PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

66 

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I nomate ira lwhichha sbeenpreviously f o t s e b e h t o t ,t a h t d n a , y ti s r e v i n u y n a t a e e r g e d r e h t o y n a f o d r a w a e h t r o f d e tt i m b u s

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a adei n t het ex toft heundergraduate s

i s e h t

Yogyaka tra,J une24 ,2014

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S T N E M E G D E L W O N K C A t

s ri

F , Iwant t o expres smy great grat tiudet o Jesu sCh irst f o rHi seve lrasitng k

n a h t I . g n i s s e l

b fo ralway silsteni ngmyprayer sandhelpi ngmedu irngdfi ifcul titme . y m s s e r p x e o t t n a w o s l a I . d e h s i n if e b r e v e n d l u o w s i s e h t s i h t , g n i s s e l b s i H t u o h ti W

t n e r a p y m d r a w o t e d u ti t a r

g sfo ralway sgivingme spi ir tand suppo tri ng me i n many .

s y a w

Ialso expres smydeepes tgrattiudet omyadvisor ,Drs .HrimawanWjianarka , ,.

m u H .

M who help sme finish my undergraduate t hesis .It hank for all t he paitence , it

ir w e h t g n ir u d n o it s e g g u s d n a , p l e h , e c n a d i u

g ng o fmy t hesis . Ialso t hank my co- ,r

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a Dew iWidyastut iS.Pd, M.Hum,fo rcorrecitng myt hesi sand giving opinion

.r e tt e b t i e k a m o

t Also fo ral lmyl ecturersi n EngilshLetter sDepatrmen ,tt hankyou r

o

f teachingandgivingmeal o to fknowledge. o

t l u f k n a h t m a I , n e h

T my bes tf irends Anna ,Cecli ,and Vtia fo ral lthei r o

t o s l A . s p l e h d n a t r o p p u

s my beloved f irend Jessica , Iam thankful fo ralway s g

n i v i g , m e l b o r p y m o t g n i n e t s

il grea tadvice ,and sha ir ng a l o to fhappy moment . I o

s l

a thank to my two lti lte sister sfo runderstanding me and giving me a suppor.t y

m l l a , y ll a n i

F f irend sfrom Engilsh Letter s2008 ,I am thank them fo ral lthe

. r e h t e g o t e r a h s e w p i h s d n e ir

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x i

S T N E T N O C F O E L B A T

E G A P E L T I

T ... i ....

E G A P L A V O R P P

A ... ii

E G A P E C N A T P E C C

A ... i ii I

S A K I L B U P N A A T A Y N R E P R A B M E

L ……… v i

T I L A N I G I R O F O T N E M E T A T

S Y………. . v

E G A P O T T O

M ... vi

E G A P N O I T A C I D E

D ... vii K

C

A NOWLEDGEMENTS………... viii

S T N E T N O C F O E L B A

T ... xi

T C A R T S B

A ... .... xi

K A R T S B

A ... x ii

N O I T C U D O R T N I : I R E T P A H

C ... 1 .. .

A Backgroundoft heStudy ... 1 .. .

B ProblemFormulaiton ... 4 .

C Objecitve soft heStudy ... 4 .... .

D De ifniitono fTerms ... 5

W E I V E R L A C I T E R O E H T : I I R E T P A H

C ... 7 .

A Reviewo fRelatedStudies ... 7 .

B Reviewo fRelatedTheo ires ... 1 0 .

1 Theoryo fCharacterandCharacte irzaiton ... 1 0 .

2 Theoryo fAme ircanizaiton ... 1 3 .

C Reviewont heHistoryandCutlureofNaitveAme ircan………….. 18 .

1 NaitveAme ircanCutlure……… 18 .

2 NaitveAme ircani nModernTime……….. 20 .

D Theoreitca lFramework ... .... 2 3 Y

G O L O D O H T E M : I I I R E T P A H

C ... 2 4 .

A Objec toft heStudy ... 2 4 .

B Approachoft heStudy ... .... 2 5 .

C Methodoft heStudy ... 2 6 S

I S Y L A N A : V I R E T P A H C

.

A TheCharacteirsitc soft he Characters... 2 8 .

1 TheCharacteirsitc sof Thoma sBulidt heFrie ... 2 8 .

2 TheCharacteirsitc so fVictorJ oseph ... 3 1 .

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x .

B TheMethodo fAme ircanizaitononNaitveAme ircanCharacters .... 3 5 .

1 PopCutlure………. 53 .

2 Boardings chool……….. 83 .

3 Reservaiton………. 9 3 .

C TheEffec to fAme ircanizaitont owardNaitveAme ircanPerspecitve s

r e t c a r a h C e h t h g u o r h t n e e S s a y ti t n e d I d n a e r u tl u C r i e h t n

o ... 4 2

N O I S U L C N O C : V R E T P A H

C ... 4 8 Y

H P A R G O I L B I

B ... 15 I

D N E P P

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1

CHAPTERI N O I T C U D O R T N I

.

A Backgroundoft heStudy r u t a r e ti l f o k r o w e h

T e i sa composiiton o fstory ,which expresses the idea s

n o it c e lf e r a s i h c i h w , r o h t u a e h t m o r

f fo theauthor’ sexpe irence so ro fhi so rherl fie

k o o b r i e h t n i , n e r r a W n it s u A d n a k e ll e W e n e R o t g n i d r o c c A . d n u o r g k c a

b Theory o f

e r u t a r e ti

l showst hatt heworkofl tieraturer epresentsl fiea sar ealtiy . tIi sar e lfeciton

l b o r p , n o it a u ti s n a m u h s n i a t n o c k r o w y r a r e ti l e h t e s u a c e b e fi l n a m u h f

o em feeilngs ,

p i h s n o it a l e r d n

a (WellekandWarren ,1996:96).

a g n i d a e

R work o fl tierature can en irch ou rknowledge .Ltierature contains

e m e h t y n a

m s tostudy .Somet hemesi nl tieraturewhichther eade rcange tarehistory ,

r a e l n a c e W . c t e , y ti t n e d i , e r u tl u

c n cutlure and history o fa counrty wtih reading a

. e r u t a r e ti l f o k r o

w Everycounrtyhast hei rdfiferen tuniquecutlure .Thei rcutlurebuli t

d n a s r o t s e c n a r i e h t m o r f e r u tl u c r i e h t t e g y e h T . s n o it a r e n e g o t s n o it a r e n e g y n a m m o r f

. e v it a n l a c o

l Cutlure according T irandis ,in book Cutlure ,Sefl-Identtiy ,and Work

t a h t e n if e

d “Cutlure si sa subjecitve percepiton o fthe human- made par to fthe

.) 1 4 : 3 9 9 1 , y lr a E d n a z e r E ( ” t n e m n o ri v n e

a c ir e m

A i sone o fthe bigges tcount ires ,which have many cutlures .I tha s

b u s y n a

m cutlures ,which i scome from naitve and immigrant .One o fthe bigges t

m o r f s e m o c a c ir e m A n i s e r u tl u

c NaitveAme ircans. Thei rcutlurealso canbe ifnd ni

e r u t a r e ti l n a c ir e m

(15)

e r u t a r e ti L n a c i r e m

A showtha tAme ircanl tieraturebegin swtihmyth ,sl egend ,stales ,

u c n a i d n I f o s c ir y l d n

a tlure s(1994:3.) Naitve Ameircan also cont irbutes i n modern

. a c ir e m A n i n i a t n u o m d n a , s e k a l ,r e v ir , s e t a t s 7 2 f o s e m a n , e r u tl u c

