The Description Of Tenses Used In Jakarta Post Newspaper Tuesday July 9TH, 2013

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THE DESCRIPTION OF TENSES USED

IN JAKARTA POST NEWSPAPER

TUESDAY, JULY 9

TH

, 2013

A PAPER

WRITTEN

BY

M. Yusuf Habiebie

NIM: 102202024

ENGLISH STUDY PROGRAM DIPLOMA III

FACULTY OF CULTURE STUDY

UNIVERSITY OF NORTH SUMATERA

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Approved by

Supervisor,

Drs. Bahagia Tarigan, M.A. NIM: 19581017198601001

Submitted to the Faculty of Culture Study University of North Sumatera

In partial fulfillment of the requirements for English Study Diploma III Program

Approved by

The chairperson of English Study Diploma III,

Dr. Matius C.A. Sembiring, M.A. NIP : 19521126 198112 1 001

Approved by the English Study Diploma III Program, Faculty of Culture Study,

University of North Sumatera

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Accepted by the examination board in partial fulfillment of the requirement for

the DIII examination of the Diploma III English Study Program, Faculty of

Culture Study of University of North Sumatera.

The examination is held on:

Friday, November 15th, 2013

Faculty of Culture Study University of North Sumatera Dean,

Dr. Syahron Lubis, M.A. NIP : 19511031 197603 1 001

Board of examiners:

1. Dr. Matius C.A. Sembiring, M.A. (English Study Prog.) ……….

2. Dra. Bahagia Tarigan, M.A (supervisor) ………..

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AUTHOR’S DECLARATION

I am, M. YUSUF HABIEBIE, declare that I am the sole of author of this

paper. Except where reference is made in the text of this paper, this paper

contains no material published elsewhere or extracted in whole or in part

from a paper by which I have qualified for or awarded another degree.

No other person’s work has been used without due acknowledgement in the

main text of this paper. This paper has not been submitted for the award of

another degree in any tertiary education.

Signed : ………

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COPYRIGHT DECLARATION

Name : M. YUSUF HABIEBIE

Title of paper : THE DESCRIPTION OF TENSES USED IN

JAKARTA POST NEWSPAPER TUESDAY

JULY 9TH, 2013

Qualification : D-III/ Ahli Madya

Study Program : English

1. I am willing that my paper should be available for reproduction at the

discretion of the Liberarian of the Diploma III English Study Program

Faculty of Culture Study USU on the understanding that users are made

aware of their obligation under law of the Republic of Indonesia.

2. I am not willing that my papers be made available for reproduction.

Signed : ………

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ABSTRACT

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ABSTRAK

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

First of all the writer of this paper would like to say thanks Allah SWT

who has given a lot of blessing to him. Therefore he is able to finish writing this

paper. The writer believes that without the blessing of Nabi Muhammad SAW he

has received from Him this paper cannot be finished as it is.

I send my gratitues thanks to the dean of the faculty of culture study, Dr.

Syahron Lubis, M.A. for the facilities available during his studies at the faculty

of culture study of USU So the same things to my supervisor, Drs. Bahagia

Tarigan, M.A. for his nice advice and corrections during writing this paper. As

addition my thanks to Mr. Dr. Matius C.A. Sembiring, M.A. as the chair person

of the English department of D-III Programe, and so Drs. Siamir Marulafau,

M.Hum as the reviewer.

The most valuable things that the writer of this paper adores his beloved

parents, H.M. Muniri, B.Sc. and Hj. Sri Suhastati who have never found it tired

and boring to encourage him to finish his study, so for their tramendous supports

dealing with the financial and spirits. I don’t forget to say thanks to both beloved

sisters, Naumi Kharitsyah and Siti Khairani who have been given me nice and

valuable encourage to finish my study from USU for my future.

On this occasion the writer of this paper also wants to say thanks to my

best friends and special friend, my loved girlfriend, Amanda Yurike Putri

Nasution who owns patiences in encdouraging me to finish my study for our

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THE CONTENTS

Author’s Declaration………. i

Copyright Declaration ……… ii

Abstract ……….. iii

Abstrak ……….. iv

Acknowledgement ………. v

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ABSTRACT

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ABSTRAK

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1. INTRODUCTION

1.1 The Background of the Study

It is language, more obviously than anything else, that it is able to

distinguish man from the rest of the animal world. At one time it was common to

define man as a thinking animal, but we can hardly imagine thought without

words–not thought that is at all precise, anyway. More recently, man has often

been described as a tool-making animal; but language itself is most remarkable

tool that man has invented, and is the one that makes all the others possible. The

most primitive tools, admittedly, may have come early than language: the higher

apes sometimes use sticks for digging, and have even been observed to break

sticks for this purpose. But tools of any greater sophistication demand the kind of

human co-operation and division of labor which is hardly possible without

language. Language, in fact, is the great machine or tool which is able to make

human culture possible.

