THE DESCRIPTION OF TENSES USED
IN JAKARTA POST NEWSPAPER
TUESDAY, JULY 9TH
M. Yusuf Habiebie
ENGLISH STUDY PROGRAM DIPLOMA III
FACULTY OF CULTURE STUDY
UNIVERSITY OF NORTH SUMATERA
Drs. Bahagia Tarigan, M.A. NIM: 19581017198601001
Submitted to the Faculty of Culture Study University of North Sumatera
In partial fulfillment of the requirements for English Study Diploma III Program
The chairperson of English Study Diploma III,
Dr. Matius C.A. Sembiring, M.A. NIP : 19521126 198112 1 001
Approved by the English Study Diploma III Program, Faculty of Culture Study,
University of North Sumatera
Accepted by the examination board in partial fulfillment of the requirement for
the DIII examination of the Diploma III English Study Program, Faculty of
Culture Study of University of North Sumatera.
The examination is held on:
Friday, November 15th, 2013
Faculty of Culture Study University of North Sumatera Dean,
Dr. Syahron Lubis, M.A. NIP : 19511031 197603 1 001
Board of examiners:
1. Dr. Matius C.A. Sembiring, M.A. (English Study Prog.) ……….
2. Dra. Bahagia Tarigan, M.A (supervisor) ………..
I am, M. YUSUF HABIEBIE, declare that I am the sole of author of this
paper. Except where reference is made in the text of this paper, this paper
contains no material published elsewhere or extracted in whole or in part
from a paper by which I have qualified for or awarded another degree.
No other person’s work has been used without due acknowledgement in the
main text of this paper. This paper has not been submitted for the award of
another degree in any tertiary education.
Signed : ………
Name : M. YUSUF HABIEBIE
Title of paper : THE DESCRIPTION OF TENSES USED IN
JAKARTA POST NEWSPAPER TUESDAY
JULY 9TH, 2013
Qualification : D-III/ Ahli Madya
Study Program : English
1. I am willing that my paper should be available for reproduction at the
discretion of the Liberarian of the Diploma III English Study Program
Faculty of Culture Study USU on the understanding that users are made
aware of their obligation under law of the Republic of Indonesia.
2. I am not willing that my papers be made available for reproduction.
Signed : ………
First of all the writer of this paper would like to say thanks Allah SWT
who has given a lot of blessing to him. Therefore he is able to finish writing this
paper. The writer believes that without the blessing of Nabi Muhammad SAW he
has received from Him this paper cannot be finished as it is.
I send my gratitues thanks to the dean of the faculty of culture study, Dr.
Syahron Lubis, M.A. for the facilities available during his studies at the faculty
of culture study of USU So the same things to my supervisor, Drs. Bahagia
Tarigan, M.A. for his nice advice and corrections during writing this paper. As
addition my thanks to Mr. Dr. Matius C.A. Sembiring, M.A. as the chair person
of the English department of D-III Programe, and so Drs. Siamir Marulafau,
M.Hum as the reviewer.
The most valuable things that the writer of this paper adores his beloved
parents, H.M. Muniri, B.Sc. and Hj. Sri Suhastati who have never found it tired
and boring to encourage him to finish his study, so for their tramendous supports
dealing with the financial and spirits. I don’t forget to say thanks to both beloved
sisters, Naumi Kharitsyah and Siti Khairani who have been given me nice and
valuable encourage to finish my study from USU for my future.
On this occasion the writer of this paper also wants to say thanks to my
best friends and special friend, my loved girlfriend, Amanda Yurike Putri
Nasution who owns patiences in encdouraging me to finish my study for our
Author’s Declaration………. i
Copyright Declaration ……… ii
Abstract ……….. iii
Abstrak ……….. iv
Acknowledgement ………. v
1.1 The Background of the Study
It is language, more obviously than anything else, that it is able to
distinguish man from the rest of the animal world. At one time it was common to
define man as a thinking animal, but we can hardly imagine thought without
words–not thought that is at all precise, anyway. More recently, man has often
been described as a tool-making animal; but language itself is most remarkable
tool that man has invented, and is the one that makes all the others possible. The
most primitive tools, admittedly, may have come early than language: the higher
apes sometimes use sticks for digging, and have even been observed to break
sticks for this purpose. But tools of any greater sophistication demand the kind of
human co-operation and division of labor which is hardly possible without
language. Language, in fact, is the great machine or tool which is able to make
human culture possible.
