FILSAFAT BISNIS ADMINISTRASI BISNIS FAKU

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Teks penuh

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FILSAFAT BISNIS

ADMINISTRASI BISNIS – FAKULTAS ILMU ADMNISTRASI – UNIVERSITAS BRAWIJAYA

Reichenbach

Hempel

Ayer Neurath

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TEMA KULIAH

1. Basic philosophical concepts 2. The Nature of Business

3. The Corporate Objective 4. Philosophy of the products

5. The internal environment of business

6. The external suprastructure in the environment of business

7. The External infrastructure in the business environment

8. Production (Principles and Perspectives) 9. Marketing (imperatives and Practices)

10. The Business Mover (The Human Factors of Business)

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SEJARAH PERKEMBANGAN PEMIKIRAN FILSAFAT

• pemikiran Yunani Kuno (sistem berpikir) tidak dapat dilepaskan dari keberadaan kelahiran dan perkembangan filsafat, dalam hal ini adalah sejarah filsafat

• tradisi sejarah filsafat mengenal 3 (tiga) tradisi besar sejarah, yakni tradisi: (1) Sejarah Filsafat India (sekitar2000 SM –dewasa ini), (2) Sejarah Filsafat Cina (sekitar 600 SM – dewasa ini), dan (3) Sejarah Filsafat Barat (sekitar 600 SM –dewasa ini).

Pemikiran Yunani Kuno: Dari Mitos ke Logos

• Filsafat pada abad ini dikuasai dengan pemikiran keagamaan (Kristiani). Puncak filsafat

Kristiani ini adalah Patristik (Lt. ―Patres‖/Bapa-bapa Gereja) dan Skolastik Patristik sendiri dibagi atas Patristik Yunani (atau Patristik Timur) dan Patristik Latin (atau Patristik Barat).

• Jaman Skolastik (sekitar tahun 1000), pengaruh Plotinus diambil alih oleh Aristoteles. Pemikiran-pemikiran Ariestoteles kembali dikenal dalam karya beberapa filsuf Yahudi maupun Islam, terutama melalui Avicena (Ibn. Sina, 980-1037), Averroes (Ibn. Rushd, 1126-1198) dan Maimonides (1135-1204).

Jaman Patristik dan Skolastik: Filsafat Dalam dan Untuk

Agama

Abad Pertengahan (400-1500 )

•Jembatan antara Abad pertengahan dan Jaman Modern adalah jaman ―Renesanse‖, periode sekitar 1400 -1600

•Pembaharuan yang sangat bermakna pada jaman ini ((renesanse) adalah ―antroposentrisme‖nya. Artinya

pusat perhatian pemikiran tidak lagi kosmos seperti pada jaman Yunani Kuno, atau Tuhan sebagaimana dalam Abad Pertengahan.

•Filsuf-filsuf pada jaman ini disebut sebagai para ―empirikus‖, yang ajarannya lebih menekankan bahwa suatu

pengetahuan adalah mungkin karena adanya pengalaman indrawi manusia (Lt. ―empeira‖, ―pengalaman‖).

Jaman Modern: Lahir dan Berkembangan

Tradisi Ilmu Pengetahuan

Masa Kini: Suatu Peneguhan Ilmu Yang

Otonom

•Pada abad ketujuh belas dan kedelapan belas perkembangan pemikiran filsafat pengetahuan memperlihatkan aliran-aliran besar: rasionalisme, empirisme dan idealisme dengan

mempertahankan wilayah-wilayah yang luas

•Ilmu Sosial, aliran yang tidak bisa dilewatkan adalah positivisme yang digagas oleh filsuf A. Comte (1798-1857). Menurut Comte pemikiran manusia dapat dibagi kedalam tiga tahap/fase, yaitu tahap: (1) teologis, (2) Metafisis, dan (3) Positif-ilmiah

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Immanuel Kant: Faham

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PERKEMBANGAN PEMIKIRAN

didasarkan atas mitos dan kepercayaan saja) terjadi pada dekade awal sejarah manusia

Arus besar gerakan rasionalisme ,

empirisme dan positivisme

Thales (624-548 SM),

Anaximenes (590-528 SM), Phitagoras (532 SM),

Heraklitos (535-475 SM), Parminides (540-475 SM)

kehidupan manusia pada tataran era modernitas yang berbasis pada

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PERKEMBANGAN FILSAFAT

 Menurut sejarah kelahirannya istilah filsafat terwujud sebagai sikap yang ditauladankan oleh Socrates. Yaitu sikap seorang yang cinta kebijaksanaan yang mendorong pikiran seseorang untuk terus menerus maju dan mencari kepuasan pikiran,

tidak merasa dirinya ahli, tidak menyerah kepada kemalasan, terus menerus mengembangkan penalarannya untuk

mendapatkan kebenaran.

Timbulnya filsafat karena manusia merasa kagum dan merasa heran

 Pada tahap awalnya kekaguman atau keheranan itu terarah pada gejala-gejala alam. Dalam perkembangan lebih lanjut, karena persoalan manusia makin kompleks. Sekalipun

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PERKEMBANGAN FILSAFAT

ERA TAHUN TOKOH PAHAM URAIAN

YUNANI KUNO

+ 600 SM Para Filsuf Mitologi Berdasarkan cerita dongeng

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PERKEMBANGAN FILSAFAT (CON)

ERA TAHUN TOKOH PAHAM URAIAN

Abad

Pertengahan

300 SM – 1300 M

Droysen Teocentris Sinkronkan yang

berbeda/aplikatif

Abad Modern 1596-1650

1632-1704

Cogito ergo sum /saya berfikir, saya ada

Empiris

Empiris/Sepere ande

Empiris

Merobah dari keimanan ke ratio Pengetahuan dari pikiran.