, t s a p e h t n i k c a

B NaitveAme ircans dh a a l ong history ,which i salso p fa tr o

e h

t history o fEa lry Ame irca .In the earile rpe irod fo Ame irca o rcalled et h N ew

e ti h w e h t , d lr o

W manwhowasalsoknowna sCh irstophe rColumbu scameandcalled

.s n a i d n I m e h

t In the fris tdecade so fset ltemen tin Ame irca ,the Naitve Ameircans

r e d i s n o

c e d a sa barba iran t irbe who follow a forbidden reilgion. Columbu st ired to

. y ti n a it s ir h C o t n i n a i d n I n a c ir e m A e v it a N e h t t r e v n o

c The wa rbetween Naitve

n a c ir e m

A s and colonis thappen because o fthe incursion so fcolonis tinto thei r

. y r o ti r r e

t Many of Naitve Ame ircans died because o fwa rand disease .Naitve

s n a c ir e m

A d id no thave immune system when disease ilke measle so rsmallpox

. ) 0 4 : 9 0 0 2 , d n a g e i W ( s k c a tt a

r a e y e h t n

I s fo 1607unit l1700,theEngilshcoloniesestabilshedt hemselve sin

a c ir e m

A .Adventure r name s John Smtih managed to make friend wtih Naitve

n a c ir e m

A s Powhantan,t he chie fof t he l oca lNaitve Ame ircans. In t he yea ro f1794 ,

k c a tt a s p o o rt s ’ e n y a

W ed Naitve Ame ircans villagesand desrtoy t hei rcop ( Wiegand ,

) 0 0 1 : 9 0 0

2 .

h n i l a n i g ir o e h t s

A abtiantsi nNo trhAme irca,t heNaitveAme ircans w erepar t

e g d u j s n a c ir e m A e ti h W . n o it a n f o y r o t s e h t f

o d theNaitveAme ircans sh a achieved a

e m u s s a e l p o e P . n o it a z il i v i c f o l e v e

l d t ha tNaitve Ame ircans soon would absorb t he

. n o it a z il i v i c e ti h w f o t if e n e

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tl u c e ti h w d a e r p

s ure among Naitve Ame ircans t irbes .Unfo trunately , the wh tie

o t t c e f f e e d i s d a b d a h s e r u tl u

c Naitve Ameircans paritcula lrythe alcoho leffect .The

e h t o t t c e f f e e v it a g e n e d a m l o h o c l

a NaitveAme ircans da n becamea se irou sproblem

. w o n l it n u

s s e r g n o c e h t , 0 3 8 1 n

I setlted the Indian Remova lAc twhich is a an c tto

e v o m e

r Naitve Ame ircans from thei rhomeland and send them to the Mississipp i

, r a w l i v i c e h t r e tf A . i p p i s s i s s i M e h t f o t s e w o t r e v i

R thegovernmen traised thei deat o

e lt t e

s NaitveAme ircans to t her eservaiton sot heycould endt heri t irba lrtadiiton and

e c r o

f d toadop twhtieways( Archdeacon,1983:70- )7 1

n

U it lnow ,Naitve Ame ircans its l l ilve in reservaitons ,which ea r r d ule by

d e t a t s d e ti n

u epa trmen toft he Inte iror’ sBureau o fIndian Affaris .Reservaiton Blues

fi l e h t s w o h

s e o fNaitveAme ircans ni er res vaiton .The nove lalsodesc irbes thehard

f o e fi

l Naitve Ame ircans t hat adop tthe whtie way sand cutlure ,which is the side

. n o it a z i n a c ir e m A f o t c e f f

e Thi snove lalso t ells t he i ssue of Naitve Ame ircans w ho

d e n i a t n i a

m thei rown cutlure andt heri i denttiy as I ndian sunder t heAme ircanizaiton

.t n e m e v o m

s i h

T study want sto analyze the effec to fAmeircanizaiton toward Naitve

n a c ir e m

A s cutlure and identtiy .The effec tcan be see through how the characte r

e v a h e

b s or r eacts on t her eservaitoni ssue andcharacter slfie expeirence thatt heyge t

. y t e i c o s e ti h w g n o m a d n a n o it a v r e s e r n i s e v il r i e h t m o r

f The analysi sfrom the

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.

B ProblemFormula iton

d e t a l u m r o f r e ti r w e h t , h c r a e s e r e h t e z y l a n a d n a r e w s n a o t r e d r o n

I three

e u

q sitons asf ollows:

.

1 How are the Naitve Ame ircan characters desc irbed in Sherman Alexie’ s

? e u l B n o it a v r e s e R

.

2 Wha t are the method s o f Ame ircanizaiton expeirenced yb et h Naitve

n a c ir e m

A characters inShermanAlexieReservaitonBlues?

.

3 Wha taret heeffect so fAme ircanizaiton ot wardt he NaitveAme ircancutlure s

y ti t n e d i d n

a seen through the characters in Sherman Alexie Reservaiton

s e u l

B ?

.

C Objec itve soft heStudy

s i y d u t s s i h t f o e s o p r u p n i a m e h

T to answer t hose t hree quesitons tha thave

n e e

b formulated abovet ounderstandt hestorywell .Thef ris tobjecitvequesitonist o

s c it s ir e t c a r a h c e h t e b ir c s e

d o fthe character sin the story. The desc irpiton o fthe

h e b y e h t w o h t u o d n if o t e s u s i r e t c a r a h

c ave t oward thei rown i denttiy and cutlure .

e v it c e j b o d n o c e s e h

T quesit on is t o identfiy wha tkind o fAme ircanizaiton faced i n

. y r o t s e h

t Then,t het hridobjecitvequesitonist orevealt heeffec to fAmeircanizaiton

n a c ir e m A e v it a N d r a w o

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.

D De ifni itono fTerm

r e ti r w e h t ,s i s y l a n a e h t d n a e lt it e h t f o g n i d n a t s r e d n u r e r a e l c n i a t b o o t r e d r o n I

s e n if e

d someoft hekeyword .s

.

1 Americaniza iton: Ameircanizaiton in Becoming American : An Ethnic y

r o t s i

H i sdesc irbed a s“ an idea of naitve people learned abou tAme irca custom ,

n a c ir e m A h ti w n o it i d a rt l a b ir t e g r e m o t e l b a e b l li w y e h t o s , e r u tl u c d n a , s e u l a v

r u tl u

c e andcanj oint hemajortiyofs ociety” (Archdeacon ,1983:57). .

2 Perspec itve :Accordingt oOxfordAdvancedLearner’ sDicitonaryo fCurren t h

s il g n

E ,perspecitve de ifne sa sa paritcula ratttiude toward something o ra way o f

.) 3 4 9 : 0 0 0 2 , y b n r o H ( g n i h t e m o s t u o b a g n i k n i h t

.