Other animals, it is true, communicate with one another, or at any rate
stimulate one another to action, by means of cries. Many birds utter warning calls
at the approach of danger, some animals have mating calls; apes utter different
cries expressive of anger, fear, pleasure. But these various means of
communication differ in important ways from human language. Animal’s cries are
not articulate. This means, basically, they lack structure. They lack, for example,
the kind of structure given by the contrast between vowels and consonants. They
also lack the kind of structure that enables to divide a human utterance into words.
say ‘Thanks approaching from the north’, or he can change one word and say
‘Aircraft approaching from the north’; but a bird has a single indivisible alarm
cry, which means ‘Danger!’ This is way the number of signals that an animal can
make is very limited: the Great Tit has about twenty different calls, where as in
human language the number of possible utterance is infinite. It also explains why
animal cries are very general in meaning. These differences will become clearer if
we consider some of the characteristics of human language.
A human language is a signaling system. As its materials, it uses vocal
sounds. It is important to remember that basically a language is something which
is spoken: the written language is secondary and derivative. In the history of its
individual, speech is learned before writing, and there is a good reason for
believing that the same was true in the history of the race. There are primitive
communities that have speech without writing, but we know of no human society
which has a written language without a spoken one. Such things as the sign
language of deaf and dumb people are not exceptions to this rule: even if used by
people who cannot speak, and have never been able to speak, these languages are
derived from the spoken language of the community around them.
The vocal sounds which provide the materials for a language are produced
by the various speech organs, the production of sounds requires energy, and this is
usually supplied bythe diaphragm and the chest muscles, which enable us to send
a flow of breath up from the lungs. Some languages use additional sources of
energy : it is possible to make noises by muscular movements of the tongue, and
found for example in some of the languages of Africa. But in English we rely on
the outflow of air from the lungs, which is modified in various ways by the 'set' of
the organs that is passes through before emerging at the mouth or nose.
It is clear, if we look and listen, that language is used for more than one
purpose, The man who hits his thumb-nail with a hammer and utters a string of
curses is using language for an expressive purpose: he is relieving his feelings,
and needs no audience but himself. People can often be heard playing with
language: children especially like using language as if it were toy, repeating,
distorting, inventing, punning, jingling; and there is a play element in the use of
language in some literature, but when the philosopher uses language to clarify his
ideas on a subject, he is using it as an instrument of thought, when two women
gossip over the fence, or two men exchange conventional greetings as they pass in
the street, language is being used to strengthen the bonds of cohesion between the
members of a society. Language, it seems, is a multi-purpose instrument.
One function, however, seems to be basic: language enables us to influence
people's behavior, and to influence it in detail, and thereby makes human
co-operation possible, some animals cooperate, especially the social animals like
bees and ants: but human co-operation is more thorough, more detailed, more
effective than that found anywhere in the animal kingdom, and no animal society
has a division of labor or a system of production at all comparable to those of
human societies. This human co-operation would be unthinkable without
language, and it is obviously this function of language that has made it so
A language, of course, always belongs to a group of people, not to an
individual; the group that uses any given language is called the speech
community. A language, then, is a signaling system which operates with symbolic
vocal sounds, and which is used by some group of people for the purposes of
communication and social co-operation. With this definition in mind, let us turn to
the problem of the origins and early history of human language.
1.2 The Problem of the Study
a) What are the tenses used in the Jakarta Post Newspaper?
b) What is the Frequency of the tenses used in the Jakarta Post?
1.3 The Scope of the Study
A limitation is very important for any kind of writing, because the writing
will go so vast without having the scope to be written. Therefore, the writer of this
paper on this circumstance wants to limit his description deal with the numbers of
tenses used by the journalist to spread the news, and so the frequency of the tenses
used. The writer believes that in giving a description to the used tenses will be so
complicated as we can realize that English itself has sixteen different tenses.
1.4 The Objectives of the Study
The objectives of writing the description of the tenses used in the Jakarta
the tenses used and so the frequency of the tenses applied by the journalist to send
the news through the newspaper to its readers.