Other animals, it is true, communicate with one another, or at any rate

stimulate one another to action, by means of cries. Many birds utter warning calls

at the approach of danger, some animals have mating calls; apes utter different

cries expressive of anger, fear, pleasure. But these various means of

communication differ in important ways from human language. Animal’s cries are

not articulate. This means, basically, they lack structure. They lack, for example,

the kind of structure given by the contrast between vowels and consonants. They

also lack the kind of structure that enables to divide a human utterance into words.

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say ‘Thanks approaching from the north’, or he can change one word and say

‘Aircraft approaching from the north’; but a bird has a single indivisible alarm

cry, which means ‘Danger!’ This is way the number of signals that an animal can

make is very limited: the Great Tit has about twenty different calls, where as in

human language the number of possible utterance is infinite. It also explains why

animal cries are very general in meaning. These differences will become clearer if

we consider some of the characteristics of human language.

A human language is a signaling system. As its materials, it uses vocal

sounds. It is important to remember that basically a language is something which

is spoken: the written language is secondary and derivative. In the history of its

individual, speech is learned before writing, and there is a good reason for

believing that the same was true in the history of the race. There are primitive

communities that have speech without writing, but we know of no human society

which has a written language without a spoken one. Such things as the sign

language of deaf and dumb people are not exceptions to this rule: even if used by

people who cannot speak, and have never been able to speak, these languages are

derived from the spoken language of the community around them.

The vocal sounds which provide the materials for a language are produced

by the various speech organs, the production of sounds requires energy, and this is

usually supplied bythe diaphragm and the chest muscles, which enable us to send

a flow of breath up from the lungs. Some languages use additional sources of

energy : it is possible to make noises by muscular movements of the tongue, and

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found for example in some of the languages of Africa. But in English we rely on

the outflow of air from the lungs, which is modified in various ways by the 'set' of

the organs that is passes through before emerging at the mouth or nose.

It is clear, if we look and listen, that language is used for more than one

purpose, The man who hits his thumb-nail with a hammer and utters a string of

curses is using language for an expressive purpose: he is relieving his feelings,

and needs no audience but himself. People can often be heard playing with

language: children especially like using language as if it were toy, repeating,

distorting, inventing, punning, jingling; and there is a play element in the use of

language in some literature, but when the philosopher uses language to clarify his

ideas on a subject, he is using it as an instrument of thought, when two women

gossip over the fence, or two men exchange conventional greetings as they pass in

the street, language is being used to strengthen the bonds of cohesion between the

members of a society. Language, it seems, is a multi-purpose instrument.

One function, however, seems to be basic: language enables us to influence

people's behavior, and to influence it in detail, and thereby makes human

co-operation possible, some animals cooperate, especially the social animals like

bees and ants: but human co-operation is more thorough, more detailed, more

effective than that found anywhere in the animal kingdom, and no animal society

has a division of labor or a system of production at all comparable to those of

human societies. This human co-operation would be unthinkable without

language, and it is obviously this function of language that has made it so

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A language, of course, always belongs to a group of people, not to an

individual; the group that uses any given language is called the speech

community. A language, then, is a signaling system which operates with symbolic

vocal sounds, and which is used by some group of people for the purposes of

communication and social co-operation. With this definition in mind, let us turn to

the problem of the origins and early history of human language.

1.2 The Problem of the Study

a) What are the tenses used in the Jakarta Post Newspaper?

b) What is the Frequency of the tenses used in the Jakarta Post?

1.3 The Scope of the Study

A limitation is very important for any kind of writing, because the writing

will go so vast without having the scope to be written. Therefore, the writer of this

paper on this circumstance wants to limit his description deal with the numbers of

tenses used by the journalist to spread the news, and so the frequency of the tenses

used. The writer believes that in giving a description to the used tenses will be so

complicated as we can realize that English itself has sixteen different tenses.

1.4 The Objectives of the Study

The objectives of writing the description of the tenses used in the Jakarta

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the tenses used and so the frequency of the tenses applied by the journalist to send

the news through the newspaper to its readers.