3 Na itveAmericans :GenerallyNaitveAme ircansi sdescirbeda sacceptedr ace k o o b r e h n i e r o m h s a C s s il E . a c ir e m A h tr o N n i y ll a i c e p s e s e l p o e p s u o n e g i d n i f o

c i n h t E d n a e c a R f o a i d e p o l c y c n

E de ifne sNaitve Ameircan sa s“the consrtucted

a c ir e m A e h t n i s e l p o e p s u o n e g i d n i f o y r o g e t a

c stha thave survived 500 year so f

t s u a c o l o h , m s il a i n o l o c l a n r e t n i , n o it a n i m o d l a r u tl u c n a c ir e m A n e h t d n a n a e p o r u

E -ilke

, e n il c e d c i h p a r g o m e

d andl atelya ilmtiedr esurgence”( Cashmore ,2004:21).

.

4 Na itve American Identtiy : According to Billard , the Naitve Ame ircan o t n o it a l e r n i fl e s m i h f o n o it p e c r e p n i a tr e c , g n i h t n i a tr e c y b d e h s i u g n it s i d s i y ti t n e d i

y e h T . y ti t n e d i c if i c e p s n w o r i e h t e m o s e v a h s n a c ir e m A e v it a N . m i h d n u o r a d lr o w e h t

h tr a e e h t o t n o it a l e r d o o g n i d n a t

s ,t heystandi n goodr elaitont oGod ,andtheystand

o o g n

(19)

.

5 Cutlure : There are va irou sde ifniiton so fcu tlure .One widely accepted d

e lt it n e k o o b n i , n h o h k c u l K e d y l C y b d e t a t s , e r u tl u c f o n o it i n if e

d Cutlure ,Sefl

-k r o W d n a , y ti t n e d

I ,de ifned that “Cutlure consis tin patterned way so fthinking ,

e h t g n it u ti t s n o c , s l o b m y s y b y l n i a m d e tt i m s n a rt d n a d e ri u q c a , g n it c a e r , g n il e e f

; s t c a fi tr a n i s t n e m i d o b m e r i e h t g n i d u l c n i ,s p u o r g n a m u h f o s t n e m e v e i h c a e v it c n it s i d

i d a rt f o t s i s n o c e r u tl u c f o e r o c l a it n e s s e e h

t itona l(histo ircally deirved and selected )

: 3 9 9 1 , y lr a E d n a z e r E ( ” s e u l a v d e h c a tt a r i e h t y ll a i c e p s e d n a s a e d

(20)

7

I I R E T P A H C

W E I V E R L A C I T E R O E H T

t f o t r a p t s ri f e h t n

I hi schapte ,rt he wrtiert ires to r eviewsome r elatedstudie s

,t r a p d n o c e s e h T . s i s y l a n a h ti w d e t a l e r h c i h w n o it a m r o f n i d n a m s i c it ir c n i a t n o c t a h t

e m o s w e i v e r o t s e ir t o s l a r e ti r w e h

t theo ire stha tare u d se to answe rthe problem

n o it a l u m r o

f .The l as tpa tr ,whichi s t heoreitcal f rameworkt he wrtie ,rt ires t oexplain

.s e i d u t s e h t e z y l a n a o t tr o p p u s ll i w s e ir o e h t e h t w o h

.

A ReviewonRelatedStudies

s e u l B n o it a v r e s e

R i sanove lw irttenbySherman Alexie. Sherman Alexie i sa s

e b ir t e n a k o p S m o r f n a c ir e m A e v it a

N and he spen thi syouth in reservaiton .He i s

. r o h t u a e r u t a r e ti l n a c ir e m A e v it a N s u o m a f a o s l

a In the book Outilne o fAmerican e

r u t a r e ti

L explain

e v it a N t s e g n u o y e h t s i i e x e l A n a m r e h

S -Ame ircannovelist t oachievenaitona l h ti w e fi l n a i d n I f o s t n u o c c a s u o r o m u h d n a l a t n e m it n e s n u s e v i g e i x e l A . e m a f

s e l c y c y r o t s s i H . e r u tl u c p o p d n a n o it i d a rt f o s e r u t x i m s u o u r g n o c n i r o f e y e n a

e d u l c n

i ReservaitonBlues(1995) ,andTheLoneRange randTontoFistifghtin n

e v a e

h ,which inspried the effecitve flim o freservaiton lfie ,Smoke Signal

y a l p n e e r c s e h t e t o r w e i x e l A h c i h w r o f ,) 8 9 9 1

( (VanSpanckeren ,1994: 152).

, e v o b a h p a r g a r a p d e t o u q e h t n o d e s a

B ti i sstated tha tSherman Alexie i san autho r

s a h o h

w aspecia lcharacte irsitci n wir itnghi snovel .ShermanAlexieno tonly wrties

l e v o

n sbu talsow irtepoems andmovies sc irpts .Hisf ris tcollecitono fpoemands hor t

d e lt it n e y r o t

s The Busines so fFancy Dancing pubilsh in 1992 .Hi snovel susually d

e b ir c s e

(21)
(22)
(23)
(24)

c s e

d irbe ,and o tfen to evaluate , the moitves ,and disposiitona lquailite s o fthe

. ) 3 4 : 9 0 0 2 ( s r e t c a r a h c

n

I An I ntroducitont o Ficiton ,Stantonstatest hat t het ermcharacter i sused i n o

h w s l a u d i v i d n i e h t s e t a n g i s e d t i , s y a w o w

t appea rin the story ;and ti er fer sto

a r o m d n a , s n o it o m e , s e ri s e d , s t s e r e t n i , s e d u ti tt a f o n o it p ir c s e

d lpirnciple so fthe

. s l a u d i v i d n

i Hecatego irzedthecharactersintot wodfiferentt ypes :maincharacte rand

d n a y r o t s e l o h w e h t e t a n i m o d y a m t a h t r e t c a r a h c a s i r e t c a r a h c r o j a M . r e t c a r a h c r o n i m

o t r e d r o n i d e t n e s e r p s i r e t c a r a h c r o n i m e h t , e li h w n a e M . ti n i d e t n e s e r p y lt n e u q e r f s i

,r e t c a r a h c r e h t o e h t p l e h d n a n i a l p x

e especiallyt hemajo rcharacter( 1965 :1 -7 1 8 .)

k o o b s i h n i y h p r u

M UnderstandingUnseen :Ani ntroducitont oEngilshPoetry d

n

a the Engilsh Nove l fo r Oversea s Students , stated abou t the technique s o f e

n i n e r a e r e h T . n o it a z ir e t c a r a h

c way sto make the characters understandable in a

. y r o t s

.

1 Persona lDesc irpiton

r e t c a r a h c f o n o it p ir c s e d e v i g o t d o h t e m s i h t s e s u r o h t u a e h

T appearance in

d n a , y d o b , e c a

f the othe rphysica lappearance sto help the reade rvisuailze the

. c it s ir e t c a r a h c s i h d n a t s r e d n u d n a r e t c a r a h c

.

