• Tidak ada hasil yang ditemukan

Idiomatic Word Used In Reader’s Digest Magazine

N/A
N/A
Protected

Academic year: 2016

Membagikan "Idiomatic Word Used In Reader’s Digest Magazine"

Copied!
137
0
0

Teks penuh

(1)

IDIOMATIC WORD USED IN READER’S DIGEST MAGAZINE

A THESIS BY

EVELINA TAMBUNAN REG. NO. 110721002

DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH

(2)

IDIOMATIC WORD USED IN READER’S DIGEST MAGAZINE

A THESIS

BY:

EVELINA TAMBUNAN REG. NO. 110721002

Supervisor, Co. Supervisor,

Drs. Chairul Husni, M.Ed.TESOL Rahmadsyah Rangkuti, MA. Ph.D NIP. 19570308 198403 1 004 NIP. 19750209 200812 1 002

Submitted to the Faculty of Letters University of Sumatera Utara in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Sarjana Sastra in English Literature.

UNIVERSITY OF SUMATERA UTARA FACULTY OF CULTURAL STUDIES ENGLISH LITERATURE DEPARTMENT MEDAN

(3)

Approved by the English Literature Department of Faculty of Cultural Studies University of Sumatera Utara (USU) Medan as thesis for the Sarjana Sastra Examination.

Head, Secretary,

Dr. H. Muhizar Muchtar, MS.

(4)

Accepted by the board of Examination in partial fulfillment of requirements for the degree of Sarjana Sastra from the English Literature Department Faculty of Cultural Studies University of Sumatera Utara Medan.

The Examination is held at the University of Sumatera Utara, Faculty of Cultural Studies, English Literature Department on Saturday, July 27th 2013.

The Dean of Faculty of Cultural Studies University of Sumatera Utara,

Dr. Drs. Syahron Lubis, M.A NIP. 19511013 197603 1 001

Board of Examiners:

1. Drs. Chairul Husni, M.Ed.TESOL

NIP. 19570308 198403 1 004 ... 2. Rahmadsyah Rangkuti, MA. Ph.D

NIP. 19750209 200812 1 002 ...

3.

NIP. 19570626 198303 2 001 ... 4. Dr. H. Muhizar Muchtar, MS.

NIP. 19541117 198003 1 002 ... 5. Dr. Dra. Nurlela, M.Hum.

(5)

AUTHORS’S DECLARATION

I, EVELINA TAMBUNAN, declare that I am the sole author of this thesis except the references that I use in this thesis are got from some related texts, internet and books. This thesis is not published yet or extracted in whole or in a part from another thesis.

No other person’s have been used without due acknowledgements in the main text of this thesis. This thesis has not been submitted yet for the award of another degree in any tertiary education.

Signed :

(6)

COPYRIGHT DECLARATION

Name : Evelina Tambunan

Title of Thesis : Idiomatic Word use in Reader’s Digest Magazine

Qualification : S-1/Sarjana

Department : English Literature

I am willing that my thesis should be available for reproduction at discretion of the Librarian of University of Sumatera Utara, Faculty of Cultural Studies, English Department on the understanding that users are made aware for their obligation under law of the Republic of Indonesia.

Signed :

(7)

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

In completing this thesis, there are many people stand for me to give support. First of all, I would like to thank to Jesus Christ, for giving me this huge blessing and love so that I am able to complete my study.

I would like to thank to the Dean of Faculty of Cultural Studies, DR. Syahron Lubis, M.A, Head of English Department, Dr.H.Muhizar Muchtar, MS and the Secretary of English Department Dr.Hj.Nurlela,M.Hum.

Further I would like to thank to be grateful to my supervisor, Drs. Chairul Husni, M.Ed. TESOL as my 1st supervisor and Rahmadsyah Rangkuti, MA.Ph.D as my 2nd supervisor. Who are so generous with their valuable advice, guidance, and time in correcting this thesis. And for all my lectures who have shared their priceless knowledge and guidance so that I have Provisions in accomplishing this thesis.

(8)

Thanks also to English Extension education 2011 : Lenny Simanjuntak, Mazlah, Cicik, Agung, Maryadi, Nila, Ferry, Sartika, Nasrul, Haricha, Dinda, Sri Handayani and Roy. We have been together in passing our study and I know that we will leave our dream soon. For them, we can not be mentioned one by one. My big and special thank to Amudi Siregar who has helped and given big motivation, pray and spirit in every activities that done by writer.

I realized that there are still weaknesses in contents and grammar of this thesis, so writer receives critics and advices from the reader that can make this thesis be better. Hopefully, this thesis can be useful for education world.

Medan, 24 July 2013

Writer,

Evelina br Tambunan

(9)

ABSTRACT

The object of this study is the idioms found in the Reader’s Digest Magazine. The objectives of the study is to describe the types of idioms and to expose the meanings of the idioms in the Reader’s Digest Magazine.

The data were analyzed based on the theoretical concept by Robby Lou (2007) and Palmer (1979) which concerned about types and the meanings of idioms.

The result of this study seeing through the whole data were found the types of the idioms, they were Phrasal Verb, Separable Phrasal Verb, Verb – Noun – Preposition Combination, Preposition – Noun and Preposition – Adjective – Noun Combination, Preposition – Noun – Preposition Combination, Preposition – Adverb and Preposition – Adjective Combination, Adjective – Noun Combination, Noun Phrase and Adjective – Preposition Combination.

(10)
(11)

TABLE OF CONTENTS

ABSTRACT ... i

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ... ii

TABLE OF CONTENTS ... iv

1.INTRODUCTION 1.1. Background of the Study ... 1

1.2. Problems of the Study ... 4

1.3. Objective of the Study ... 4

1.4. Scope of the Study ... 5

1.5. Significance of the Study ... 5

2.REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 2.1. Clarification of Terminologies ... 6

2.1.1. The Meaning of Idiom ... 12

2.1.2. The types of Idiom ... 14

2.1.2.1. Phrasal Verb ... 15

2.1.2.1.1. Phrasal Verbs without Objects ... 15

2.1.2.1.2. Separable Phrasal Verbs ... 15

2.1.2.1.3. Inseparable Phrasal Verbs ... 16

2.1.2.1.4.Phrasal Verbs with Extra Prepositions ... 16

2.1.2.2. Verb – Noun Combinations ... 16

2.1.2.3. Verb – Noun – Preposition Combinations ... 17

(12)

combination ... 18

2.1.2.10 .Adjective – Preposition Combinations ... 20

(13)

4.1.4. Preposition – Noun Combinations ... 45

4.1.5. Preposition – Noun and Preposition – Adjective – Noun Combinations ... 46

4.1.6. Preposition – Noun – Preposition Combination ... 47

4.1.7. Preposition – Adverb and Preposition – Adjective Combinations49 4.1.8. Adjective – Noun Combinations ... 50

4.1.9. Noun Phrases ... 50

4.1.10 Adjective – Preposition Combinations ... 50

4.1 11. Other Categories of Idioms Found in Reader’s Digest magazine52 4.1.11.1 Verb – Preposition – Noun Combination ... 52

4.1.11.2.Conjunction – Preposition Combination ... 53

4.1.11.3.Noun – Preposition Combination ... 53

4.1.11.4.Noun – Conjunction – Noun Combination... 54

4.1.11.5 Determiner/Pronoun – Noun Combination ... 55

4.1.11.6 Adjective – Preposition – Adverb Combination ... 55

4.1.11.7 Proverbial Phrase ... 56

4.1.11.8 Verb – Conjunction – Verb Combinatio ... 57

4.1.11.9 Verb – Adjective Combination... 58

4.1.11.10Verb – Preposition – Noun Combination ... 58

4.1.11.11Preposition – Preposition – Noun Combination ... 69

5. CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION 5.1. Conclusion ... 60

5.2. Suggestion……… ... 62

(14)

ABSTRACT

The object of this study is the idioms found in the Reader’s Digest Magazine. The objectives of the study is to describe the types of idioms and to expose the meanings of the idioms in the Reader’s Digest Magazine.