1.5 Method of the Study

When someone wants to write any writing he or he has his or her choice to

select the methods he or she to be applied. It will be depended on the kinds of

writing she or he wants to take. If the required data will not be available in written

text of course he or she needs some informants to be treated as the resources of

the data. The writer of this paper does not use informant to be treated as the

resources of the data, because all the required data can be taken in written text,

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2. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

The writer of this writing will talk about the understanding of the tenses that

the English language has. The tense means the form of a verb that shows the time

of each action or state of being or set of such forms indicating a particular time. If

we go back to the history of the structure the tense comes from the Latin 'tempos'

which. means time. It does not matter whatever the tense means, if someone wants

to talks about tense, he or she may not escape from grammar because tense is a

part of structure. Grammar may be roughly defined as the way a language

manipulates and combines words in order to longer units of meaning. For

example, in English the present form of the verb be in the third person has two

distinct forms, one is being used with a singular subject, and the other are with a

plural; and if the plural are is combined with a singular subject, the result usually

unacceptable or ungrammatical. Thus, a sentence like 'This is a book' is

grammatical, whereas 'This a book' is not. There is a set of rules which governs

how units of meaning may be constructed in any language. Or he may say that a

learner who knows grammar is one who has mastered and can apply these rules to

express himself or herself in what would be considered acceptable language

forms.

There will be no doubt that a knowledge whether it is implicit or explicit of

grammatical rules is essential for the mastery of a language. Someone will not be

able to use words unless he or she knows how the words should be put together.

But there has been some discussion in present years of the questions, do learners

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absorb the rules intuitively through communicative activities than to be taught

through special exercises explicitly aimed at teaching grammar?

The fact that learning process is aiming at a certain target behaviour does

not necessarily mean that the process itself should be composed entirely

imitations of that behavior. In other words, ability to communicate effectively is

probably not attained most quickly or efficient practice in the classroom - not at

least, within the framework of a formal course of study.

In natural learning such as the learning of a first language by a child, the

amount of time and motivation divided to learning is so great that there is no

necessity for conscious planning of the learning process, sooner or later the

material is absorbed. However, in formal course of study, there is very much less

motivation, which means that learning time has to be organized for optimum

efficiency. This means preparing a program of study, that is called syllabus, so

that bits of the total corpus of knowledge are presented one after the other for

gradual, systematic acquisition, rather than or at once. And it also means

preparing and organized and balanced of classroom teaching and learning

procedures through which the learners will be enabled to spend some of their time

concentrating on mastering one or more of the components of the target language

on their way to acquiring it as a whole. These components may be things like

spelling or pronunciation or vocabulary of grammar.

Grammar, then, may furnish the basis for a set of classroom activities during

which it becomes temporarily the main learning objectives. The learning of

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language through mastery of the language as a whole, not as end in itself. This,

although at an early stage we ask our students to learn a certain structure through

exercises that concentrate on virtually meaningless manipulation of language,

should quickly progress to activities that use it meaningfully. And even these

activities will be changed eventually by general fluency practice, where the

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3. THE SIXTEEN TENSES

As it has been mentioned above that tense means time, English Language

has 16 different tenses. These 16 tenses are different to one another. The

differences happened in the forms of the used verbs and the time of verbs action

takes place. In other words, we may say that an English verb will be vary to each

usage's. The usages of those 16 tenses and the form of the verb can be seen in

these following sentences.

3.1 Present Tense

In a particular time the Simple Present Tense shows clearly that in English

tense is not the same as time. The Simple Present Tense is not usually used to

describe activities and state which are generally and universally true. Simple

Present Tense is the tense for a description, definition and statement of general

truth. Simple Present Tense extends from past time, to the present and into the

future. Durative verbs, which shows state through time, are verbs like, understand

and be.

Sometimes Simple Present Tense is also called the present habitual action.

These are repeated again and again through time. For example, the English

teacher teaches English. Means that the English teacher does the work of teaching

began in the past, in the present and in the future. These actions are called general

truth. Other example for the general truth is 'The sun rises in the east.'

Adverbs of frequency are common time markers in the Simple Present

Tense. They tell how often an action is repeated. Example:

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(2) A good student usually submits his or her homework on time.

(3) In Indonesia, rain often falls in September, October, November and

December.

(4) I sometimes go to school very late.

(5) My friend and I occasionally go to see movies in the town.

(6) / seldom visit the island of Ball though many people do.

(7) We rarely go to school at the beginning of fasting month.

(8) Indonesian students never go to school in the date of Idul Fitri.

Simple Present Tense is used in English to express a variety of meanings,

though not so many as forms somewhat similar in other languages. Most

importantly, it is seldom used in English for specific actions occurring at the

present moment.

Example :

(9) The sun rises in the east and sets in the west

(10) Indonesian people eat rice.

(11) Birds fly.

(12) Babies cry.

(13) Western people eat bread.

(14) Teachers teach.

(15) Nurses nurse.

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The activities have existed before and will probably continue to exist after,

the moment of speaking, but the beginning and the ending are unknown or

unimportant. Example:

(17) She teaches English.

(18) The nurses nurse.

(19) Doctors help their patients.

(20) He sells and buys books.

(21) You and I practice playing tennis every Sunday morning.

The Simple Present Tense express activities that are relatively

permanent

Example:

(22) The University of North Sumatera Is in the city of Medan.