2 Characte ra sSeenbyAnother

r e t c a r a h c e h t e b ir c s e d n a c r o h t u a e h t , y lt c e ri d r e t c a r a h c a g n i b ir c s e d f o d a e t s n I

.s r e h t o f o s n o i n i p o d n a s e y e e h t h g u o r h

t Thi smethod can give the impression so f

(25)

.

3 Speech

n o s r e p e h t f o e n o f o r e t c a r a h c e h t o t n i t h g i s n i n a s r e d a e r e h t s e v i g r o h t u a e h T

. s y a s e l p o e p e h t t a h w h g u o r h t k o o b e h t n

i Thecharacte ro fapersoncanbeseenf rom

. n o it a s r e v n o c g n i v a h d n a k a e p s e h s / e h r e v e n e h w

.

4 Pas tLfie

r a h c a n r a e l r e d a e r e h t g n it t e l y

B acter’ spast l fie,t heautho rcangive t heclue

t c e ri d y b e n o d e b n a c s i h T . r e t c a r a h c s ’ n o s r e p a e p a h s o t d e p l e h e v a h t a h t s t n e v e o t

r o , n o it a s r e v n o c s i h h g u o r h t , t h g u o h t s ’ n o s r e p e h t h g u o r h t , r o h t u a e h t y b t n e m m o c

. n o s r e p r e h t o n a f o m u i d e m e h t h g u o r h t

.

5 Conversaitono fOthers

e h t h g u o r h t r e t c a r a h c ’ s n o s r e p a o t e u l c s r e d a e r e h t e v i g o s l a n a c r o h t u a e h T

. m i h /r e h t u o b a y a s y e h t s g n i h t e h t d n a e l p o e p r e h t o f o n o it a s r e v n o

c Peoplet alkabou t

t c a r a h c e h t o t e u l c a s a e v i g n e tf o y a s y e h t s g n i h t e h t d n a e l p o e p r e h t

o e roft heperson

.t u o b a n e k o p s

.

6 Reaciton

Give t her eader scluet o apersons ’characte rbyl etitngt her eader sknowhow

. s t n e v e d n a s n o it a u ti s s u o ir a v o t s t c a e r n o s r e p t a h

t Theaciton sarer elatedt ohi so rhe r

.t h g u o h t r o s e v it o m

.

7 Driec tComment

c r o h t u a e h

T an desc irbe o rcommen ton a person’ scharacte rdrieclty. The

(26)
(27)
(28)
(29)
(30)
(31)
(32)
(33)
(34)
(35)
(36)

.

3 Theore itca lFramework

n e m y d a e rl a r e ti r w e h

T itoned some theo ire sabove that help the wrtie rto

n o it a l u m r o f m e l b o r p e h t r e w s n

a .The theo ire s are the theory o f characte r and

, n o it a z ir e t c a r a h

c andt heoryo fAmeircanizaiton .

h c f o y r o e h

T aracte r and characte irzaiton used to desc irbe the characters

n o s e s u c o f r e ti r w e h T . y r o t s e h t n i s c it s ir e t c a r a h

c thei ratttiudes ,acts ,and thei r

y r o e h T . s e h c e e p

s characte rand characte irzaitonused t oanalyze t hecharacters i nt he

. n o it a l u m r o f m e l b o r p t s ri f

n o it a z i n a c ir e m A f o y r o e h

T h s elp the wrtie rto analyze the second and th rid

e l b o r

p m formulaitons . Thi s theory h pe s l the wrtie r to revea l the method fo

e h t d n a n a c ir e m A e v it a N o t n o it a z i n a c ir e m

A effec to fAme ircanizaiton t hrough the

n o it a z ir e t c a r a h c f o n o it p ir c s e

d . Inaddiiton,t hereviewoft heNaitveAme ircancutlure

o n a c ir e m A e v it a N t u o b a e c n e r e f e r a r e ti r w e h t s e v i

g irgina lcutlure beforei nrtoduce

. n o it a z i n a c ir e m A o

t T he review abou tNaitve Ame ircan in modern itme help sthe

d n a t s r e d n u r e ti r

w howwhtiepeople rtyt oAme ircanizeNaitveAme ircanf rom itmet o

e m

(37)

4 2

I I I R E T P A H C

Y G O L O D O H T E M

.

A Objec toft heStudy

s i h t f o t c e j b o e h

T study focused on the nove lReservaiton Blue sw irtten by

e i x e l A n a m r e h S . i e x e l A n a m r e h

S i sa popula rNaitve Ame ircan author .Reservaiton

.l e v o n t s ri f e i x e l A n a m r e h S s i s e u l

B He i sno tonlypubilshed nove lbu talsopoerty ,

,s e ir o t s t r o h

s andscreenplay .Someo fhi sbes twork sareTheLoneRange randTonto

n e v a e H n i t h g if t s i

F (1994) ,The Busines so fFancy Dancing (1992) ,The Toughes t

d l r o W e h t n i n a i d n

I (2000) ,and The Absolutely True Diary of a Pa tr-itme Indian ,

k o o B l a n o it a N S . U 7 0 0 2 e h t n o w d n a l e v o n l a c i h p a r g o i b o t u a i m e s s i h s i h c i h w

. e r u t a r e ti L s ’ e l p o e P g n u o Y r o f d r a w A

s e u l B n o it a v r e s e

R pubilshed i n 1995and i n 1996,i twont he Ame ircanBook

.s d r a w

A Thestoryi nt hi snoveli saboutt hej ourneyoft hecharacte rnamedThoma s

. d n a b c i s u m a d li u b o t s d n e ir f s i h d n a e ri F e h t s d li u

B Thestoryshowed t her aiseand

.s n a c ir e m A e v it a N t u o b a s e u s s i y n a m s n i a t n o c d n a , d n a b r i e h t f o s ll a f

tr e b o R h ti w d e tr a t s y r o t s e h

T Johnson’ s ar irva l a t a Spokane Indian

w n o it a v r e s e

r herehemeet sThoma sBulids t heFrie,who l ead shim t oa womanwho

n i s e v

il deep fores ttha tthe blue ssinge rha sbeen dreaming about ,Big Mom. Thi s

d e v il n a m o w y r a n i d r

o hundred so fyear soldand i ncrediblywise .Thoma sBulidst he

a t e ri

F ke sJohnson t o see Big Mom a tWellPoin tMountain ,Johnson l eave shim hi s

,r a ti u

(38)

.

B Approachoft heStudy

s e s u r e ti r w e h

T the sociocutlura lhistoirca lapproachto analyzet heproblem s

n

i thi sstudy .Thi sapproach use because t hi sstudy focuse son the cutlure, i denttiy ,

n I . d n u o r g k c a b l a c ir o t s i h d n

a Reading and Wriitng abou tLtierature stated, that t he

l a c ir o t s i h l a r u tl u c o i c o

s approach insists the only way t o locate the rea lwork i sin

e h t o t e c n e r e f e

r civiilzaiton t ha tproduced ti .They de ifne civiilzaitonas t heatttiude s

e s e h t s e k a t e r u t a r e ti l t a h t t u o t n i o p d n a e l p o e p f o p u o r g c if i c e p s a f o s n o it c a d n a

s i h T . ) 9 : 1 7 9 1 , s d o o W d n a r e g r e b r h o R ( r e tt a m t c e j b u s s ti s a s n o it c a d n a s e d u ti tt a

p p a e h t t a h t s n a e

m roach focus t o examine t he relevancy o fciviilzaiton i n l tierature

. k r o

w Thes ociocutlura lhisto irca lapproachcontaint wofactors :Frist ,accuracyi nt he

e h t o t y li r a s s e c e n t o n t u b , n a ir o t s i h e h t o t e u l a v f o s i s t c a f l a c ir o t s i h f o n o it a t n e s e r p

e S . r o h t u

a cond ,a work o fltierature migh thave histo irca lsigni ifcance ,bu tno t

e c n a c if i n g i s y r a r e ti l y li r a s s e c e

n matter( Rohrberge randWoods ,1971 :11) .