The data were analyzed based on the theoretical concept by Robby Lou (2007) and Palmer (1979) which concerned about types and the meanings of idioms.

The result of this study seeing through the whole data were found the types of the idioms, they were Phrasal Verb, Separable Phrasal Verb, Verb – Noun – Preposition Combination, Preposition – Noun and Preposition – Adjective – Noun Combination, Preposition – Noun – Preposition Combination, Preposition – Adverb and Preposition – Adjective Combination, Adjective – Noun Combination, Noun Phrase and Adjective – Preposition Combination.

(15)

1. INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Study

Obviously, there is nobody in the world who does not need language. Indeed, language takes a very important role in our daily lives. Language is one medium that people use to communicate to each other. Therefore, there will not be a communication among people if there are no bonds that could bind them-language.

It is stated in the Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary(s. v “language”) that: Language is a system of communication consisting of sounds, words and grammar, or the system of communication used by the people of a particular country or profession.” Based on the definition, language is a truly important means in doing communication by using sounds or symbols (words).

In or combination of sound, or its representation in writing or printing, that symbolizes and communicates a meaning and may consist of a single morpheme or of a combination of morphemes.” Related to the definitions, it can be concluded that every language especially English helps human to communicate by using words that symbolize and carry out meanings. It leads us to the thought that the role of language is primarily to convey meaning. Since it is so, the study of meaning would always have been a major focus of attention within the scientific study of language. It is just like what the writer does here.

(16)

Learner’s Dictionary (s. v “idiom”)states that: “Idiom is a group of words in a fixed order

that have a particular meaning that is different from the meanings of each word understood on its own individual words”. For example: take (something) up is an idiom meaning ‘begin to practice or study’. This idiomatic meaning is completely unrelated to the literal meaning of individual words take and up.

People Including the non-native speakers, and also those who are learning English as a second language may find it hard to understand English idioms for they may not be able to identify idioms being used and the meaning of them. The meaning of theirs cannot be translated word by word for the individual words in the expression do not have their usual meaning.

Needless to say, it is true that English is full of with idioms. These idioms are found in different fields of life and are used in speaking and writing in formal style and in formal form. READER’S DIGEST magazine, is one of contents where English idioms are applied. This well-known formal-styled published writing is mostly read by common people and those who have English as their second language, including students who are learning English. This would become the main obstacle for those who are not able enough to translate or to grasp the meaning of what they are reading, for example: keep up with used in one of the sentences found in the READER’S DIGEST magazine, that is, ‘In a bid to help the U.S. keep up with global competitors in high speed Internet access. Federal Communications Commission officials announced a sweeping proposal to extend broadband connections across the country…’. If the meaning of these expressions are grasped word by word, the meaning will be (cause sb/sthto ) remain in state towards higher positions in the company of sb/sth. Actually, the meaning of the idiomatic expression is to

(17)

taken from it. But, it is difficult to understand the words and the meaning of the idioms in the READER’S DIGEST magazine. It is hard to find the meaning of the idioms for it cannot be translated literally.

Advertisement is a form of communication used by advertiser to promote the sales of products or services, to influence public opinion, to gain political support, to advance a particular cause, or to elicit some other desired responses. Advertisements get their audience to draw upon ideological elements in their MR (Member’s resources’) in order to establish an ‘image’ for their product being advertised (Young Lynne, 2006:123).

Therefore, it is very important to understand idiom expression in advertisement. Sentences can deliver something which intended to audience through various media including newspaper, magazines, television, radio, billboards, and direct email. Advertisements has been used for a long time in trade. It is so said as the keystone in the art of sales. Nowdays, advertisement plays great role in business; it can be of the best tools in getting the attention of the consumers. Advertisements, using the ‘image’ which audience ‘help’ them to generate for products as vehicles, construct subject positions for ‘consumers’ as members of consumption communities…this is the major ideological work of advertising. (1989:202-203)

Idiomatic word in the Reader’s Digest Magazines Advertisements February edition 2013 will be chosen as the object of this analysis because some idiomatic word are found and it is assumed that there are many idiomatic word existed in advertisements which are interesting to be analyzed semantically.

1.2 Problem of the Study

(18)

meaning of words separately which form it, because an idiom is constructed into a unity of a particular meaning.

This sometimes makes the communication cannot run effectively, if one of the speakers or listener cannot understand the idioms clearly. It is quite important then that we know how to use certain idioms in certain situations in making a good communication.

Based on the background above, the problems of this study are formulated as follows:

a. What is the types of the idioms used in February edition 2013READER’S DIGEST magazine?

b. What is the meanings of the idioms used in February edition 2013 READER’S DIGEST magazine?

1.3 Objectives of the Study

In accordance with the analysis the writer is going to do in this thesis, the objectives to be achieved are as follows:

a. To describe and classify the types of the idioms in February edition 2013 READER’S DIGEST magazine.

b. To expose the meanings of idioms in February edition READER’S DIGEST magazine.

1.4 Scope of the Study

(19)

taught task to do: hence the writer wants to limit his analysis, as to avoid a wider but unconcentrated analysis about the problem.