(23) The sun sets in the west

The Simple Present Tense expresses activities which will take

place in future time.

Example:

(24) The entertainment begins at 10. a.m. tomorrow.

(25) The guest arrives at 3.00p.m.

(26) The driver pushes the horn on his car.

(27) The goal keeper catches the ball.

(28) The government touches all of its society.

(29) My friend studies mathematics.

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(31) She goes to school everyday.

Some examples of sentence using affixation are as follows:

(32) We usually have our lunch at two p.m.

(33) The Indonesian students do not go to school every Sunday.

(34) Can a baby bird fly?

(35) Mustn’t a Moslem pray Jive times in a day.

Simple Present Tense may mean to feel something.

Example:

(36) Ismell something nice.

(37) Ido not like swimming.

Simple Present Tense which shows habit.

Example:

(38) Dane studies English every day.

Simple Present Tense which states an event with reference to the future.

Example:

(39) The plane leaves tomorrow morning.

Simple Present Tense which states a command or request.

Example:

(40) Please go away.

Simple Present Tense means as a forbidden or warn.

Example:

(41) Don't shout!

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Example:

(42) First of all, take a spoonful of sugar, put it in a glass, then take a glass of

hot water.

The journalist of the Jakarta Post newspaper to tell the news about the

fifty-one Egyptians were killed uses eighteen times of the present tense. For examples:

Mursi is believed, to be held, to rise up, they accuse, coup to topple, to form, to

call for Mursi, it leaves the Arab, the political divide, economic crisis deepens,

Footage broadcast, to throw, to traffic, which is vital, to give the new authorities,

what is known, the military can ill, and cities across the country.

3.2 Present Continuous Tense

In The Progressive Present Tense, the action which is in progress at the

moment of speaking will continue into the future. However, the action is durative,

that is after lasting for a period of time, sooner or later, the action will end. For

instance, "Jack is playing the piano" means the verb playing is in the in the

progress at the moment of speaking and be sure that the action is going to be

ended although the speakers has not known the exact time of the activity lasting

yet.

Example in four kinds of sentences.

(+) They are watching the T. V.

(-) He is not reading the magazine.

(?) Is the woman playing the guitar ?

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Use of the Present Continuous Tense

1). To state an activity or event which is happening right now.

Example :

I am drinking now.

2). To state an activity or event which is happening now when another activity

or event occurred.

Example :

Jim is talking to someone when I meet him.

3). To state a plan which will be executed in the future.

In this case, adverb of time such as tonight tomorrow, next week... are

obligatory. f Example:

We are leaving for Surabaya tomorrow.

4). By using be going to, the Present Continuous Tense is used to state an event

which will be executed in the future. Example :

I am going to meet him next week.

Sentence Pattern

Positive Sentence : S+is/am/are+Vl-ing

Example :

I am writing a letter.

1). Negative Sentence : S + is/am/are +not + Vl-ing

Example : He is not sleeping.

2). Negative Sentence : S + is/am/are + not+V1-ing

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3). Interrogative sentence : is/am/are + S -I-V1-ing

Example :

4). Negative-Interrogative : is/are+not+S+V1+ing

Example :

Isn’t he working?

Now we can see the frequency of the Present Continuous Tense applied by

the journalist of the Jakarta Post Newspaper. Mursi’s supporters are throwing,

some of the young men are carrying sticks, Monday is shooting, one of the roads

which is leading to Cairo airport, some are firing crude.

3.3 Present Perfect Tense

The activity in the present perfect tense began sometimes in the past, but

those are related in the mind of the speaker with the moment of speaking. The

Present Perfect can be an action up to the present moment and uses a small and

well-defined set of time signals. The duration of the verbs in the Present Perfect

can be seen in the diagram below.

(+) They have come.

(-) He has not finished his work.

(?) Has he finished his work'?

(-?) Has not he finished his work!

The Journalist of the Jakarta Post newspaper in telling the news about the 51

Egypt were killed used the Present Perfect Tense four times. The examples are:

Egypt has elected, where Islamists have camped, the military has said, which

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3.4 Present Perfect Continuous Tense

If we compare the Present Perfect Tense and the Present Perfect Progressive

Tense has little differences can be found. The area of ten action takes place is just

the same. The differences are indicated in the nature of the action. In this Present

Perfect Continuous Tense the continuous action is the focus or the subject matter

of the statement. The writer means that the event has started it the moment of

speaking.

Example:

(+) The team has been practicing for thirty minutes.

(-) It has not been raining for a long time.

(?) Has she been waiting for a long time?

(-?) Hasn't it been flying for four hours ?

Use of the Present Perfect Continues Tense

To state an event which has beenstarted in the past and it is still continuing.

The duration of an activity is started through a certain amount of time.