, e r o m r e h tr u

F the rtadiitona lhisto irca lapproach to ltierature usually take s

c o i c o s e h t f o t c e p s a e m o s s i s a

b utlura lframe o freference ,combining i twtih an

. y r o t s i h y r a r e ti l n i t s e r e t n i d n a f o e g d e l w o n k s a l l e w s a l a c i h p a r g o i b e h t n i t s e r e t n i

o t n o it a l e r n i k r o w e h t o s l a t u b f l e s ti k r o w e h t y l n o t o n d e n i m a x e c it ir c l a c ir o t s i h e h T

o t r o r o h t u a e m a s e h t y b s r e h t

o work so fsimlia rkind .There i salso a phliosophyo f

s s e r p x e e b n a c h c i h w , e fi

l and viewed in mora lterms (Rohrberge rand Woods ,

: 1 7 9

(39)

h c a o r p p a l a c ir o t s i h l a r u tl u c o i c o s e h

T i srelevant t o t he nove lbecause i twli l

m e l b o r p e h t r e w s n a o t r e ti r w e h t p l e

h formulaitons , which are related to

d n a n o it a z i n a c ir e m

A Naitve Ame ircan perspecitve on t heri i denttiy and cutlure .The

a x e l li w r e ti r

w mine the Naitve Ame ircan cutlure ,identtiy, and Ame ircanizaiton

c e h t h g u o r h

t haracters .Therefore,t hi sapproachi si mpo trantt obeusedi nt hiss tudy.

.

C Methodoft heStudy

e h

T method of t hi sstudy wa s ilbrary research .The wrtie rread ,gathe rsome

a m r o f n i d n a a t a

d itonf romapprop iratebook swhicharerelatedwtiht hesubjec toft he

e h t , n o it a m r o f n i l u f e s u e r o m t e g o T . y d u t

s wrtier collected some data from i nternet ,

s a w h c i h

w notf oundint hebook.

l e v o n e h t s a w y d u t s e h t f o a t a d y r a m ir p e h

T ReservaitonBlues .Theothe rdata

e r e

w takenf rom books ,aritcle ,encyclopedia,j ournal ,anddicitonary .Thewrtie ralso

h c i h w d e h c a o r p p a d n a y r o e h t t n a tr o p m i e m o s d e t c e ll o

c si eu d s in thi sstudy .The

n o it a z i n a c ir e m A f o y r o e h t d n a n o it a z ir e t c a r a h c f o y r o e h t e r e w s e ir o e h

t .Theapproach

u o

w ld eu s sociocutlura lhisto irca lapproach.

s i h t n i p e t s t s ri f e h

T study wa sreading and understanding t he nove ldeeply .

s e e h t d n if o t d e ir t r e ti r w e h

T senital i ssuei n t henove.l I n t hesecond step,the wrtie r

e b o t c i p o t e h t d e d i c e

d discussedint hestudy ,whichwast heAme ircanizaitont oward

y ti t n e d i d n a e r u tl u c n a c ir e m A e v it a

N andt ired t o ifnd r eferences t hat r elevant t o t he

c i p o

t .The thrid step created problem formulaiton to analyze the topic .The wrtie r

. n o it a l u m r o f m e l b o r p e h t r e w s n a o t y r o e h t e h t d e il p p

(40)

. y r o t s e h t n i r e t c a r a h c e h t e z y l a n a o t n o it a z ir e t c a r a h c f o y r o e h t d e s u r e ti r w e h T

, n e h

T theoryo fAme ircanizaitonhelpedt hewrtiert odesc irbeAme ircanizaitonandi t

it a N e h t d r a w o t t c e f f

e ve Ame ircanperspecitve oft heri i denttiyand cutlure. Thel as t

step oft hi sstudy wa sdrawing conclusion f romt he analysi sofproblem f ormulaiton .

s a w r e ti r w e h

T able t o draw t he way o fAme ircanizaitonand Ame ircanizaiton effec t

l e v o n n i d e t c e lf e r s

a ReservaitonBlues .

(41)

8 2

V I R E T P A H C

S I S Y L A N A

e h t ,r e t p a h c s i h t n

I wrtie rmakes analysi sbasedon t he problem f ormulaiton s

n i d e t a t s e r a t a h

t thef ris tchapter .Therearet hreepa tr so fanalysisint hi sstudy.The

tr a p t s ri

f i sabou thow the character si desc irbed in the novel .The second p a tr

s e if it n e d

i Ameircanizaitonexpe irence.I nt he l as tpa tr,t he wrtie rshows t heeffec to f

. n a c ir e m A e v it a N o t n o it a z i n a c ir e m A

.

A T Dhe escrip itonoft heNa itveAmericanCharacters

.

1 Thoma sBulidtheFire

e h t n i s r e t c a r a h c n i a m e h t f o e n o s i s a m o h

T story .He i sa Spokane t irbe

. d o o h d li h c e c n i s n o it a v r e s e r n i g n i v il s a h e h d n a n a i d n

I He ha stanned skin ;long

. e c a f e g a r e v a s a h d n a , tr o h s ,s d i a r b o t n i e d a m r i a h k c a l b

t ’ n d i d e h e s u a c e b , m i h o t n o it n e tt a h c u m d i a p r e v e n d a h n e m o w n a i d n I

e m o s e b o t d n e t e r

p tweniteth- centurywar iror ,atlernaitngbetween bilndr age t

s e r e t n i s i d d e n g i e f d n

a (A ielex ,1995 :4 .)

e b ir c s e d n o it a t o u q e h

T s tha tThomasi sanordinarymanwtihl ackofappealt oatrtac t

e H . n e m o

w preferstobecomehimsel fbettert hanpretends tobes omeoneelse.I nthe

s e v il s a m o h T , n o it a v r e s e

r in t he Governmen tHUD House wtih hi sdrunkard f ather.

e s u o h f o k c a l d n a d e h s i n if f l a h s i t i e s u a c e b e v il o t e c a l p e c i n a t o n s i e s u o h s i H

. e r u ti n r u

f “Du irng hi schlidhood ,Thoma shad slep tin the hafl-ifnished basement ,

a w r o f s t e k n a l b o w t h ti

(42)

d o o h d li h c s a m o h

T memo ires ea llr f fu o many hardships. sH i mothe rdied

r e c n a c h c a m o t s f o e s u a c e

b whenhewa sa chlid .His f athe rbecamea drunkarda tfe r

. d e i d r e h t o m s i

h Du irnghi syoungage ,Thomasf athe rwasagoodbaske tbal lplayer .