In this thesis the writer will limit her analysis on five category of idioms, i.e. : a. Phrasal Verb

b. Separable Phrasal verb

c. Verb – Noun – Preposition Combination

d. Preposition – Noun and Preposition – Adjective – Noun Combination e. Preposition – Noun – Preposition Combination

f. Preposition – Adverb and Preposition – Adjective Combination g. Adjective – Noun Combination

h. Noun Phrases

i. Adjective – Preposition Combination

1.5 Significance of the Study

(20)

2.REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

The concept of semantics field is that a class of words divides the semantics field of a word. The words that divide the semantics field of a word are mutually exclusive. It means that every word that belongs to the class or the group has its own meaning that can not be used to substitute for the meaning of the other words in the group. Some examples in English are:

Semantic Field A class of mutually – exclusive words

(1) (2)

Eat 1. Eat: take food into the mouth and swallow it

2. Dine: have dinner 3. Consume: eat

4. Gulp: swallow food greedily 5. Devour: eat hungrily and

greedily

(1) (2)

6. Gobble up: eat fast, noisily and greedily

7. Gorge: eat greedily

8. Bolt: swallow food quickly

(21)

The meaning of word in this metaphorical use of words is not the literal meaning of the word, but the transferred meaning or derived meaning. The derived meaning of the word may differ from one language to another. Some examples of metaphors in English are:

Cock: a chief person; or leader

a person of spirit and often of a certain swagger or arrogance Hen: a fussy middle-aged woman

Another type of transfer of meaning is metonymy

b) Metonymy

Metonymy is concerned with situation. These are some examples: The floor was more human than the platform. (metonymy)

Substituted name of the attribute or concept associated with the object: Floor: the people on the floor, platform: the people on the platform Next, he explains another different kind meaning, namely connotative meaning.

c) Connotative Meaning

Leech (in Chaer, p.292) states that, “Connotative meaning is the communicative value an expression has by virtue of what it refers to, over and above its purely conceptual content.” If a conceptual meaning of student is animate, human, male or female, young or adult, having the duty to study, the connotative meaning of student includes lazy and stupid. The following kind he explains is called social meaning. d) Social Meaning

(22)

e) Affective Meaning

Affective meaning, according to Leech (in Chaer, p.293), is the meaning of word which reflects the personal feelings of the speaker, including his attitude to listener, or his attitude to something he is talking about. For example: ‘Prita, who has two boyfriends, sit beside me on the bus yesterday’ is more polite than ‘Prita, who is always proud of his two boyfriends, sit beside me on the bus yesterday’. And, Chaer, also includes conversion to be one of the different kinds of meaning.

f) Conversion

In conversion, a new meaning of a word is obtained when the syntactic function of the word is converted or changed as when a noun is used as a verb or a verb is used as a noun. Syntactic features are features connected with the arrangement of the word in a phrase, clause, or a sentence. Some example of conversion are:

- The driver stopped for a while to have a drink - Have you sugared the stewed beef?

He also presents synonymy.

g) Synonymy

Synonymy is lack of variety of meaning which is not concerned with the conceptual meaning of words, but relations of words which have, more or less, the same conceptual meaning, for example: nasty and disgusting, marvelous and astonishing and wonderful.

Then, the next kind called antonymy which is mostly considered as the opposite of synonymy is described as following.

h) Antonymy

Antonymyis also a relation of word meaning. It is mostly oppositeness of meaning, e.g.: light and heavy, short and long, dirty and clean, near and far. Etc.

(23)

i) Polysemy

Polysemy is a term to refer to a word that has a set of different meanings which are related by extension. Here is an example of polysemy:

Word A set of different meanings

Eye Human eye

The eye of a needle The eye of a potato A hook and an eye

Chaer also chooses homonymy as the next part to be explained.

j) Homonymy

Homonymy is a term to refer to one form, which is the same in both written and spoken, with two or more unrelated meanings. These are some examples of homonymy:

- Bank (of a river)

Bank (of a financial institution) - Miss (failure to hit)

Miss (a title an unmarried woman or girl)

Just like the above parts, hyponymy is also considered a sense relation.

(24)

Hyponymy involves the notion of inclusion. Hyponymy is a term to refer to a set or a group of words that are included in a higher term or word. The higher or the upper term of word is called a super ordinate or often called as hypernym, and the lower term is called a hyponym.

Avian

Duck goose cock hen canary Next, another sense relation is called meronymy.

l) Meronymy

A meronymy denotes a constituent part or a member of something .it is a relationship of part of whole, for example:

Finger is a meronymy of hand Sleeve is a meronymy of shirt Door is a meronymy of house

Then, now, Chaer has two more parts. The first last part is collocation. m) Collocation

Collocation is a term to refer to words that tend to appear together or words that tend to keep company. Frequent examples of collocation are formed by imitating the sounds associated with the thing concerned, for example:

(25)

A bird chirps A cow moos

While Nida (1964 p.98) in Palmer (1982 p.76) and in Adisutrisno book (2008 p.39) gives examples of collocation of the word chair, like:

(1) Sat in chair

Now, we come to the last part. It is what the writer has chosen to be discussed. It is called idioms.

n) Idioms

(26)

2.1.1. The Meaning of Idiom

Idiomatic expressions are so highly used in amount in the English language. In order to be successful in communication in listening, speaking, writing and especially reading, we should get the understanding of the meaning of the expressions or the words that are used in the text in the article. When we find ourselves having difficulties in realizing the meaning of the idioms, it shows that we indirectly fail in understanding what the text is all about. Idioms in English could be a very difficult thing for people, especially for non-native speakers to master.

Idioms involve collocation of a special kind. Consider for instance, kick the bucket, fly off the handle, spill the beans, red herring. Here, we do not only have the collocation of

kick and the bucket, but also the fact that the meaning of the resultant combination is not related to the meaning of the individual words, but it is sometimes (though not always) nearer to the meaning of a single word (thus kick the bucket equals die).

It is stated in the AS Hornby Oxford Learner’s Dictionary of Current English (s.v.”idiom”) that: Idiom is a phrase or sentence whose meaning is not obvious through knowledge of individual meanings of the constituent words but must be learnt as a whole. Based on this definition, an idiom can be defined as a group of words strung together to assume a specific meaning different from the meaning of each individual word. The similar idea of idioms can be seen in the New Lexicon Webster’s Dictionary of the English Language (Encyclopedic Edition) (s.v.”idiom”), it is stated that:”Idiom is a construction, expression, etc having a meaning different from the literal one or not according to the usual patterns of the language.”

(27)

or its grammar. It is just like the definition of idiom that can be found in www. Answer.com/topic/idiom

It is clearer stated in A Dictionary of Linguistics and Phonetics (Fourth Edition) (s.v.”idiom”) that idiom is “a term used in grammar and lexicology to refer to a sequence of words which is semantically and often syntactically restricted, so that they function as a single unit.” It is also explained there that from semantic viewpoint, the meanings of the individual words can not be summed to produced the meaning of the ‘idiomatic’ expression as a whole. While from syntactic viewpoint, the words often do not permit the usual variability they display in other contexts, e.g. it’s raining cats and dogs does not permit it’s raining a cat and a dog/dogsand cats, etc. because of their lack of contrastivity, some

linguists refer to idioms as “ready made ‘utterences’. An alternative terminology refers to “idiom’ as ‘habitual collocation’. But there are some idioms do permit a degree of internal change, and are somewhat more literal in meaning than others (e.g. it’s worth her while/ the job will be worth my while, etc). in generative grammar, idiomatic constructions are used

for testing hypotheses about structure. For example the appearances of ‘idiom chunks’ in particular positions in a sentence is used to distinguish between control and raising sentences.

(28)

From the explanation above, the conclusion that is taken is idiom is an expression that can not be understood literally or grammatically. It is completely unrelated to the literal meanings of the individual words.