Example :

Ihave been watching television for five hours.

Sentence Pattern

1. Positive Sentence : S+has/have+been+V1-ing

Example:

Mother has been baking a cake for three hours.

2. Negative Sentence : S+has/have+not t-been+V1-ing

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I have not been doing my home works for hours.

3. Interrogative sentence: Has/have+S+been+V1+ing

Example:

Has the dog been barking all night?

4. Negative-Interrogative sentence: Has/have+not+S+been+V1-ing

Example:

Haven’t I been giving you the help you need for all this time?

3.5 Simple Past Tense

Rebecca (1972:S1) describes that the simple Past Tense expresses

activities, that existed or occurred in the past. Modifiers indicating time often

specified a definite time in the past…, but in some situations the time is not

specified.

It seems very clear to the writer that the simple Past Tense places the

activity or event definitely in the past. Or in the other words we may say that the

activity started in the past and has finished at the moment of speaking. The

journalist of the Jakarta Post Newspaper uses fifty times the simple past tense in

telling or reporting the news about the fifty-one Egyptians killed.

It seems very clear to the writer that The Simple Past Tense places the

activity or event definitely in the past. Or in the other words we may say that the

activity started in the past and has finished at the moment of speaking.

Example:

( + ) We had our lunch at 2.00 p.m. yesterday.

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(?) Could the clever students solve take problems!

(-?) Didn't you go to the movie last night?

Use of the Simple Past Tense

(1) To state an event or activity in the past.

Example:

They were unhappy

(2) To state habit in the past. Example:

I used to play play tennis when I was young.

(3) It is also used in the conditional clause to state current f event. ,

Example:

If I were rich, I would buy a new car.

(Means: I am not rich).

(4) It is used in subjunctive which uses verbs such as if only, would rather, and

wish to state facts that contradict with the present situation.

Example:

If only you would listen to me, you won't be in trouble.

Sentence Pattern

(1) Sentence with was/were

(a) Positive sentence: S+was/were+Adj/Avb/N Example:

She was angry at me.

(b) Negative sentence: S+was/were+Not+Adj/Avb/N

Example: The directors were not busy.

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Were you tired?

(d) Negative-interrogative sentence: Wasn't/weren't+adj/adv/n

Example:

Weren't they happy?

Sentence with (verbs in the past form=VPs)

(a) Positive sentence: S+VPs

Example:

She made me lose my temper.

(b) Negative sentence: S+did + not + VInf.

Example:

The gardener did not cut the roses.

c) Interrogative sentence: Did +S + V Inf.

Example:

Did you came to my house yesterday?

(d) Negative-interrogative sentence: Didn't+S + VI

Example:

Didn't you come to my house yesterday?

The sentences used in Simple past tense by the journalist of the Jakarta

Post Newspaper are as follows: 51 people were killed, demonstrators enraged,

president said, the army opened, the military said, a terrorist group tried, 40

people were wounded, soldiers returned, they were wounded, attacked, emergency

services said, 430 people were wounded, brotherhood urged, medics rushed, they

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said, Ahmed said, Nour could, what was happened, he said, the military was not,

millions took, resulted in clashes, left 35 dead, the scene saw, Zazeera showed,

Musi supporters attempted, seven dead bodies were lined up, covered in blankets,

a man placed, Mursi was toppled, was not a coup, he said, millions people took,

anti Mursi took, resulted, news footage zoomed, the city was calm, armoured,

closed, were led, denounced, vowed, were in trouble, Nour Party rejected, prime

minister proposed, Nour said, it called, the party decided, it said, US backed.

3.6 Past Continuous Tense

Rebecca (1972:83) describes that The Past Progressive Tense expresses

temporary activities that existed or occurred at a point of time in the past. Based

on the quotation above that the activity or the action of a statement in the past

progressive takes place in a certain time. To make it more clearly the writer tries

to draw a diagram for it seems very clear to the writer that The Simple Past Tense

places the activity or event definitely in the past. Or in the other words we may

say that the activity started in the past and has finished at the moment of speaking.

Example:

( + ) She was playing the guitar.

( -) He was not listening to the radio.

( ? ) War he listening to the radio?

(-?) Was not lie listening to the radio?

Use of The Past Continuous Tense

(1) To state an event or activity in progress at one point in the past.

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They were sleeping at that time.

(2) To state an event or activity or action in progress when it is suddenly

interrupted by another past event.

Example:

I was reading a book when you came in.

(3) Can be the speaker. Example:

She was always making a lot of noise.

(4) To change direct speech into indirect speech, only if the statement is in the

present continuous tense form.

Example:

She said, "lam expecting a baby."( Direct)

She said that she was expecting a baby. (Indirect)

(5) To state an event or activity that begins before the given time.

Example:

At 6.00 o 'clock I was hoeing breakfast.