n o it a v r e s e r n i e l p o e p t a h t g n i h t e m o s e m a c e b l l a b t e k s a b n i t n e l a t r e h t a f s a m o h T

. o r e h l a b ir t s a m i h t h g u o h t d n a d e t a i c e r p p

a Thoma swaslef talonea thomewhenhi s

n i k n u r d t o g r e h t a

f somewh ere e . lse “He wasn’ tugly ,though ,jus tmarked by

d e r e m o s e k il , s s e n il e n o

l Lwas t attooed i n hi sforehead (Alexie ,1995:4 .)” Thoma s

s a

h a grea tdisappointment t oward his f ather .The deado fhi smothe rand beinglef t

n w o r g m i h e d a m r e h t a f s i h h ti w e n o l

a up a slonely and independent person. He

. e r e h t m o r f t u o t e g o t s e ir t d n a n o it a v r e s e r n i g n i v il s e k il s i d

s i s a m o h

T a poltie person and st li lfollows Indian rtadiiton beileve swhere

n a c ir e m A e v it a N r e h t o e m o

s s donotf ollowi tanymore .

a k o p S l a n o it i d a r

T nebeilevesi nr ule so fconductt ha taren’ tcollectedi ntoany e h t , s r a e y d n a s u o h t r o F . e b ir t e h t f o t s o m y b n e tt o g r o f n e e b e v a h d n a k o o b

, d e t s a e f s e n a k o p

S danced ,conductedconversaitons ,andcou tredeachothe rin n

i a tr e

c ways .Mos tIndian sdon’ tfollow those rule sanymore ,bu tThoma s t

p m e tt a e h t e d a

m (Alexie,1995:5 .)

s w o h s t

I tha tThomas adopted the way o fold rtadiitona lNaitve Ame ircan .When

a g e b d n a r e g n a rt s e h t d e p l e h e h , r e g n a rt s a t e m s a m o h

T n the fris tconversaiton .

Peoples in reservaiton t hough ttha tThoma swas a stupid person because he helped

e h

t srtanger .”Thoma sdidn’ tgamble wtih hi smoney ,bu the did gamble wtih hi s

.) 2 1 : 5 9 9 1 , e i x e l A ( ” o ti r r u b e v a w o r c i m a p u d e t a e h e h n e h w h c a m o t

s Whent heothe r

il b m a g o t e k il n o it a v r e s e r n i n a c ir e m A e v it a

N nganddrunk ,Thoma sprefers tospend

. y a w d o o g n i ti t n e p s d n a y l p p u s d o o f t h g u o b o t y e n o m s i

(43)

n o it a v r e s e r n

I , Thoma scalled a smisif tstorytelle ro fthe Spokane Indian

. e b ir T

s e h t o l c r u o y o t n i d e b m il c s e ir o t s e ri F e h t d li u B s a m o h

T ilke sand gave you

e n o m o r f e c n e t n e s a n e v e d e t a e p e r u o y f I . d e h c t a r c s e b t o n d l u o c t a h t s e h c ti

t r u o y , s e ir o t s e s o h t f

o hroa twa snevert hes ameagain(Alexie ,1995 :15.)

s a m o h

T ilkes to t ell t irba lstory t o othe rpeople as t he wayo fold NaitveAme ircan

t s e r a h s o t s t n a w e H .t s a p e h t t u o b a y r o t s d e r a h

s o ires t ha thave power t o heal the

g n il e e f e v it a g e

n even fii tseem spossiblebecausepeople sdono tbeilevei tanymore .

e p h g u o h t n e v

E ople in reservaiton beilef i ti sonly a bullshi tstory ,Thoma sneve r

p u e v i

g when he shared hi sstory . When face a problem Thoma swli lhandle i t

d n a y l m l a

c maturely .Thoma sactually i sa Cathoilc bu the stopped beileve in

Cathoilca tfe rexpe irencedanunpleasantt hings .

d n u o f d n a y a d e n o f o h c r u h c e h t o t t n e w I . e n i n s a w I n e h w t i u q I , w o n k u o Y

. s k o o b d n a s d r o c e r g n i n r u b s n a i d n I .s k o o b d n a s d r o c e r e h t g n i n r u b y d o b y r e v e

. e n i n t s u j s a w I f i n e v E . ti e v e il e b t ’ n d l u o c

I These are devi’l stools! The

h t a C e ti h

w oilc p ires tbellowed a shi sIndian lfock threw book sand record e

ri f e h t o t n

i (Alexie ,1995:146 .)

o l s a m o h T e d a m t n e v e t a h

T s e hi sonlypleasuredu irng chlidhood .Thoma smourned

e l p o e p n a i d n I w o h r o

f easliyburn theri f olkstory book sand I ndian recordbook .s I t

o l m i h e d a

m s ehisf atiht oGod.“’Ivespen tmywholel fiebeingi gnored . ’Imusedt o

w o h k n i h t t s u J . n e t s il o t e m o c , y a l p s u r a e h o t e m o c , w o n s u r a e h o t t n a w e l p o e p f I .t i

g n o rt s a s a h s a m o h T . ) 2 1 2 : 5 9 9 1 , e i x e l a ( ” s u o m a f t e g e w f i e m o c l li w y n a

m desriet o

(44)

.

2 VictorJoseph

r o t c i

V Joseph i sa rtouble make rcharacters in the novel .He i sa con ifden t

. n o s r e

p He ilkes wea irng lfashyclothe sanddonotr eallycarebythewayhelook .s tI

e t o u q g n i w o ll o f e h t n i d e t a t s s

i s

r e v e n d a h d n a s t n a p r e t s e y l o p d n a s tr i h s k li s f o l l u f f o t e s o l c a f o t h g u o b e H

t h g i e w y n a d e n i a g t ’ n d a h e H . w e n g n i h t y n a y u b o t n e h t e c n i s y e n o m y n a d a h

y l e r a b d n a d e r e tt a t e r e w s e h t o l c e h t t u b , s r a e y n e e tr i h t n

i held to hi sbody

e i x e l A

( ,1995:12).

s e il l u b y ll a u s u e h d n a y o b d a b a s i r o t c i

V Thoma sBu lid t he Frie .“Tel lme

l a s a m o h T d e z e e u q s d n a d i a s r o t c i V , r a ti u g d e n m a d d o g r u o y f o e m a n e h

t tilteharde r

) 4 1 : 5 9 9 1 , e i x e l A

( ”. Het alksi nr udewayand eu s s violence’si fhi sdesriei nsaitable .

s s e l b o j s i r o t c i

V and doe snotmake anymoneya tall .He i saffected by mateirails itc

e m o c e b y e n o m f o t o l s a h d n a g n i h

t oneo fhi sambiitons . Heagrees to j oin Thoma s

. e m a f d n a y e n o m m i h e v i g l li w t i e s u a c e b d n a b

o m d e t n a w r o t c i

V ney so bad t ha the alway sspen t ti t oo quick ,a s fit he few . y e n o M . e r o m g n it t e g m o r f m i h d e t n e v e r p w o h e m o s t e ll a w s i h n i s r a ll o d

t u o b a d e k l a t r o t c i v l l a s ’t a h

T (Alexie ,1995 ;19).