In the New Lexicon Webster’s Dictionary of the English Language (Encyclopedic Edition) (s.v. “magazine”), is stated that: “Magazine is a paperback periodical publication of writings by different authors of few illustrated and with advertisement.” Another similar idea of magazine can be seen in the Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current English (s.v. “magazine”), it is stated that: “Magazines is a paper-covered (usu. Weekly or monthly, and illustrated) periodical, with stories, articles, etc by various writers. “Magazine is a pamphlet published periodically containing miscellaneous papers or compositors.

Some of sources that I used to analyze the meaning of idioms in my thesis are: a). Robby Lou ( The handbook of English of English Idioms)

b). Dixon ( Essential Idioms in English) c). Betty Kirkpatrick (Everyday Idioms)

d).Virginia Klein ( WhatYou to Know about Idioms) e). Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary 2.1.2 Types of Idiom

(29)

Noun Combination, Verb – Noun – Preposition Combinations, Preposition – noun Combination, Preposition – Noun and Preposition – Adjective – Noun Combination, Preposition –Noun – Preposition Combination, Preposition – Adverb and Preposition – Adjective Combination, Adjective – Noun Combination, Noun Phrases, Adjective – Preposition Combinations.

2.1.2.1 Phrasal Verb = ‘verb + preposition’ or ‘verb + adverbial particle’

2.1.2.1.1 Phrasal Verb without objects

The way of forming these phrasal verbs without object is usually by ‘verb + preposition’ or ‘Verb + Adverbial particle”. For example; ‘wake up’ (regain consciousness after sleeping). Phrasal Verbs without are used in the same way as normal verbs. For example:

- I got up at seven o’clock. - What time do you get up?

2.1.2.1.2 Separable Phrasal Verbs

Separable Phrasal Verbs always have objects. They are used in the same way as normal verbs, except they may be separated by noun objects.

For example:

He

They must be separated by pronoun objects.

Put His coat On

(30)

For example: He

2.1.2.1.3 Inseparable Phrasal Verbs

Inseparable phrasal verb always have object, but they can never be separated by them. They are sometimes separated by adverb, for example:

I looked everywhere for my book

They are used in the same way as normal verbs.

It can be difficult to decide when an inseparable phrasal verb is used idiomatically and when literally.

For example:

The police are looking into the robbery

The police are looking into the bank

In the first example, ‘looking into’ means ‘investigating’ and in the second example it is used literally.

2.1.2.1.4 Phrasal Verbs with Extra Preposition Verb + particle run away

Verb + particle + preposition run away from (someone/something)

Look (someone) up visit

Put It On

(31)

Look up to (someone) respect 2.1.2.2 Verb – Noun Combination

The verbs take and make are used idiomatically with many different objects. The meaning is usually clear from the context, and important thing is to remember the correct verb.

For example:

Take a bath make an appointment

Take a bus make an effort

Take a holiday make a suggestion

Take an opportunity make a mistake

It can be difficult to decide when a verb – noun combination is being used idiomatically or literally, for example make a bed means ‘prepare for use’ (idiomatic) and ‘build’ (literal). In some verb – noun combination, both verb and noun are used idiomatically.

For example: Take heart

Lose heart

Nouns used idiomatically in verb – noun combination often have a plural as well as singular form. For example:

Run an errand

(32)

2.1.2.3 verb – Noun – Preposition Combination

In most of these idioms the nouns keep its literal meaning and only the verb and preposition are used idiomatically

Play trick on (someone)

Take pride in (something)

But occasionally the noun is used idiomatically Give rise to (something)

Take exception (someone/something).

Some verb – noun – preposition combination are very similar to verb – noun combination, but have a completely different meaning.

Take care be careful Take care of look after

2.1.2.4 Preposition – Noun Combination

It is only the preposition is used idiomatically in these idioms. The meaning of most of these idioms is clear from the context, and the most important thing is to remember the correct preposition. For example:

On vacation

In a hurry

(33)

His parents are very kind at heart

2.1.2.5 Preposition – Noun and Preposition – Adjective – Noun Combination

In the previous preposition – Noun Combinations category, the preposition is used idiomatically. While in this category, the noun is used idiomatically.

Of course in the long run

On edge at short notice

2.1.2.6 Preposition – Noun – Preposition Combination

In these idioms, nouns are used idiomatically. A few expressions change in the following way. For the sake of (someone/something) can take the alternative form for(someone’s/something’s)sake. All idioms are followed by a noun or gerund, except in

order to which is followed by a verb. Some idioms may look very similar, but have in fact completely different meanings.

In case of (something) if (something) happens In the case of in the instance of

2.1.2.7 Preposition – Adverb and Preposition – Adjective Combinations

The important point about these idioms is not the grammatical function of the individual words that make up each idiom, but the grammatical function of the complete idiom.

For example:

(34)

The two idioms above are used adverbially. While in the following examples, the idioms are used as prepositions.

For all  despite

According to  as stated by

2.1.2.8 Adjective – Noun Combination

In this category of idioms, adjectives are used idiomatically and nouns are used literally.

Tall story an exaggerated and unbelievable tale Practical joke a trick played on a person

Adjectives and nouns are used idiomatically and in some cases only the noun takes a plural form. For example: tall story tall stories

2.1.2.9 Noun Phrases

Each idiom is made up of two nouns, where one or both of the two nouns may be used idiomatically.

Sandwich course (‘course’ is used literally)

Rat race (both nouns are used idiomatically)

Many of these idioms come from metaphors. For examples:

Gunboat diplomacy (from the era when gunboats were sent to enforce political demands)

(35)

Family trees charts showing someone’s ancestry

Status symbols material objects intended to indicate one’s wealth or importance 2.1.2.10 Adjective – Preposition Combinations

In adjective – preposition combinations, the preposition is not exactly used idiomatically, but it is unpredictable. Each individual combination has to be learned by heart. For example:

Afraid of equal to sorry for

Anxious about glad of suitable for

Capable of jealous of sure of

Contrary to popular with useful to

Many adjectives are derived from past participles, for example: broken, lost surprised. When they are used as participles, they are followed by the preposition by.

I was surprised by the news.

Many adjectives are used in more than one adjective – preposition combination. These are some common examples:

Made of this clock is made of brass

Made from brass is made from copper and zinc

Concerned about I’m concerned about your health

(36)

Angry with He was angry with me

Angry at he was angry at my laziness

2.1.3 Meanings of idiom

Palmer states that the meaning in idiom can be differentiated into two types: Semi opaque meaning and opaque meaning

2.1.4.1 Semi Opaque Meaning

Semi opaque meaning is meaning in idiom which is related to the meaning of the individual words, for example: act up which has got meaning ‘act or taje steps/ measures (usually badly)’. We can see that the word ‘act’ has a relation with its literal meaning. 2.1.4.2 Opaque Meaning

(37)

3. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1 Research Method

There are two ways of making a scientific study : Library research and field research. The former means that one collects the data from book, journal, magazine or other written sources from libraries. While the latter is done by asking such designed- question to a certain group of people in collecting the data with a questionnaire, doing one or more experiments, or taking direct observation to the object being analyzed. In this analysis, the writer will use the descriptive research, in which it used to identify and classify the elements or characteristics of the object, as it is considered the most applicable one for this kind of research.