1.5 Method of the Study
When someone wants to write any writing he or he has his or her choice to
select the methods he or she to be applied. It will be depended on the kinds of
writing she or he wants to take. If the required data will not be available in written
text of course he or she needs some informants to be treated as the resources of
the data. The writer of this paper does not use informant to be treated as the
resources of the data, because all the required data can be taken in written text,
2. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
The writer of this writing will talk about the understanding of the tenses that
the English language has. The tense means the form of a verb that shows the time
of each action or state of being or set of such forms indicating a particular time. If
we go back to the history of the structure the tense comes from the Latin 'tempos'
which. means time. It does not matter whatever the tense means, if someone wants
to talks about tense, he or she may not escape from grammar because tense is a
part of structure. Grammar may be roughly defined as the way a language
manipulates and combines words in order to longer units of meaning. For
example, in English the present form of the verb be in the third person has two
distinct forms, one is being used with a singular subject, and the other are with a
plural; and if the plural are is combined with a singular subject, the result usually
unacceptable or ungrammatical. Thus, a sentence like 'This is a book' is
grammatical, whereas 'This a book' is not. There is a set of rules which governs
how units of meaning may be constructed in any language. Or he may say that a
learner who knows grammar is one who has mastered and can apply these rules to
express himself or herself in what would be considered acceptable language
There will be no doubt that a knowledge whether it is implicit or explicit of
grammatical rules is essential for the mastery of a language. Someone will not be
able to use words unless he or she knows how the words should be put together.
But there has been some discussion in present years of the questions, do learners
absorb the rules intuitively through communicative activities than to be taught
through special exercises explicitly aimed at teaching grammar?
The fact that learning process is aiming at a certain target behaviour does
not necessarily mean that the process itself should be composed entirely
imitations of that behavior. In other words, ability to communicate effectively is
probably not attained most quickly or efficient practice in the classroom - not at
least, within the framework of a formal course of study.
In natural learning such as the learning of a first language by a child, the
amount of time and motivation divided to learning is so great that there is no
necessity for conscious planning of the learning process, sooner or later the
material is absorbed. However, in formal course of study, there is very much less
motivation, which means that learning time has to be organized for optimum
efficiency. This means preparing a program of study, that is called syllabus, so
that bits of the total corpus of knowledge are presented one after the other for
gradual, systematic acquisition, rather than or at once. And it also means
preparing and organized and balanced of classroom teaching and learning
procedures through which the learners will be enabled to spend some of their time
concentrating on mastering one or more of the components of the target language
on their way to acquiring it as a whole. These components may be things like
spelling or pronunciation or vocabulary of grammar.
Grammar, then, may furnish the basis for a set of classroom activities during
which it becomes temporarily the main learning objectives. The learning of
language through mastery of the language as a whole, not as end in itself. This,
although at an early stage we ask our students to learn a certain structure through
exercises that concentrate on virtually meaningless manipulation of language,
should quickly progress to activities that use it meaningfully. And even these
activities will be changed eventually by general fluency practice, where the
3. THE SIXTEEN TENSES
As it has been mentioned above that tense means time, English Language
has 16 different tenses. These 16 tenses are different to one another. The
differences happened in the forms of the used verbs and the time of verbs action
takes place. In other words, we may say that an English verb will be vary to each
usage's. The usages of those 16 tenses and the form of the verb can be seen in
these following sentences.
3.1 Present Tense
In a particular time the Simple Present Tense shows clearly that in English
tense is not the same as time. The Simple Present Tense is not usually used to
describe activities and state which are generally and universally true. Simple
Present Tense is the tense for a description, definition and statement of general
truth. Simple Present Tense extends from past time, to the present and into the
future. Durative verbs, which shows state through time, are verbs like, understand
Sometimes Simple Present Tense is also called the present habitual action.
These are repeated again and again through time. For example, the English
teacher teaches English. Means that the English teacher does the work of teaching
began in the past, in the present and in the future. These actions are called general
truth. Other example for the general truth is 'The sun rises in the east.'
Adverbs of frequency are common time markers in the Simple Present
Tense. They tell how often an action is repeated. Example:
(2) A good student usually submits his or her homework on time.
(3) In Indonesia, rain often falls in September, October, November and
(4) I sometimes go to school very late.
(5) My friend and I occasionally go to see movies in the town.
(6) / seldom visit the island of Ball though many people do.
(7) We rarely go to school at the beginning of fasting month.
(8) Indonesian students never go to school in the date of Idul Fitri.