Sentence Pattern

(a) Positive sentence: S+was/were+V-irig Example:

She was crying.

(b) Negative sentence: S+was/were+not +V-ing Example:

She was not crying.

(c) Interrogative sentence: was/were + S+ V-ing

Example:

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(b) Negative-interrogative sentence: S+was/were+not +V-ing

Example:

Wasn't she crying?

Rebecca (1972:83) says that the past progressive expresses temporary

activities were in progress at a point of time in the past.

Based on the quotation above that the activity or action of a statement in the past

progressive takes place in a certain time. To make it more clearly, the writer tries

to draw a diagram for it.

Use of the Past Continues Tense

(1) To state an event, activity or action in progress at one point in the past time.

Example.

I was sleeping at that tune.

(2) To state an event, activity or action in progress when it is suddenly

interrupted by another past event.

Example:

Iwas reading a book when you came in,

(3) To state an event which often occurs in the past and tends to annoy the

speaker.

Example:

She was always making a lot of noise.

(4) To change Direct Speech into Indirect Speech, only if the statement is in the

Present Continues Tense form.

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She said, "I'm expecting a baby."(Direct)

She said that she was expecting a baby.

(5) To state an event that begins before the given time word.

Example:

At 6 o 'clock, I was having breakfast

Sentence Pattern

1. Positive Sentence : S+was/were+ V1-ing

Example :

The baby was crying.

2. Negative Sentence : S+was/were+not+ V1-ing

Example :

The postman was not feeling well

3. Interrogative sentence : Was/were + S + V1-ing

Example :

Were the children playing ?

(4) Negative-interrogative sentence : Was/were + not + S + Vl-ing

Example :

Weren 't the tourists upset?

The journalist of the Jakarta Post Newspaper which was published in July,

Tuesday 9th, 2013 applied Past Continuous Tense in telling the news about the 51

were killed in Egypt. The examples: it was withdrawing, it was enforcing, two

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3.7 Past Perfect Tense

As it has been mentioned in the present perfect tense that the action involves

only one but here in the Past Perfect Tense the action involved are two events.

Both of these events were completed in the past.

The Use of Past Perfect Tense

To state an event activity or action which is completed in the past before

another event occurred.

Example :

I had eaten before you went out

To change Direct speech into Indirect Speech if the statement is in Present

Perfect Tense or Simple Past Tense.

Example:

He said, "I came late" (Direct)

He said that he had come late.

Sentence Pattern Sentence pattern with been

1. Positive Sentence : S+had+been+adj/adv/N

Example : Mother had been fat.

2. Negative Sentence : S+had+not + been+adj/adv/N

Example : Mother had not been fat

3. Interrogative Sentence : Had +S + been+adj/adv/N

Example : Had Mother been fat?

4. Negative-interrogative Sentence: Had+not+ been+adj/adv/N

(36)

Hadn't Mother been fat? Sentence pattern with V3

1. Positive Sentence : S+had+V3

Example :

Mother had become fat

2. Negative Sentence : S+had+not + V3

Example :

Mother had not become fat.

3. Interrogative Sentence: Had +S 4- V3

Example :

Had Mother become fat?

The journalist of the Jakarta Post Newspaper in order to tell the news about

the 51 Egypt were killed used one sentence of the Past Perfect Tense. The

sentence is one army officer had been killed.

3.8 Past Perfect Continuous Tense

The actions described in Past Perfect Continuous Tense is similar to the Past

Perfect Continuous Tense. The only difference is in the Continuous nature of the

activity. Example:

(+) The gang had been going.

(-) The gang had not been going.

(?) Had the gang been going?

(-?) Hadn't the gang been going?

(37)

- To state an event, activity or action which are still in a continuous progress

in the past time, usually it is limited by a certain duration of time.

Example:

Shehad been working for two hours.

- To state a repetitive action which happened in the past time.

Example:

He had been correcting his mistakes: but he was always wrong.

Sentence Pattern

1). Positive Sentence : S+had+been + V1 -ing

Example :

Ihad been working for two years,

2). Negative Sentence : S+had+not + been + V1-ing

Example :

Ihad not been working for two years.

3). Interrogative sentence : Had + S+ been + V1-ing

Example :

I had been working for two years?

4) Negative-interrogative sentence : Had. + S+not + been. + VI –ing

Example:

Had not I been working for two years?

(38)

3.9 Future Tense

The Future Tense describes actions, activities, and states in the future.

Generally, there are two ways in forming the Future Tense, they are by using to be

goig to and will or shall. The to be going to model can express the speaker's

feeling of certainty. Although the lime is not usually mentioned (though the time

is indicated or not), the action or activity is expected to happen in the near future.

