aslan,” said Lucy, “can anything be done to save
“All shall be done,” said Aslan. “But it may be harder than you
think.” And then he was silent again for some time. Up to that
moment Lucy had been thinking how royal and strong and
peaceful his face looked; now it suddenly came into her head that
he looked sad as well” (70).
Lucy feels fear when she knows there is a new world behind the wardrobe.
But, she still curious and excited to know more about it. She just lets the door
open because if there is something happen to her, she can back to the door as fast
“Lucy felt a little frightened, but she felt very inquisitive and
excited as well. She looked back over her shoulder and there,
between the dark tree trunks; she could still see the open doorway
of the wardrobe and even catch a glimpse of the empty room from
which she had set out. (She had, of course, left the door open, for
she knew that it is a very silly thing to shut oneself into a
wardrobe.) It seemed to be still daylight there. “I can always get
back if anything goes wrong,” thought Lucy” (5).
Lucy is anadventurous girl. She is still ready to treat Narnia as a child’s
K h a u l a | 43
“The coats were rather too big for them so that they came down to
their heels and looked more like royal robes than coats when they
had put them on. But they all felt a good deal warmer and each
thought the others looked better in their new get-up and more
suitable to the landscape.
“We can pretend we are Arctic explorers,” said Lucy.
“This is going to be exciting enough without anypretending,” said
Peter, as he began leading the way forward into the forest” (31).
Lucy does not want to go home because she wants to save Mr. Tumnus the
Faun. She feels that the Faun is in trouble for saving her, hiding her from the
“Oh, but we can’t, we can’t,” said Lucy suddenly; “don’t you see?
We can’t just go home, not after this. It is all on my account that
the poor Faun has got into this trouble. He hid me from the Witch
and showed me the way back. That’s what it means by comforting
the Queen’s enemies and fraternizing with Humans. We simply
must try to rescue him”(34).
Lucy saves Edmund and the other animals that are injured in the battle
against the White Witch and her followers. She uses cordial previously given by
“And then, almost for the first time, Lucy remembered the precious
K h a u l a | 44
trembled so much that she could hardly undo the stopper, but she
managed it in the end and poured a few drops into her brother’s
“I’m sorry, Aslan,” said Lucy, getting up and going with him. And
for the next half-hour they were busy–she attending to the
wounded while here stored those who had been turned into stone”
Lucy is a hero because she has good character such as, she helps
Mr Tumnus from White Witch, she saves her siblings when they were
injured, she is an honest girl, and she joined in a war to save Narnia from
1.1.6 Mr. Tumnus
Mr. Tumnus is a Faun (man half goat). He has curly hair, two horns, a tail,
and a beard like a goat. He wears a red scarf around his neck, just like a human.
“He was only a little taller than Lucy herself and he carried over
his head an umbrella, white with snow. From the waist upward he
was like a man, but his legs were shaped like a goat’s (the hair on
them was glossy black) and instead of feet he had goat’s hoofs. He
also had a tail, but Lucy did not notice this at first because it was
neatly caught up over the arm that held the umbrella so as to keep
it from trailing in the snow. He had a red woolen muffler round his
K h a u l a | 45
little face, with a short pointed beard and curly hair, and out of the
hair there stuck two horns, one on each side of his forehead. One
of his hands, as I have said, held the umbrella: in the other arm he
carried several brown-paper parcels. What with the parcels and the
snow it looked just as if he had been doing his Christmas shopping.
He was a faun”(5).
Mr. Tumnus is a good cooker. This is illustrated when he serves for Lucy
who visits his cave. There are so many dishes have been served by Mr. Tumnus.
“And really it was a wonderful tea. There was a nice brown egg, lightly boiled, for
each of them, and then sardines on toast, and then buttered toast, and then toast
with honey, and then a sugar topped cake” (8).
Mr. Tumnus is a faun who loves reading. It is described as Lucy looks
through the house of Mr. Tumnus and finds a book case that contains several
collections. “… and one wall was shelf full of books. Lucy looked at these while
he was setting out the tea things. They had titles like “The Life and Letters of
Silenus or Nymphs and Their Ways” or “Men, Monks, and Gemekeepers; a Study
in Popular Legend” or “Is Man a Myth” (8).
Mr. Tumnus lives in the woods for a long time, and therefore he knows a
lot about life in the woods of Narnia. This was explained when he tells interesting
story to Lucy.
“He had wonderful tales to tell of life in the forest. He told about