Simple Present Tense is used in English to express a variety of meanings,
though not so many as forms somewhat similar in other languages. Most
importantly, it is seldom used in English for specific actions occurring at the
(9) The sun rises in the east and sets in the west
(10) Indonesian people eat rice.
(11) Birds fly.
(12) Babies cry.
(13) Western people eat bread.
(14) Teachers teach.
(15) Nurses nurse.
The activities have existed before and will probably continue to exist after,
the moment of speaking, but the beginning and the ending are unknown or
(17) She teaches English.
(18) The nurses nurse.
(19) Doctors help their patients.
(20) He sells and buys books.
(21) You and I practice playing tennis every Sunday morning.
The Simple Present Tense express activities that are relatively
(22) The University of North Sumatera Is in the city of Medan.
(23) The sun sets in the west
The Simple Present Tense expresses activities which will take
place in future time.
(24) The entertainment begins at 10. a.m. tomorrow.
(25) The guest arrives at 3.00p.m.
(26) The driver pushes the horn on his car.
(27) The goal keeper catches the ball.
(28) The government touches all of its society.
(29) My friend studies mathematics.
(31) She goes to school everyday.
Some examples of sentence using affixation are as follows:
(32) We usually have our lunch at two p.m.
(33) The Indonesian students do not go to school every Sunday.
(34) Can a baby bird fly?
(35) Mustn’t a Moslem pray Jive times in a day.
Simple Present Tense may mean to feel something.
(36) Ismell something nice.
(37) Ido not like swimming.
Simple Present Tense which shows habit.
(38) Dane studies English every day.
Simple Present Tense which states an event with reference to the future.
(39) The plane leaves tomorrow morning.
Simple Present Tense which states a command or request.
(40) Please go away.
Simple Present Tense means as a forbidden or warn.
(41) Don't shout!
(42) First of all, take a spoonful of sugar, put it in a glass, then take a glass of
The journalist of the Jakarta Post newspaper to tell the news about the
fifty-one Egyptians were killed uses eighteen times of the present tense. For examples:
Mursi is believed, to be held, to rise up, they accuse, coup to topple, to form, to
call for Mursi, it leaves the Arab, the political divide, economic crisis deepens,
Footage broadcast, to throw, to traffic, which is vital, to give the new authorities,
what is known, the military can ill, and cities across the country.
3.2 Present Continuous Tense
In The Progressive Present Tense, the action which is in progress at the
moment of speaking will continue into the future. However, the action is durative,
that is after lasting for a period of time, sooner or later, the action will end. For
instance, "Jack is playing the piano" means the verb playing is in the in the
progress at the moment of speaking and be sure that the action is going to be
ended although the speakers has not known the exact time of the activity lasting
Example in four kinds of sentences.
(+) They are watching the T. V.
(-) He is not reading the magazine.
(?) Is the woman playing the guitar ?
Use of the Present Continuous Tense
1). To state an activity or event which is happening right now.
I am drinking now.
2). To state an activity or event which is happening now when another activity
or event occurred.
Jim is talking to someone when I meet him.
3). To state a plan which will be executed in the future.
In this case, adverb of time such as tonight tomorrow, next week... are
obligatory. f Example:
We are leaving for Surabaya tomorrow.
4). By using be going to, the Present Continuous Tense is used to state an event
which will be executed in the future. Example :
I am going to meet him next week.
Positive Sentence : S+is/am/are+Vl-ing
I am writing a letter.
1). Negative Sentence : S + is/am/are +not + Vl-ing
Example : He is not sleeping.
2). Negative Sentence : S + is/am/are + not+V1-ing
3). Interrogative sentence : is/am/are + S -I-V1-ing
4). Negative-Interrogative : is/are+not+S+V1+ing
Isn’t he working?
Now we can see the frequency of the Present Continuous Tense applied by
the journalist of the Jakarta Post Newspaper. Mursi’s supporters are throwing,
some of the young men are carrying sticks, Monday is shooting, one of the roads
which is leading to Cairo airport, some are firing crude.
3.3 Present Perfect Tense
The activity in the present perfect tense began sometimes in the past, but
those are related in the mind of the speaker with the moment of speaking. The
Present Perfect can be an action up to the present moment and uses a small and
well-defined set of time signals. The duration of the verbs in the Present Perfect
can be seen in the diagram below.
(+) They have come.
(-) He has not finished his work.
(?) Has he finished his work'?