The future of will or shall model is a common way of expressing what the speaker

thinks, believes, hopes, etc., in the future. Traditionally, the will or shall were

different in the usages. Will is used in the simple future construction. This is its

most common use grammarians once thought that shall was used with I and we,

and I will was used with he, she, it, you, and they. In certain situation, this order

was reversed. In the modem usages this distinction does not exist any more

(changes come down).

Example:

to be going to

( +) I am going to see him tomorrow afternoon.

(-) He is not going to mar)' Susan.

(?) Are you going to continue your study next year ?

(-?) Isn 't it going to rain?

will or shall

( + ) I will see him tomorrow afternoon.

(-) He will marry Susan,

(39)

(-?) Shall not it rain?

Use of The Future Tense

(1) To state an event, activity or action that will happen in the future.

Example:

Susan will many me next year.

(2) To state the terms in the conditional clause.

Example:

I shall go if you invite me.

(3) To state an opinion, assumption, or estimation about an event in the future.

It is usually preceded by words such as think, doubt, suppose, assume,

expect, hope, be afraid, feel sure, wonder.

Example :

I hope I will get nine for my biology test..

Use of Future Tense

(1) To state an event, activity or action that happen in the future.

Example:

She will go to Jakarta tomorrow morning.

(2) To state an event, and the terms in conditional clause.

Example:

I shall go if you invite me.

(3) To state an opinion, assumption or estimation about an event in the future, it

is usually preceded with words such as think, doubt, suppose, assume,

(40)

Example :

I hope I will get nine for my biology test.

Sentence Pattern

Sentence with shall/will be

1). Positive Sentence : S+shall / will + be + adj / N

Example :

I shall be angry.

2). Negative Sentence : S+shall/will+not+be+adj/N

Example :

I shall not be angry

3). Interrogative sentence : Shall/will+s+be+adj/N

Example :

Shall I be angry?

4) Negative-interrogative sentence : Shall/will + not + S + be + adj/N.

Example :

Shall not I be angry?

Sentence with shall/will + V1

1). Positive Sentence : S+shall/will+V1

Example : shall get angry.

2). Negative Sentence : S+shall/wiH+not + V1

Example :

Ishall n at get angry.

(41)

Example :

Shall I get angry?

4) Negative-interrogative sentence : Shall/will + not + S + V1.

Example :

Shall not I get angry ?

3.10 Future Continuous Tense

The future progressive tense is a tense in which a speaker expresses the

temporary activities that will be in progress at a point of time. The event has not

happened at the moment of speaking, but \ it will be expected to happen in the

future of a particular time. The possible area of the action can be seen in the

diagram below.

Use of the Future Continues Tense

To state an event, activity or action which begin in the past and it will

end at some time in the future.

Example:

Next year, I shall be studying English for Jive years.

Sentence Pattern

1). Positive Sentence : S+shall/wul+be +V-ing.

Example :

I shall be going to farm tomorrow.

2). Negative Sentence : S+shall/will + not+be +V-ing.

Example :

(42)

3). Interrogative sentence : Shall/will + S+ +be +V-ing.

Example :

Shall I be going to farm tomorrow?

4) Negative-interrogative sentence : Shall/will + not + S+be +V-ing.

Example :

Shall not I be going to farm, tomorrow?

The journalist of the Jakarta post in telling the news of 51 Egyptians were

killed which was published on Thursday, July 9th, 2013 did not use the Future

Continuous Tense.

3.11 Future Perfect Tense

The Future Perfect Tense emphasizes on the words, one future time is 'past'

in relation to the second future time, it is usually accompanied by a time

expression such as, at, by or before.

Use of the Future Perfect Tense

To state an event, activity or action which begin in the past and will be

completed at some time in the future.

Example:

By the end of the week, I shall be rich.

Sentence Pattern

1). Positive Sentence : S+shall/will+have +been+ adj/N.

Example :

Ishall have been there.

(43)

Example :

I shall not have been there.

3). Interrogative Sentence : Shall/will + S+ have +been + adj/N.

Example :

Shall I have been there?

4). Negative-interrogative Sentence : Shall/will +not + S+ have +been+ adj/N.

Example :

Shall not I have been there?

Sentence with S + shall/will + have + V3

1). Positive Sentence : S+shall/mU+have V3

Example :

I shall have gone.

2). Negative Sentence : S+shall/will+have V3

Example :

I shall not have gone.

3). Interrogative Sentence : Shall/will +S +have V3

Example :

Shall I have gone?

4). Interrogative-negative Sentence : Shall/will +not +S +have V3

Example :

Shall not I have gone?

In Future Perfect Tense, the activities occur before another action or point of

(44)

Example:

(+) I/ will have been done it next week.

(-) They will not have arrived by 2.00 p.m. tomorrow.

(?) Will she have gone tomorrow morning?