In addition to this, the writer will use textual approach, by which is meant that the writer will first read the text and the references which support. The thesis, and then makes the study from her understanding of those readings. Besides, the writer will also prefer the quantitative approach. Quantitative approach is techniques are most often used to collect, analyze , summarize and also percentage of the data.

3.2 The Source of the Data

(38)

3.3 Collecting of the Data

The very important thing to do in every study including linguistics study is collecting the data that can be found and related to the object of the study. Seeing from the topic which concerns with the use of idioms in Reader’s Digest magazines, the data are the whole idioms collected directly from the text in the Reader’s Digest magazine as stated previously.

The writer applied the linguistic study with the purpose to get the data. The technique that was taken by the writer to be used was collecting texts method. In order to get the data, the writer first read the Reader’s Digest magazine. Each sentence in the text was examined. The sentences containing idioms were collected as data

3.4 Analysis of Data

Firstly, the writer will read the resources or literature connected to the topic discussed, in order to collect as many information and data as possible. Then, the analysis is begun based on the information from the resources, chapter by chapter without forgetting to quote some important notes, definitions, explanations, examples and the like to support the idea.

The analysis will be done this way. After reading the text or dialogue reader’s digest magazine February edition 2013 thoroughly, and find out what idioms there are which suitable to the under analysis: the idioms will then be explained firstly the lexical or literal meaning of each words, then their types as idioms by using theory of Robby Lou (2007), and lastly the meaning by Palmer (1979) of it as idiom.

(39)

4. ANALYSIS OF DATA AND FINDING

After having noticed and interpreted the data (idioms) literally and through the dictionary of English idioms, the whole unorganized data were classified according to the types and meaning. First, the data were arranged into groups according to the types proposed by Robby Lou theory. Then the meaning (proposed by palmer) of them were directly shown in each of data already classified into their categories.

4.1 Types and the meaning of Idioms Found in Reader’s Digest Magazine 4.1.1 Phrasal Verbs

There is a specific criterion for phrasal verb construction because it has 4 kinds, they are Phrasal verb without object, Separable verb, Inseparable verb and Phrasal Verb with extra prposition. To make it clear let we discuss one by one.

(1). Put off

• Sentence : I was a bit put off when the retailer offered a discount and free

shipping after I’d paid. (p 12)

• Literal meaning : Put: to move something into a particular place or position Off: away from a place

• Idiomatic meaning : To postpone ( Robby Lou p 84) • Types : Opaque meaning

(2). Wake up

(40)

her father (p 17)

• Literal meaning : Wake : to stop sleeping

Up : towards or in a higher position

• Idiomatic meaning : To awaken, to become alert ( Robby Lou p 82) • Types : Semi opaque meaning

(3). Pick up

• Sentence : Panter went to pick up a log to use for self-defense. (p 18) • Literal meaning : Pick: to chose something from a group of people or things.

Up: towards or in a higher position

• Idiomatic meaning : To take – especially with the fingers ( Robby Lou p 80) • Types : Semi opaque meaning

(4). Take off

• Sentence : Bochter, an experienced pilot, later said that the plane’s electrical

system had failed shortly after take off. (p 20)

• Literal meaning : Take: to carry or move something from one place to another Off: away from a place

• Idiomatic meaning : To take flight ( Robby Lou p 81) • Types : Opaque meaning

(5). Build up

(41)

building up gradually to at least 30 minutes a day, everyday if

possible. ( p 94)

• Literal meaning : Built: made in the particular way that is mentioned Up: towards or in a higher position

• Idiomatic meaning : Increase ( Robby Lou p 90) • Types : Opaque meaning

(6). Give up

• Sentence : Eating healthier doesn’t mean giving up everything you love; just

eat smarter. ( p 65)

• Literal meaning : Give: to hand something to somebody so that they can look at it,

use it or keep it for a time.

Up: towards or in a higher position

• Idiomatic meaning : To surrender, renounce ( Robby Lou p 85) • Types : Opaque meaning

(7). Pulled up

• Sentence : When the vaughans pulled up, the buck was tossing sue like a rag

(42)

• Literal meaning : Pulled: to hold something firmly and use force in order to move it

or try to move it towards yourself. Up: towards or in a higher position

• Idiomatic meaning : To draw something upward out of something ( Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary )

• Types : Semi opaque meaning

(8). Fly up

• Sentence : A few seconds later, she saw an arm fly up near the deer’s head.

(p 18)

• Literal meaning : Fly: to move through the air, using wings Up: towards or in a higher position

• Idiomatic meaning : To go by air to place at a higher elevation or to place in the north

Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary ) • Types : Semi opaque meaning

(9). Help out

(43)

out.( p 20)

• Literal meaning : Help: to make it easier or possible for somebody to do something

by doing something for them or by giving them something that

they need.

Out: away from the inside of a place or thing

• Idiomatic meaning : To aid someone or a group by providing someone or something

( Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary ) • Types : Semi opaque meaning

(10). Pops up

• Sentence : You’ll appreciate it when a coupon pops up (p 65)

• Literal meaning : Pops: to make a short explosive sound; to cause something to

make this sound

Up: towards or in a higher position

• Idiomatic meaning : To remove something by making it jump or burst upwards ( Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary )

(44)

(11). Dropped by

• Sentence : When the human relations specialist dropped by and asked her, in

a voice loud enough for all to hear. ( p 78)

• Literal meaning : Dropped: to fall or allow something to fall by accident By: at the side of something; beside something

• Idiomatic meaning : To visit someone( Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary )

• Construction : Semi idiomatic construction • Types : Opaque meaning

(12). Set up

• Sentence : Candidate specified that her resume was set up to be sung to the

tune of The Brady Bunch theme.( p 79 )

• Literal meaning : Set: to put something in a particular place or position Up :towards or in a higher position

• Idiomatic meaning : The way in which things are organized or arranged ( Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary )

• Types : Semi opaque meaning

(13). Climb into

(45)

ambulances with the babies, doctors, and the babies’parents. (p 111)

• Literal meaning : Climbed : to go up something towards the top Into : to a position in or inside something

• Idiomatic meaning : To move into or out of a small space awkwardly or with difficulty

or effort ( Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary ) • Types : Semi opaque meaning

(14). Pitch in

• Sentence : She helped a woman clean out her ruined home and pitched in to

collect food and warm clothing for needy residents. ( p 112) • Literal meaning : Pitch : to throw something in a rough or forceful way

In : at a point within an area or a space

• Idiomatic meaning : To start to do something as part of a group, especially something

helpful.