(-?) Has not he finished his work!
The Journalist of the Jakarta Post newspaper in telling the news about the 51
Egypt were killed used the Present Perfect Tense four times. The examples are:
Egypt has elected, where Islamists have camped, the military has said, which
3.4 Present Perfect Continuous Tense
If we compare the Present Perfect Tense and the Present Perfect Progressive
Tense has little differences can be found. The area of ten action takes place is just
the same. The differences are indicated in the nature of the action. In this Present
Perfect Continuous Tense the continuous action is the focus or the subject matter
of the statement. The writer means that the event has started it the moment of
(+) The team has been practicing for thirty minutes.
(-) It has not been raining for a long time.
(?) Has she been waiting for a long time?
(-?) Hasn't it been flying for four hours ?
Use of the Present Perfect Continues Tense
To state an event which has beenstarted in the past and it is still continuing.
The duration of an activity is started through a certain amount of time.
Ihave been watching television for five hours.
1. Positive Sentence : S+has/have+been+V1-ing
Mother has been baking a cake for three hours.
2. Negative Sentence : S+has/have+not t-been+V1-ing
I have not been doing my home works for hours.
3. Interrogative sentence: Has/have+S+been+V1+ing
Has the dog been barking all night?
4. Negative-Interrogative sentence: Has/have+not+S+been+V1-ing
Haven’t I been giving you the help you need for all this time?
3.5 Simple Past Tense
Rebecca (1972:S1) describes that the simple Past Tense expresses
activities, that existed or occurred in the past. Modifiers indicating time often
specified a definite time in the past…, but in some situations the time is not
It seems very clear to the writer that the simple Past Tense places the
activity or event definitely in the past. Or in the other words we may say that the
activity started in the past and has finished at the moment of speaking. The
journalist of the Jakarta Post Newspaper uses fifty times the simple past tense in
telling or reporting the news about the fifty-one Egyptians killed.
It seems very clear to the writer that The Simple Past Tense places the
activity or event definitely in the past. Or in the other words we may say that the
activity started in the past and has finished at the moment of speaking.
( + ) We had our lunch at 2.00 p.m. yesterday.
(?) Could the clever students solve take problems!
(-?) Didn't you go to the movie last night?
Use of the Simple Past Tense
(1) To state an event or activity in the past.
They were unhappy
(2) To state habit in the past. Example:
I used to play play tennis when I was young.
(3) It is also used in the conditional clause to state current f event. ,
If I were rich, I would buy a new car.
(Means: I am not rich).
(4) It is used in subjunctive which uses verbs such as if only, would rather, and
wish to state facts that contradict with the present situation.
If only you would listen to me, you won't be in trouble.
(1) Sentence with was/were
(a) Positive sentence: S+was/were+Adj/Avb/N Example:
She was angry at me.
(b) Negative sentence: S+was/were+Not+Adj/Avb/N
Example: The directors were not busy.
Were you tired?
(d) Negative-interrogative sentence: Wasn't/weren't+adj/adv/n
Weren't they happy?
Sentence with (verbs in the past form=VPs)
(a) Positive sentence: S+VPs
She made me lose my temper.
(b) Negative sentence: S+did + not + VInf.
The gardener did not cut the roses.
c) Interrogative sentence: Did +S + V Inf.
Did you came to my house yesterday?
(d) Negative-interrogative sentence: Didn't+S + VI
Didn't you come to my house yesterday?
The sentences used in Simple past tense by the journalist of the Jakarta
Post Newspaper are as follows: 51 people were killed, demonstrators enraged,
president said, the army opened, the military said, a terrorist group tried, 40
people were wounded, soldiers returned, they were wounded, attacked, emergency
services said, 430 people were wounded, brotherhood urged, medics rushed, they
said, Ahmed said, Nour could, what was happened, he said, the military was not,
millions took, resulted in clashes, left 35 dead, the scene saw, Zazeera showed,
Musi supporters attempted, seven dead bodies were lined up, covered in blankets,
a man placed, Mursi was toppled, was not a coup, he said, millions people took,
anti Mursi took, resulted, news footage zoomed, the city was calm, armoured,
closed, were led, denounced, vowed, were in trouble, Nour Party rejected, prime
minister proposed, Nour said, it called, the party decided, it said, US backed.