e

H si depends his i ncomeby ka s hisf irend t o paywha theneed. “’Imf eeilng ilke a

? r o i n u J , k n i h t u o y o d t a h W . r e e

b Le’ts knock of fealry and head fo rthe tavern

. ” ) 0 2 : 5 9 9 1 , e i x e l A

( When hegets t he money ,hewli lspend hi smoney t o buybee r

. k n u r d g n it t e g d n

a H irisd kn gi n habti sbecomehi sge tawayt of orge tproblemandhi s

. y a d s s e l b o

j

. y li m a f s i h m o r f e r a c a t u o h ti w p u w e r g r o t c i

V Hi sfathe rdied because o f

h ti w n i a g a d e ir r a m r e h t o m s i h d n a k c a tt a t r a e

(45)

n e r d li h c e v it a n e v a h o t e k

il .Victo ro tfen received harsh rteatmen tfrom hi swhtie

. r e h t a

f Hi sparen to tfens en tvictori ntoCathoilccampo rmissions chool .

d e r e b m e m e r e H . y li m a f s i h h ti w s e ir r e b e l k c u h g n i k c i p d e r e b m e m e r e H

e h t n o y a t s o t d e w o ll a s y o b n a i d n I r e h t o , d n e ir f s i h h ti w s e e rt g n i b m il c

s y o b n a i d n I e s o h T . n o it a v r e s e

r cilmbed the ilmb so fthree every summer )

8 4 1 : 5 9 9 1 , e i x e l A

( .

n a c ir e m A e v it a N r e h t o h ti w y a l p o t d e s s i m e h y o b g n u o y a s

A chlidrenin nature.I n

Mission schoo lVicto rwa scu toff f romNaitve Ame ircan cutlure .The p ires tshaved

. k r o w e s u o h o d o t m i h t h g u a t d n a d l a b o t n i ri a h k c a l b g n o l s i

h I tmadehimgrownup

o h w n o s r e p a s

a dd i no tbeileve i n NaitveAme ircan cutlure and beile fwhich stated

f e h t n

i ollowing quotaiton: “oh” ,Victo rsaid ,“don’ ttel lme she’ ssome medicine

t’ n o d t I . p a r c h c n u b l l a s ’t a h T . g n i h t e m o s r o n a m o

w work” (Alexie ,1995 ;199 .)

t c i

V o rhas modern though ta sNaitve Ame ircan also he hate thing tha tsound

. m i h r o f e s n e s n o n

r o t c i

V also prefer sto have relaitonship wtih whtie women than Na itve

. n e m o w n a c ir e m

A Event houghhavingar elaitonshipwtihwhtiewomenwerebadi n

n a c ir e m A e v it a

N women’s percepiton ,victo rstli ldid no tcare :“Who say Iwan tan

e m o s e e s I ? y a w y n a n a m o w n a i d n

I good-looking whtie woman here (Alexie ,1995 :

. ” ) 6

5 Victo ri sa person who doe sno tcare wtih othe ropinion abou thimsel fand

e h g n i h t e m o s g n i o d p e e

(46)

.

3 WarmWaterSisters

m r a W s s e h C d n a s r e k c e h

C Wate rareNaitveAme ircan women f romFlathead

s e b ir c s e d s r e k c e h C . n o it a v r e s e

r a sabeautfiul ,hardt oge,tandpopula rwomanamong

e v it a

N Ame ircan man: “Al lthe young Flathead men called he rltilte mis sNaitve

. ” ) 5 5 : 5 9 9 1 , e i x e l A ( g n o s g n it r u o c r i e h t o t n e t s il o t d e s u f e r l li t s e h s t u b , n a c ir e m A

h

C ecker shave brown skin and darkhai r ilke t heother so fNaitveAme ircan women.

r e t a W m r a W s s e h C r e t s i s r e d l o r e

H i sanenergeitcwoman ,havedarkeyes ,herf acei s

e h s t u b , l u fi t u a e b f l e s r e h d e r e d i s n o c r e v e n s s e h C “ : r e t s i s r e g n u o y r e h s a y tt e r p s a t o n

e k

il dherf acewel lenough”( Alexie ,1995:60) .Chessi sacon ifden twomanandcares

t u o b a e r o

m heri nnert hanoutside.I tmadeher becomemorematuret hanhers iste .r

s r e t s i s s r e t a W m r a

W grew up i n pove trycondiiton .Warm Wate rsiste rha sa

r e h t o r b e lt ti

l namedBackgammon. Thedead o ftheri ltilte brothe rbrough tmiserable

o t g n i h

t theri famliy .Theri fathe rbecame a drunke rand he rmothe rleaved them

. r e h t a f s i h h ti w r e h t e g o t d e v il n e h w e fi l d r a h a e v a h r e t s i s r e h d n a s r e k c e h C . d n i h e b

c y l e r a r r e h t a f ri e h

T amebackhomeandgavet hemf oods .

l e h

T ack o faffeciton from he rfathe rmade Checkers only date an old man :

r e v e n d n a n e m n a i d n I r e d l o e h t d e s a h c s y a w l a s r e k c e h C t a h t d e r e b m e m e r s s e h C “

y e h t t a d e k o o l n e v

e oung bucks” (Alexie ,1995:104) .Checker salso did no tmind t o

. n a m e ti h w h ti w e v o l n i g n il l a f

h e k il n

U i syounge rsister ,Ches sprefer sto date Naitve Ame ircan man .She

s a

(47)
(48)
(49)
(50)
(51)
(52)
(53)
(54)
(55)

s i e t s a t e h t d n a t a e o t e t a ir p o r p p a t o n s i ti l e e f y e h T . d o o f y ti d o m m o c t a e e t a h s d n e ir f

. e l b a r e s i m

.

C The E ffec to fAmericaniza iton t oward Na itve Americans ’ Perspec itve on

r i e h

T OwnCutlureandI denttiya sSeenthrought heCharacters

n o it a z i n a c ir e m A f o t c e f f e e h t e b ir c s e d o t s t n a w r e ti r w e h t t r a p d ri h t s i h t n I

d r a w o

t Naitve Ame ircan cutlure and i denttiy. There are some effects t hat t he wrtie r

.s i s y l a n a e h t m o r f s d n if

.

1 AshamedandUncomfortablewtihTheirI denttiya sNa itveAmericans

n i e c a l p g n i e

B reservaiton made Thoma sBulid the frie and hi sf irends lose

ri e h

t spi ir ta sthe rea lNaitve Ame ircan .They are bound wtih regulaitons tha tU.S

e i c o s e ti h w m o r f r a f e v il y e h t n o it a v r e s e r n I . m e h t o t e v i g t n e m n r e v o

g tyandi tmake

. y t e i c o s e ti h w h ti w e z il a i c o s t o n n a c m e h t

e v a H . il e d e h t f o r e n w o d n a k o o c y r f e h t t a k c a b d e ll e y s s e rt i a w e h t ,t i K , y e H

d e k s a t i K ? n a e m u o y o d t a h W ? e r e h n i s n a i d n I y n a n e e s u o

y .Youmeanf rom

e ll e y s s e rt i a w e h t , d i p u t s , o N ? t a h w r o a i d n

I d .Indian s ilke in the western

g n o l a r o f d n u o r a e s o h t f o e n o n n e e s t o n m a I , h O . o m i n o r e G e k i L . s e i v o m

a e r e h t e r u s e r a u o Y . e c n o k o o b a n i w a s I . e m

it resitll I ndian saround a tall?