• Types : Opaque meaning

(15). Go out

• Sentence : “ we go out for lunch at noon, and everybody knows us, and they

(46)

• Literal meaning : Go : to move or travel from one place to another Out : away from the inside of a place or thing

• Idiomatic meaning : To leave a room or building, especially in order to do something

for entertainment.( Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary )

• Types : Semi opaque meaning

4.1.1.2 Separable Phrasal Verbs (1). Push (someone) off

• Sentence : The deer had pushed her off the road and into the cornfield (p 18)

• Literal meaning : Pushed: to use your hands, arms or body in order to make

something move forward or away from you. Off: away from a place

• Idiomatic meaning : To apply pressure to and force someone/something (Cambridge

Advanced Learner’s Dictionary) • Types : Opaque meaning

(2). Look (somebody) into

(47)

• Literal meaning : Looked : to turn your eyes in a particular direction Into : to a position in or inside something

• Idiomatic meaning : To investigate, examine carefully ( Cambridge Advanced

Learner’s Dictionary ) • Types : Opaque meaning

(3). Help(someone)up

• Sentence : Alexis helped Sue up the slope and into the Vaughans’ car (p 18)

• Literal meaning : Help: to make it easier or possible for somebody to do something

by doing something for them or by giving them something that

they need.

Up: towards or in a higher position

• Idiomatic meaning : To help someone rise up from something ( Cambridge Advanced

Learner’s Dictionary ) • Types : Semi opaque meaning

(4).Kick(something) off

• Sentence : ( … who had kicked off his shoes, got out of the car) (p 20) • Literal meaning : Kick: to hit something with your foot

Off: away from a place

(48)

( Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary ) • Types : semi opaque meaning

(5).Take (something) out

• Sentence : The man says, ‘well, I haven’t taken it out of the bowl yet.”

( p 23 )

• Literal meaning : Take: to carry or move something from one place to another Out: away from the inside of a place or thing

• Idiomatic meaning : To remove extract ( Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary )

• Types : Semi opaque meaning

(6). Push (somebody) into

• Sentence : … she pushed him into the closet, stark naked. (p 24)

• Literal meaning : Pushed: pushed: to use your hands, arms or body in order to make

something move forward or away from you. Into: to a position in or inside something

• Idiomatic meaning : To guide, shove, or press someone or something inside of

someone or something ( Cambridge Advanced Learners Dictionary )

(49)

(7). Creep (someone) out

• Sentence : why certain sounds creep us out( p 31)

• Literal meaning : Creep: to move slowly, quietly and carefully, because you don’t

want to be seen or heard.

Out: away from the inside of a place or thing

• Idiomatic meaning : To move from beneath something slowly and carefully; to sneak

from beneath something.( Cambridge Advanced Learners Dictionary )

• Types : Semi opaque meaning

(8). Asked (somebody) for

• Sentence : When I asked him for help with dinner, Ray’s response surprised

me.(p 46)

• Literal meaning : Asked: to say or write something in front of the question in order

to get information

For: used to show who is intended to have or use something or

(50)

• Idiomatic meaning : To request something from someone ( Robby Lou p 152 ) • Types : Opaque meaning

(9) .Prepared (somebody) for

• Sentence : I wondered what else I hadn’t prepared Ray for (p 46) • Literal meaning : Prepared : to make something ready to used or to do

For: used to show who is intended to have or use something or

where something is intended to be put.

• Idiomatic meaning : To build someone up for shocking news. ( Cambridge Advanced

Learn Dictionary ) • Types : Opaque meaning

(10). Cleaned (something) up

• Sentence : America’s most wanted cleaned up our streets (p 75) • Literal meaning : Cleaned: not dirty

Up: towards or in a higher position

• Idiomatic meaning : To clean completely and thoroughly ( Cambridge Advanced Learners Dictionary )

(51)

(11). Focused (something) on

• Sentence : The show focused on the doctor’s orders for a teenager with high

blood pressure ( p 75)

• Literal meaning : Focused: to give attention , effort to one particular subject,

situation or person rather than another

On: in or into a position covering, touching or forming part of a Surface

• Idiomatic meaning : To give a lot of attention to one particular person, subject or thing ( Robby Lou p 152 )

• Types : Semi opaque meaning

(12). Pick (someone) up

• Sentence : As a pick me up, a triple espresso works expeditiously (p 82)

• Literal meaning : Pick: to choose something from a group of people or things Up: :towards or in a higher position

• Idiomatic meaning : To collect or to go and get someone/something ( Cambridge Advanced Learners Dictionary )

• Types : Opaque meaning

(13). Check (something) out

(52)

Association at startwalkingnow.org. (p 94)

• Literal meaning : Check: to examine something to see if it is correct,

safe or satisfactory

Out: away from the inside of a place or thing

• Idiomatic meaning : To marks names or items on a list as correct or as having been

deal with.( Cambridge Advanced Learners Dictionary ) • Types : Semi opaque meaning

(14). Mop (something) up

• Sentence : Muscle, liver, and fat cells stop responding to the hormone and

don’t mop up glucose and fat in the blood. (p 119) • Literal meaning : Mop: to clean something with a mop

Up :towards or in a higher position

• Idiomatic meaning : To clean up something, such as a spill, with a mop or with a

mopping motion ( Cambridge Advanced Learners Dictionary )

• Types : Semi – Opaque meaning

(15). Pick (something) up

• Sentence : Learning she was, Elvis picked up the phone ( p 134)

(53)

Up: towards or in a higher position

• Idiomatic meaning : To lift something using hands ( Dixon p 2 ) • Types : Opaque meaning

(16). Size(something) up

• Sentence : She went to size up the competition, knowing that Ann-Margret

was still in his life. ( p 135 )

• Literal meaning : Size: to mark the size of something Up :towards or in a higher position

• Idiomatic meaning : To scrutinize someone/something and form a judgement • Types : Opaque meaning

(17). Shut (something) down

• Sentence : But Elvis couldn’t shut down his feelings or even tell Ann-

Margret to her face, so he did nothing • Literal meaning : Shut: to make something close

Down : from a high or higher point on something to a lower one

• Idiomatic meaning : Stops operating ( Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary )

• Types : Semi opaque meaning

(18). Cheer (someone) up

(54)

(p 137)

• Literal meaning : Cheer : to shout loudly to show support or praise for somebody

Up :towards or in a higher position

• Idiomatic meaning : Make somebody more cheerful ( Robby Lou p 89 ) • Types : Semi opaque meaning

(19). Move (somebody) off

• Sentence : “ We found we can’t encourage a timid rat to be a high-risk taker,

but we can move him off the timid side of the scale into average

territory. (p 145)

• Literal meaning : Move: to change position or make something change position in a

way that can be seen, heard or felt Off :away from a place

• Idiomatic meaning : To remove someone/something from on top of

someone/something.( Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary )

(55)

(20). Turn (something) up

• Sentence : The Human Microbiome Project has already turned up a few

surprises. ( p 158)

• Literal meaning : Turn : to move or make something move around a central point

Up :towards or in a higher position

• Idiomatic meaning : To discover something especially information , after a lot of searching (Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary )

• Types : Semi opaque meaning

4.1.1.3 Inseparable Phrasal Verbs (1).Look for

• Sentence : Nobody spending $170 on lobster is looking for a discount. (p 151)

• Literal meaning : Look : to turn your eyes in a particular direction

For: used to show who is intended to have or use something or

where something is intended to be put. • Idiomatic meaning : To search for ( Dixon p 5 )

(56)

(2). Follow up

• Sentence : Early results from follow –up testing and scans point to improved

resilieny among the Marines, (p 144)

• Literal meaning : Follow: to come or go after or behind somebody Up :towards or in a higher position

• Idiomatic meaning : To check on the work that someone has done ( Cambridge Advanced Learners Dictionary

• Types : Opaque meaning

(3). Pass away

• Sentence : Elvis had met them, and after Mr. Jorgensen passed away.