3.6 Past Continuous Tense
Rebecca (1972:83) describes that The Past Progressive Tense expresses
temporary activities that existed or occurred at a point of time in the past. Based
on the quotation above that the activity or the action of a statement in the past
progressive takes place in a certain time. To make it more clearly the writer tries
to draw a diagram for it seems very clear to the writer that The Simple Past Tense
places the activity or event definitely in the past. Or in the other words we may
say that the activity started in the past and has finished at the moment of speaking.
( + ) She was playing the guitar.
( -) He was not listening to the radio.
( ? ) War he listening to the radio?
(-?) Was not lie listening to the radio?
Use of The Past Continuous Tense
(1) To state an event or activity in progress at one point in the past.
They were sleeping at that time.
(2) To state an event or activity or action in progress when it is suddenly
interrupted by another past event.
I was reading a book when you came in.
(3) Can be the speaker. Example:
She was always making a lot of noise.
(4) To change direct speech into indirect speech, only if the statement is in the
present continuous tense form.
She said, "lam expecting a baby."( Direct)
She said that she was expecting a baby. (Indirect)
(5) To state an event or activity that begins before the given time.
At 6.00 o 'clock I was hoeing breakfast.
(a) Positive sentence: S+was/were+V-irig Example:
She was crying.
(b) Negative sentence: S+was/were+not +V-ing Example:
She was not crying.
(c) Interrogative sentence: was/were + S+ V-ing
(b) Negative-interrogative sentence: S+was/were+not +V-ing
Wasn't she crying?
Rebecca (1972:83) says that the past progressive expresses temporary
activities were in progress at a point of time in the past.
Based on the quotation above that the activity or action of a statement in the past
progressive takes place in a certain time. To make it more clearly, the writer tries
to draw a diagram for it.
Use of the Past Continues Tense
(1) To state an event, activity or action in progress at one point in the past time.
I was sleeping at that tune.
(2) To state an event, activity or action in progress when it is suddenly
interrupted by another past event.
Iwas reading a book when you came in,
(3) To state an event which often occurs in the past and tends to annoy the
She was always making a lot of noise.
(4) To change Direct Speech into Indirect Speech, only if the statement is in the
Present Continues Tense form.
She said, "I'm expecting a baby."(Direct)
She said that she was expecting a baby.
(5) To state an event that begins before the given time word.
At 6 o 'clock, I was having breakfast
1. Positive Sentence : S+was/were+ V1-ing
The baby was crying.
2. Negative Sentence : S+was/were+not+ V1-ing
The postman was not feeling well
3. Interrogative sentence : Was/were + S + V1-ing
Were the children playing ?
(4) Negative-interrogative sentence : Was/were + not + S + Vl-ing
Weren 't the tourists upset?
The journalist of the Jakarta Post Newspaper which was published in July,
Tuesday 9th, 2013 applied Past Continuous Tense in telling the news about the 51
were killed in Egypt. The examples: it was withdrawing, it was enforcing, two
3.7 Past Perfect Tense
As it has been mentioned in the present perfect tense that the action involves
only one but here in the Past Perfect Tense the action involved are two events.
Both of these events were completed in the past.
The Use of Past Perfect Tense
To state an event activity or action which is completed in the past before
another event occurred.
I had eaten before you went out
To change Direct speech into Indirect Speech if the statement is in Present
Perfect Tense or Simple Past Tense.
He said, "I came late" (Direct)
He said that he had come late.
Sentence Pattern Sentence pattern with been
1. Positive Sentence : S+had+been+adj/adv/N
Example : Mother had been fat.
2. Negative Sentence : S+had+not + been+adj/adv/N
Example : Mother had not been fat
3. Interrogative Sentence : Had +S + been+adj/adv/N
Example : Had Mother been fat?
4. Negative-interrogative Sentence: Had+not+ been+adj/adv/N
Hadn't Mother been fat? Sentence pattern with V3
1. Positive Sentence : S+had+V3
Mother had become fat
2. Negative Sentence : S+had+not + V3
Mother had not become fat.
3. Interrogative Sentence: Had +S 4- V3
Had Mother become fat?
The journalist of the Jakarta Post Newspaper in order to tell the news about
the 51 Egypt were killed used one sentence of the Past Perfect Tense. The
sentence is one army officer had been killed.
3.8 Past Perfect Continuous Tense
The actions described in Past Perfect Continuous Tense is similar to the Past
Perfect Continuous Tense. The only difference is in the Continuous nature of the
(+) The gang had been going.