(-?) Won't she have answered the questions?

3.12 Future Perfect Continuous Tense

When a speaker uses the Future Perfect Continues Tenseto state something,

it means that the action will take place in the future and it also wall emphasize the

continuous nature of the event.

Example:

(+) We will have been flying.

(-) She will not have been playing her guitar.

(?) Will you have been sleeping at the time?

(-?) Won't you have been reading the newspaper?

The Future Perfect Continuous Tense expresses an action that is represented

as being in progress over a period of time and it will end in the future.

Use of Future Perfect Continuous Tense

To state an action, event, or activity that would have been in progress in the

past.

Example

I would be working hard at 12.00 o'clock this morning.

Sentence Pattern

(45)

Example :

I should be working hard.

2). Negative Sentence : S+shonld/would+ not + be + V-ing

Example :

I should not be working hard.

3). Interrogative Sentence : Should/would + S+ be + V-ing

Example :

Should I be working hard?

4). Negative Interrogative Sentence : Should/would + not + S+ be + V-ing

Example:

I Should not I be working hard?

There is no sentence used by the journalist of the Jakarta Post newspaper

while she is reporting the news about the 51 Egypt were killed in Future Perfect

Continuous Tense.

3.13 Past Future Tense

The Past Future Tense describes the activity that be taken in the future

when they were talking in the past time. Actually the actions have taken in the

past time, but on that time of speaking it would be applied.

Example:

All the participants would have their dinner before they left to the Mexico city.

A sentence like this did not find in the news. So it means that the journalist

(46)

3.14 Past Future Continuous Tense

The Past future Continuous Tense is a tense which explains the action that

is going to be taken place in the future and is being running on. Example:

The army would be bombing the city by two o’clock tomorrow. So from the time

of speaking that the action has not taken place, but it will be being taken place in

the future.

3.15 Past Future Perfect

The Past Future Perfect Tense used to tell the action that be happened in the

past. The speaker used this type of tense to tell the action which has done in the

past time. Example:

The Egyptian army would have bombed the city before the other city be bombed.

The sentence like this is not found in the Jakarta Post Newspaper because

there was no action like this happened at that time when the journalist took the

news.

3.16 Past Future Perfect Continuous

This tense explains the action that taken in the past and it has already been

done, but the time of speaking is going to be done in the future. Example, the

victims of the mountain of Sinabung would have been being operated by the

experienced doctors when the volcanologists visited the society. This tense is a

little bit complicated, therefore the journalist of the Jakarta Post Newspaper did

(47)

4. CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION

4.1 Conclusion

After looking at the whole sentences written by the journalist of the Jakarta

Post Newspaper dealing with the news of 51 Egypt were killed in July, Thursday

9th, 2013 the writer of this paper comes to give a conclusion on it. The journalist

in telling the news used six different tenses out of 16 tenses that the English

language has. The tenses used are Past Tense, Present Tense, Present Perfect

Tense, Present Continuous Tense, Past Perfect Tense, and Past Continuous Tense.

The kinds of sentences are active and passive. The types of sentences are used in

the form of affirmative and negative. The frequency of the verb phrases used are

fifty one in the past, eighteen in the present, three present perfect, two present

continuous, two past continuous tense, and one past perfect.

4.2 Suggestion

The writer of this paper finds it interesting to find out the description of

tenses used on this newspaper. Therefore he wants to encourages the other

students to write the application of English tenses to other writings, so it can make

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Azar, Betty Schrampfer. 1989. Understanding and Using English Grammar. New Jeeersey: Prentice Hall.

Brown, Gillian. 1996. Discourse Analysis. Cambridge: University Press.

Candlin, Christoper N. 1986. Discourse and Learning. London: Longman.

Els, Theo Van. 1984. Applied Linguistics and the Learning and Teaching of

Foreign Languages. Brittain: Edward Arnold.

Freeborn, Dennis. 1987. A Course Book in English Grammar. Hongkong: MacMillan.

Huddlestone, Rodney. 1985. Introduction to the Grammar of English. Cambridge: University Press.

Langan, John. 1986. College Writing Skills. London: McGrow.

Lewis, Michael. 1990. The English Verb: an exploring of structure and meaning. London: LTP Inc.

Nasution, S. 1988. Metode Penelitian Naturalistik Kualitatif. Bandung: Tarsito.

Perry, Tom. 2013. Jakarta Post: 51 were killed in Egypt. Jakarta: Newspaper.

Peterson, Patricia Wilcox. 1980. Changing Times, changing Tenses. Washington: MacMillan.

Soemanto, Wasty. 1988. Pedoman Teknik Penulisan Karya Ilmiah. Jakarta: Muri Aksara.

Stork, E.C. 1982. Learning About Linguistics. London: Hutchinson.

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