(p 137)

• Literal meaning : Pass: to move past or to other side of somebody

Away : to or at a distance from something in space or time • Idiomatic meaning : Stop living ( Cambridge Advanced Learners Dictionary ) • Types : Opaque meaning

(4). Depend on

• Sentence : Right now they have 146 matching combos in the closet all made

(57)

( p124)

• Literal meaning : Depend : to rely on somebody and be able to trust them On : or into a position covering

• Idiomatic meaning : To rely on something/somebody ( Robby Lou p 153 ) • Types : Opaque meaning

(5). Instead of

• Sentence : For poultry, eat learner light meat (breasts) instead of fattier dark

meat (legs and thighs), and remove the skin. (p 65) • Literal meaning : Instead : in the place of something

Of : belonging to somebody, relating to somebody

• Idiomatic meaning : If you do one thing instead of another thing, you choose to do the

first and not the second.( Cambridge Advanced Learners Dictionary )

• Types : Opaque meaning

(6). Look after

• Sentence : I will diminish personal stressors and look after my mental well-

being (p 158)

(58)

After : later than something • Idiomatic meaning : To take care of ( Dixon p 58 ) • Types : Opaque meaning

(7). Applying for

• Sentence : Candidate claimed to be able to speak Antarctican when applying

for a job to work in Antarctican. (p 79)

• Literal meaning : Applying: to make a formal request, usually in writing, for

something such as a job. A place, at college, university, etc. For: used to show who is intended to have or use something or where something is intended to be put.

• Idiomatic meaning : To request something , usually officially, especially by writing or

sending in a form ( Robby Lou ) • Types : semi opaque meaning

4.1.1.4 Phrasal Verbs with Extra Preposition (1). Looked down at

• Sentence : The man looked down at himself and cried. ( p 24) • Literal meaning : Looked: to turn your eyes in a particular direction

(59)

At : used to say where something is or where something happens

• Idiomatic meaning : To turn one’s gaze downward at someone or something ( Cambridge Advanced Learners Dictionary )

• Types : Semi opaque meaning

(2).Beefing up some

• Sentence : Americans’ ever-increasing waistlines are beefing-up some

surprising that things. (p 30)

• Literal meaning : Beefing: to complain a lot about something Up: towards or in a higher position

Some: used before numbers to mean approximately

• Idiomatic meaning : To strengthen or fortify something ( Cambridge Advanced Learners Dictionary )

• Types : Opaque meaning

(3). Came up with

• Sentence : I came up with a plan: I would enroll Ray in a private home

eccourse, taught by me.

• Literal meaning : Came: to move to towards a person or place Up: towards or in a higher position

With : in the company or presence of somebody

(60)

someone or something ( Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary )

• Types : opaque meaning

(4). Match up with

• Sentence : The taste doesn’t match up with the smell, which leads to dislike

(p 53)

• Literal meaning : Match: have the same color, pattern or style and therefore look

attractive together

Up: towards or in a higher position

With : in the company or presence of somebody

• Idiomatic meaning : To pair people or things ( Cambridge Advanced Learners Dictionary )

• Types : Opaque meaning

(5). End up with

• Sentence : And you’ll end up with savory meat beneath a just-like fried

crust- without the time, effort, or fat! (p 56)

• Literal meaning : End: the final part of period of time, an event, an activity

(61)

Up: towards or in a higher position

With : in the company or presence of somebody

• Idiomatic meaning : To finish with the possession of someone or something or in the

company of someone or something( Cambridge Advanced Learners Dictionary )

• Types : Semi opaque meaning

(6). Stock up on

• Sentence : Also use this time to stock up on the foods you’ll be eating on the

plan from days four through seven. ( p 100) • Literal meaning : Stock : a supply of something for use or sale

Up :towards or in a higher position On : in or into a position covering

• Idiomatic meaning : To build up a supply of something in particular ( Cambridge Advanced Learners Dictionary )

• Types : Semi – Opaque meaning

(7). Move out of

• Sentence : A few weeks after he’d moved out of his childhood home in

(62)

Out :away from the inside of a place or thing Of : belonging to somebody, relating to somebody • Idiomatic meaning : To leave a place ( Cambridge Advanced Learners Dictionary )

• Types : Semi – Opaque meaning

(8). Show up for

• Sentence : And a slew of friend’s who showed up for a house warming party

( p 129)

• Literal meaning : Show : to make it possible for something to be seen Up :towards or in a higher position

For :used to show who is intended to have or use something or

where something is intended to be put.

• Idiomatic meaning : To make someone appear fraudulent ( Cambridge Advanced Learners Dictionary )

• Types : Semi – Opaque meaning

(9). Come out of

• Sentence : But Elvis and Ann-Margret would not come out of that suite.”

(63)

• Literal meaning : Come : to move or travel towards the speaker or with the speaker

Out :away from the inside of a place or thing Of : belonging to somebody, relating to somebody

• Idiomatic meaning : Appear, become known( Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary )

• Types : Opaque meaning

(10). Speak out about

• Sentence : Give them a chance to speak up about any red flags they sense in

the relationship. ( p 186)

• Literal meaning : Speak : to say words, to use the voice, or to have a conversation

with someone

Out :away from the inside of a place or thing About: on the subject of; connected with

• Idiomatic meaning : To express oneself about someone/something, to tell what one

knows about someone/something.( Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary )

(64)

(11). Back up for

• Sentence : And turn it back up for the car ride home – no matter where your

adventures take you. You are in control. (p 187) • Literal meaning : Back: into towards a previous place or condition,

or an earlier time

Up: towards or in a higher position

For: used to show who is intended to have or use something or

where something is intended to be put.

• Idiomatic meaning : To obstruct and accumulate in a pathway or channel Cambridge

Advanced Learner’s Dictionary ) • Types : Opaque meaning

4.1.2 Verb – Noun Combination (1). Run errands

• Sentence : If you’re running errands, let your friend know in advance so he

(65)

Errands: a short journey either to take a message or to deliver or

collect something

• Idiomatic meaning : To act as an errand-boy, go to a store to buy things for someone

else ( Dixon p 87 ) • Types : Opaque meaning

(2).Take a look

• Sentence : The vet takes a look and says, “It seems calm enough to me”.

( p 23)

• Literal meaning : Take : get hold of or reach someone/something Look: act of looking at someone/something • Idiomatic meaning : Look at ( Robby Lou p 129 )

• Types : Semi opaque meaning

(3). Take a walk

• Sentence : There are dozens of activities that help your heart :Take a walk.