9 3 2 : 5 9 9 1 , e i x e l A

( ).

w n o it a v r e s e r e d i s t u o o g s s e h C d n a s a m o h T n e h

W htie people mistake them a sa

fi d m o r f e l p o e

p feren tnaitonal tiy .They think tha tNaitve Ameircan do no texis t

. e r o m y n

a ”Do youspeakEngilsh?”Ki tasked.”Le’t sge toutf romhere,”Ches ssaidt o

s a m o h

T .” (Alexie ,1995:239). Even though some whtie people recognize them a s

, n a c ir e m A e v it a

N they stli lhave assumpiton naitve Ame ircan i sstli lp irmiitve and

e g a u g n a l t n e r e f fi d h ti w k a e p

(56)

s d n e ir f s i h d n a s a m o h T e k a

m fee lthey are unacceptable in whtie society. Thomas

e h t h ti w g n it s u g s i d l e e f e r u tl u c n a c ir e m A e v it a N n i e v e il e b l li t s o h w e ri F e h t d li u B

s a n a c ir e m A e v it a N d e r u t c i p e l p o e p e ti h w e h T . e b ir t s i h e b ir c s e d e l p o e p e ti h w f o y a w

e d ir p s i h t r u h s i tI . g n o s d n a , s e ir o t s , e i v o m h g u o r h t e l p o e p m o t s u c d l o r o e g a v a s

a a s

. n a c ir e m A e v it a N a

e h

T disc irminaitont hat t hey got f rom whtiepeople madet hem l ow con ifden t

m o c n u d n

a fotrablewtiht herii denttiya sNaitveAme ircan.

; s e o h s e h t n o d e ir t s r e t a W m r a W e h t s a d e r r a t s , e l p o e p e ti h w , s r e p p o h s r e h t O

r i e h t y u b o t e v a h s d i k n a i d n I r o o p e s o h T . s e y e r i e h t n i y ti p e h t w a s s r e k c e h C

l a it n e s s e e h t r o f d i a p y e h t s a d e ir c s r e t s i s h t o B . t e k r a m r e p u s a n i s e o h

s food

s y l g u e s o h t d n a s m e

ti hoes(Alexei ,1995:137).

tl e f r e t s i s r e t a W m r a

W ashamed wtih the way whtie people look a tthem ilke a

. n o s r e p s s e l e p o

h Checkersbeginuncomfo trablewtihheridenttiyandbegini mtiaitng

. e l p o e p e ti h

w “Ij ustl ookedatt ha tblondehai randblueeye sand Iknow Iwantedt o

.) 0 4 1 : 5 9 9 1 , i e x e l A ( ” .s lr i g e ti h w e s o h t f o e n o e k il t s u j e b o t d e t n a w I . t a h t e k il k o o l

e h

S wants to be ilke whtie people w ho ilve in a nice place ,ea ta good food ,and

a n i d e s s e r

d goodway. Sher eailzedi fsheha saf ai rcomplexionandclean ilkewhtie

. n o it a v r e s e r n i e v il t o n l li w e h s , e l p o e

p I ti smade her more praising whtie people

n e h t y ti t n e d

i rh e owni denttiy.

n a d i a s r o t c i V ; n a m o w e ti h w l u fi t u a e b h ti w p u d e ll if s ’ y ti c s i h T

“ d laughed hi s

h g u a l k n u r

d .”(Alexie ,1995:233) .Victo rJoseph prefer sto date whtie woman than

. n a m o w n a c ir e m A e v it a

N He i snot i nterested fo rhaving relaitonship wtih Naitve

h p e s o J r o t c i V . n e m o w n a c ir e m

(57)

e ti h w h ti w p i h s n o it a l e

r womengive Victo rap irdet o hisi denttiytha thecanalsodo

e ti h w t a h

w people can do.Whtie peoplestli lhave negaitveprejudice t owardNaitve

? s e s a c e s e h t n i e v a h e w k n i h t u o y o d t a h W “ . d i a s r o t c i V ” .t h g ir n m a D “ . n a c ir e m A

e n i h c a

M guns? Bow sand arrows?”(Alexie ,1995:134) .Victo rJoseph expresses shi

e m a h

s feeilng ni gan e rr f o whtie people recognize his i denttiy a ssavages .He feels

g n i e b s i n a c ir e m A e v it a N s a y ti t n e d i s i

h despisedbywhtiepeople .s

.

2 Forge tTheirNa itveAmericanCutlure Va lue

d n a , h p e s o J r o t c i V , e ri F e h t d li u B s a m o h

T Warm Wate rsiste ralsohas dfi ifcutly

g n i d n if n

i job .Theyonlyge tasmallj obwhichi st hewagedoeno tenoughf o rilving.

d n e p e d y e h

T no thei r ilve from food commodtiy and gambilng.Money and pove try

l b o r p s u o ir e s a e m o c e

b em tha taffected theri lfie and cutlure value a s Naitve

n a c ir e m

A .

s i h n i s r a ll o d o w t y tr o f d a h e H . d i a s s a m o h T , y e n o m e h t e v a h I e s u a c e B

r o t c i v d n a r o i n u j n a h t e r o m h c u m , e m o h t a n e d d i h y tf if r e h t o n a d n a t e k c o p

d a

h together .Victo runderstoodt heeconomic soft hedeal ,howmoneyequal s e h t d e g n a h c e c n o l li b r a ll o d a t a h t r o o p o s n o it a v r e s e r a n o y ll a i c e p s e , r e w o p

s k l a W d i v a D . s n o it c e l e l a b ir t f o e m o c t u

o Alongwa selectedCouncliman bya

d i a p d ’ e h e s u a c e b e t o v e l g n i

s Leste rFalls Apar ta dollar t o punch t he ballo t m

i h r o

f (Alexie ,1995:46 .)

n a c ir e m A e v it a N e h t , d r a ll i B o t g n i d r o c c

A ’ s percepiton in estabilshing thei r

h c a e e t a i c e r p p a d n a p i h s n o it a l e r d o o g e d a m y e h T . e n a m u h s a w e n o y n a o t p i h s n o it a l e r

. ) 6 2 : 4 7 9 1 ( e l p o e p r e h t

o The powe ro fmoney affected the cutlural value o fthe

s r e t c a r a h

c .Thomas ,Victor ,andWarmwate rsistersr eailzehowan amoun to fmoney

. e fi l d o o g a d n a t n a w y e h t ll a m e h t e v i g n a

c The humantiy value t hat t hei rancesto r

e r o m y n a d il a v t o n s i m e h t o t t h g u a

Figur

Memperbarui...

Referensi

Memperbarui...

Unduh sekarang (66 Halaman)
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