(-) The gang had not been going.
(?) Had the gang been going?
(-?) Hadn't the gang been going?
- To state an event, activity or action which are still in a continuous progress
in the past time, usually it is limited by a certain duration of time.
Shehad been working for two hours.
- To state a repetitive action which happened in the past time.
He had been correcting his mistakes: but he was always wrong.
1). Positive Sentence : S+had+been + V1 -ing
Ihad been working for two years,
2). Negative Sentence : S+had+not + been + V1-ing
Ihad not been working for two years.
3). Interrogative sentence : Had + S+ been + V1-ing
I had been working for two years?
4) Negative-interrogative sentence : Had. + S+not + been. + VI –ing
Had not I been working for two years?
3.9 Future Tense
The Future Tense describes actions, activities, and states in the future.
Generally, there are two ways in forming the Future Tense, they are by using to be
goig to and will or shall. The to be going to model can express the speaker's
feeling of certainty. Although the lime is not usually mentioned (though the time
is indicated or not), the action or activity is expected to happen in the near future.
The future of will or shall model is a common way of expressing what the speaker
thinks, believes, hopes, etc., in the future. Traditionally, the will or shall were
different in the usages. Will is used in the simple future construction. This is its
most common use grammarians once thought that shall was used with I and we,
and I will was used with he, she, it, you, and they. In certain situation, this order
was reversed. In the modem usages this distinction does not exist any more
(changes come down).
to be going to
( +) I am going to see him tomorrow afternoon.
(-) He is not going to mar)' Susan.
(?) Are you going to continue your study next year ?
(-?) Isn 't it going to rain?
will or shall
( + ) I will see him tomorrow afternoon.
(-) He will marry Susan,
(-?) Shall not it rain?
Use of The Future Tense
(1) To state an event, activity or action that will happen in the future.
Susan will many me next year.
(2) To state the terms in the conditional clause.
I shall go if you invite me.
(3) To state an opinion, assumption, or estimation about an event in the future.
It is usually preceded by words such as think, doubt, suppose, assume,
expect, hope, be afraid, feel sure, wonder.
I hope I will get nine for my biology test..
Use of Future Tense
(1) To state an event, activity or action that happen in the future.
She will go to Jakarta tomorrow morning.
(2) To state an event, and the terms in conditional clause.
I shall go if you invite me.
(3) To state an opinion, assumption or estimation about an event in the future, it
is usually preceded with words such as think, doubt, suppose, assume,
I hope I will get nine for my biology test.
Sentence with shall/will be
1). Positive Sentence : S+shall / will + be + adj / N
I shall be angry.
2). Negative Sentence : S+shall/will+not+be+adj/N
I shall not be angry
3). Interrogative sentence : Shall/will+s+be+adj/N
Shall I be angry?
4) Negative-interrogative sentence : Shall/will + not + S + be + adj/N.
Shall not I be angry?
Sentence with shall/will + V1
1). Positive Sentence : S+shall/will+V1
Example : shall get angry.
2). Negative Sentence : S+shall/wiH+not + V1
Ishall n at get angry.
Shall I get angry?
4) Negative-interrogative sentence : Shall/will + not + S + V1.
Shall not I get angry ?
3.10 Future Continuous Tense
The future progressive tense is a tense in which a speaker expresses the
temporary activities that will be in progress at a point of time. The event has not
happened at the moment of speaking, but \ it will be expected to happen in the
future of a particular time. The possible area of the action can be seen in the
Use of the Future Continues Tense
To state an event, activity or action which begin in the past and it will
end at some time in the future.
Next year, I shall be studying English for Jive years.
1). Positive Sentence : S+shall/wul+be +V-ing.
I shall be going to farm tomorrow.
2). Negative Sentence : S+shall/will + not+be +V-ing.
3). Interrogative sentence : Shall/will + S+ +be +V-ing.
Shall I be going to farm tomorrow?
4) Negative-interrogative sentence : Shall/will + not + S+be +V-ing.
Shall not I be going to farm, tomorrow?
The journalist of the Jakarta post in telling the news of 51 Egyptians were
killed which was published on Thursday, July 9th, 2013 did not use the Future
3.11 Future Perfect Tense
The Future Perfect Tense emphasizes on the words, one future time is 'past'
in relation to the second future time, it is usually accompanied by a time
expression such as, at, by or before.