( p 94)

• Literal meaning : Take : get hold of or reach someone/something

(66)

allowing each foot to touch the ground before lifting the next

• Idiomatic meaning : To go for a walk, promenade ( Dixon p 14) • Types : Semi opaque meaning

4.1.3 Verb – Noun – Preposition Combination (1). Take care of

• Sentence : Taking care of someone who has had a heart attack or heart

disease can be stressful in it’s own way ( p 100) • Literal meaning : Take : get hold of or reach someone/something

Care :the process of protecting and looking after someone/something

Of : belonging to somebody, relating to somebody • Idiomatic meaning : Protecting ( Robby Lou p 127 )

• Types : Semi opaque meaning

4.1.4 Preposition – Noun Combination (1). For instance

• Sentence : For instance, if you like the Gap Facebook page because you

(67)

• Literal meaning : For :used to how the person who is intended to have or use

something or where something is intended to be put Instance :particular example or case of something.

• Idiomatic meaning : For example( Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary ) • Types : Semi opaque meaning

(2).In addition

• Sentence : in addition to Helping you drop a few pounds – testers lost an

average of six pounds in four days, and our top loser dropped

ten pounds. (p 100)

• Literal meaning : in : before or at the end of particular period

Addition : calculating the total of different numbers put together

• Idiomatic meaning : as well as something ( Robby Lou p 68 ) • Types : opaque meaning

(3). In contrast

• Sentence : In contrast, the neurons of those who had had Alzheiner’s barely

reacted at all. (p 120)

• Literal meaning : In : before or at the end of particular period

(68)

• Idiomatic meaning : To compare two people or things in order to show the differences

between them

• Types : Semi opaque meaning

4.1.5 Preposition – Noun and Preposition – Adjective – Noun Combination (1). In case of

• Sentence : What will you do in case of an emergency? (P 67) • Literal meaning : In: at a point within an area or a space

Case : a particular situation or a situation of a particular type Of: belonging to somebody, relating to somebody

• Idiomatic meaning : If something happens; in the situation of ( Robby Lou p 69 ) • Types : Semi – opaque meaning

(2). In spite of

• Sentence : But O’Day and several hundred others decided to stay put in their

Houses in spite of a mandatory evacuation order from the mayor

( p 115 )

• Literal meaning : In : at a point within an area or a space

(69)

• Idiomatic meaning : Without being affected or prevented by something • Types : Opaque meaning

4.1.6 Preposition – Noun – Preposition Combination (1). In front of

• Sentence : Our sergeant grabbed him by the arm and led him out in front of

the group. (p 84)

• Literal meaning : In : before or at the end of particular period

Front : the part of building , object or person’s body which faces

forward or which is most often seen or used Of : belonging to somebody, relating to somebody • Idiomatic meaning : Close to the front part of something ( Robby Lou p 70 ) • Types : Opaque meaning

(2).In a variety of

• Sentence : Eat at least 4 fruits and 2-3 vegetables every day, in a variety of

colors and types. (p 96)

• Literal meaning : In : before or at the end of particular period

(70)

different

Of : belonging to somebody, relating to somebody • Idiomatic meaning : A different type of something

• Types : Semi opaque meaning

(3). On the contrary

• Sentence : On the contrary, I detest you ( p 44 )

• Literal meaning : On: used to show that something is in a position above something

else and touching it, or that something is moving into such a position

Contrary :describes a person who intentionally wants to disagree

with and annoy other people

• Idiomatic meaning : Used to show that you think or feel the opposite of what has just

been stated

• Types : Semi opaque meaning

4.1.7 Preposition – Adverb and Preposition – Adjective Combination (1). At all

• Sentence : I don’t love you, not at all. (p 44)

(71)

All :completely

• Idiomatic meaning : In any way or of any type ( Robby Lou p 54 ) • Types : Opaque meaning

(2). At least

• Sentence : “ at least you can stop working! That must be nice.” ( p 32 )

• Literal meaning : at : used to say where something is or where something happen

Least : less than anything or anyone else • Idiomatic meaning : a minimum of ( Dixon p 14 )

• Types : Semi opaque meaning

(3). In all

• Sentence : Jean was thrilled to get the card…and then another… 136 in all,

including this from a kid: “89! (p 127) • Literal meaning : In : within a particular area or space

All : the whole of a thing or of period of time • Idiomatic meaning : Considered overall; when everything is

consideredCambridge

(72)

4.1.8 Adjective – Noun combination ( no found data ) 4.1.9 Noun Phrases

(1).Junk food

• Sentence : It may promote weight loss by helping you distinguish thirst from

hunger and by quenching cravings for junk food. ( p 101) • Literal meaning : Junk : things that are considered to be of no use or value

Food :something that people and animals eat • Idiomatic meaning : Food that is unhealthy but is quick and easy to eat • Types : Semi idiomatic meaning

4.1.10 Adjective – Preposition combination (1). Due to

• Sentence : New standards finally require clear, easy-to-read labels on

prescription medications to help reduce the 700,000 emergency

room visits duo to adverse drug effect every year. (p 36) • Literal meaning : Due : expected to happen

To : in the direction of something; towards something • Idiomatic meaning : Expected Cambridge Advanced Learner’s

(73)

• Types : Semi idiomatic meaning

(2). Interested in

• Sentence : It seemed too strange to think I’d have the very disease

I was so interested in (p 159)

• Literal meaning : Interested :wanting to give your attention to something and

discover more about it.

In : before or at the end of particular period

• Idiomatic meaning : Giving a lot of attention to someone or something because you

want to know more about him/her. ( Robby Lou p 148 ) • Types : Semi Opaque meaning

(3). Close to

• Sentence : The group found that the three most popular combinations—

1234, 1111, and 0000—account for close to 20 percent of all four

Digit passwords. (p 68)

• Literal meaning : Close : not distant in position or time To : in the direction of something • Idiomatic meaning : Very near

• Types : Opaque meaning

Referensi

Dokumen terkait

- Siswa dapat menentukan pandangan khawarij tentang orang – orang yang terllibat dalam tahkim (Ali bin Abi Thalib

Subbab yang terkandung pada bab 4 yaitu pemaparan data hasil penelitian yang meliputi pemaparan keterlaksanaan proses pembelajaran, pemaparan data tentang profil

Contribution of Principal Leadership, School Climate, and Compensation toward Teacher’s Professionalism (A Site Study at Junior High Sub Rayon Weleri,

Tujuan Layanan : Siswa mampu memahami pola hubungan yang baik dengan teman sebaya dalam hal kegiatan belajar kelompok dan menanamkan rasa empati pada teman

Hasil uji t untuk pengaruh secara individu variabel pengalaman kerja memiliki t hitung -1,738 > t tabel -2,074 artinya pengalaman kerja tidak berpengaruh secara signifikan

Berdasarkan hasil penelitian tindakan kelas yang telah dilaksanakan dalam dua si- klus dengan menggunakan model pembela- jaran kooperatif tipe Group Investigation

Keanekaragaman jenis tanaman pada kebun dengan sistem agroforestri tradisional mampu memberikan peluang yang lebih besar untuk mewujudkan fungsi sosial tersebut,

Seleksi dilakukan dengan memilih lima galur harapan yang memiliki nilai tengah untuk karakter bobot biji per petak lebih tinggi dari pembanding Pangrango yang merupakan