Use of the Future Perfect Tense
To state an event, activity or action which begin in the past and will be
completed at some time in the future.
By the end of the week, I shall be rich.
1). Positive Sentence : S+shall/will+have +been+ adj/N.
Ishall have been there.
I shall not have been there.
3). Interrogative Sentence : Shall/will + S+ have +been + adj/N.
Shall I have been there?
4). Negative-interrogative Sentence : Shall/will +not + S+ have +been+ adj/N.
Shall not I have been there?
Sentence with S + shall/will + have + V3
1). Positive Sentence : S+shall/mU+have V3
I shall have gone.
2). Negative Sentence : S+shall/will+have V3
I shall not have gone.
3). Interrogative Sentence : Shall/will +S +have V3
Shall I have gone?
4). Interrogative-negative Sentence : Shall/will +not +S +have V3
Shall not I have gone?
In Future Perfect Tense, the activities occur before another action or point of
(+) I/ will have been done it next week.
(-) They will not have arrived by 2.00 p.m. tomorrow.
(?) Will she have gone tomorrow morning?
(-?) Won't she have answered the questions?
3.12 Future Perfect Continuous Tense
When a speaker uses the Future Perfect Continues Tenseto state something,
it means that the action will take place in the future and it also wall emphasize the
continuous nature of the event.
(+) We will have been flying.
(-) She will not have been playing her guitar.
(?) Will you have been sleeping at the time?
(-?) Won't you have been reading the newspaper?
The Future Perfect Continuous Tense expresses an action that is represented
as being in progress over a period of time and it will end in the future.
Use of Future Perfect Continuous Tense
To state an action, event, or activity that would have been in progress in the
I would be working hard at 12.00 o'clock this morning.
I should be working hard.
2). Negative Sentence : S+shonld/would+ not + be + V-ing
I should not be working hard.
3). Interrogative Sentence : Should/would + S+ be + V-ing
Should I be working hard?
4). Negative Interrogative Sentence : Should/would + not + S+ be + V-ing
I Should not I be working hard?
There is no sentence used by the journalist of the Jakarta Post newspaper
while she is reporting the news about the 51 Egypt were killed in Future Perfect
3.13 Past Future Tense
The Past Future Tense describes the activity that be taken in the future
when they were talking in the past time. Actually the actions have taken in the
past time, but on that time of speaking it would be applied.
All the participants would have their dinner before they left to the Mexico city.
A sentence like this did not find in the news. So it means that the journalist
3.14 Past Future Continuous Tense
The Past future Continuous Tense is a tense which explains the action that
is going to be taken place in the future and is being running on. Example:
The army would be bombing the city by two o’clock tomorrow. So from the time
of speaking that the action has not taken place, but it will be being taken place in
3.15 Past Future Perfect
The Past Future Perfect Tense used to tell the action that be happened in the
past. The speaker used this type of tense to tell the action which has done in the
past time. Example:
The Egyptian army would have bombed the city before the other city be bombed.
The sentence like this is not found in the Jakarta Post Newspaper because
there was no action like this happened at that time when the journalist took the
3.16 Past Future Perfect Continuous
This tense explains the action that taken in the past and it has already been
done, but the time of speaking is going to be done in the future. Example, the
victims of the mountain of Sinabung would have been being operated by the
experienced doctors when the volcanologists visited the society. This tense is a
little bit complicated, therefore the journalist of the Jakarta Post Newspaper did
4. CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION
After looking at the whole sentences written by the journalist of the Jakarta
Post Newspaper dealing with the news of 51 Egypt were killed in July, Thursday
9th, 2013 the writer of this paper comes to give a conclusion on it. The journalist
in telling the news used six different tenses out of 16 tenses that the English
language has. The tenses used are Past Tense, Present Tense, Present Perfect
Tense, Present Continuous Tense, Past Perfect Tense, and Past Continuous Tense.
The kinds of sentences are active and passive. The types of sentences are used in
the form of affirmative and negative. The frequency of the verb phrases used are
fifty one in the past, eighteen in the present, three present perfect, two present
continuous, two past continuous tense, and one past perfect.
The writer of this paper finds it interesting to find out the description of
tenses used on this newspaper. Therefore he wants to encourages the other
students to write the application of English tenses to other writings, so it can make
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