Pengetahuan dari pengalaman

Sintesis rational dan empiris

Positivisme

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CIRI-CIRI REVOLUSI ILMU PENGETAHUAN

 Perubahan cara berfikir, dari rational, moral, metafisik, teosentris ke cara berfikir empiris/posistifisme yang

berbasis matematik, fisika, astronomi dan lain sebagainya.

 Struktur ilmu pengetahuan bersifat, obyektif, bebas nilai, dan tidak terikat pada etika

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PEMISAHAN PENGETAHUAN DENGAN KEIMANAN

 Sumber pengetahuan diperoleh dari:

1. Empirisme

2. Rasionalisme

3. Intuisi

4. Wahyu

 Pemisahan telah ada sejak masa Socrates yang menolak mitologi sebagai paham dasar pemikiran

 Dengan munculnya cara berfikir rational, terjadi pemisahan antara ilmu dan iman

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BIDANG INDUK FILSAFAT

• obyek material : kebaikan dan keindahan,etika; dan estetika

• menyangkut dimensi ruang dan waktu dalam sebuah kajian

•obyek materialnya: eksistensi (keberadaan) dan esensi (hakekat), metafisika umum (ontologi); metafisika khusus: antropologi (tentang manusia); kosmologi (tentang alam semesta); teologi (tentang tuhan)

• obyek materialnya,:

pengetahuan (―episteme‖) dan kebenaran,

epistemologi; logika; dan kritik ilmu-ilmu

nilai Yang Terdapat Dalam Sebuah

Tindakan 4. Sejarah

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PENGERTIAN FILSAFAT

 Arti Bahasa

 Kata falsafah atau filsafat dalam bahasa Indonesia merupakan kata

serapan dari bahasa Arab , yang juga diambil dari bahasa Yunani;

Φιλοσοφία philosophia. Dalam bahasa ini, kata ini merupakan kata majemuk dan berasal dari kata-kata (philia = persahabatan, cinta dsb.) dan (sophia = "kebijaksanaan"). Sehingga arti harafiahnya adalah

seorang ―pencinta kebijaksanaan‖.

 Ada juga yang mengurainya dengan kata philare atau philo yang berarti cinta dalam arti yang luas yaitu ―ingin‖ dan karena itu lalu berusaha untuk mencapai yang

diinginkan itu. Kemudian dirangkai dengan kata Sophia artinya kebijakan, pandai dan pengertian yang mendalam. Dengan mengacu pada konsepsi ini maka dipahami bahwa filsafat dapat diartikan sebagai sebuah perwujudan dari keinginan untuk mencapai pandai dan cinta pada kabijakan .

 ―filsafat‖ adalah studi yang mempelajari seluruh fenomena kehidupan dan pemikiran manusia secara kritis , mendeteksi problem secara radikal, mencari solusi untuk itu, memberikan

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KARAKTERISTIK FILSAFAT

(Kattsoff )

1.

Filsafat adalah berpikir secara kritis.

2.

Filsafat adalah berpikir dalam bentuknya

yang sistematis.

3.

Filsafat menghasilkan sesuatu yang runtut.

4.

Filsafat adalah berpikir secara rasional.

5.

Filsafat bersifat komprehensif.

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PENGERTIAN FILSAFAT

Filsafat adalah pengetahuan metodis, sistematis dan koheren tentang seluruh kenyataan (realitas). Filsafat merupakan

refleksi rasional (fikir) atas keseluruhan realitas untuk

mencapai hakikat (= kebenaran) dan memperoleh hikmat (= kebijaksanaan).

 Al-Kindi (801 - 873 M) : "Kegiatan manusia yang bertingkat tertinggi adalah filsafat yang merupakan pengetahuan benar mengenai hakikat segala yang ada sejauh mungkin bagi

manusia ... Bagian filsafat yang paling mulia adalah filsafat pertama, yaitu pengetahuan kebenaran pertama yang

merupakan sebab dari segala kebenaran".

 Pada sisi yang lain kajian filsafat dalam wacana muslim juga sering menggunakan kalimat padanan Hikmah sehingga ilmu filsafat dipadankan dengan ilmu hikmah. Hikmah digunakan sebagai bentuk ungkapan untuk menyebut makna kearifan, kebijaksanaan. sehingga dalam berbagai literature kitab-kitab klasik dikatakan bahwa orang yang ahli kearifan disebut

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FILSAFAT ADMINISTRASI

1.

Dua sudut pandang administrasi:

a. Administrasi sebagai ilmu sebagai objek kajian administrasi sepatutnya mengikuti alur pemikiran manusia, yang pendekatannya dilakukan secara radikal, menyeluruh, rasional dan objektif;

b. Administrasi sebagai pekerjaan sebagai pola

pemikiran dan rangkaian kegiatan untuk pencapaian hasil tertentu dengan profesional sesuai tuntutan

kegiatan yang harus dilakukan, sehingga hasil yang diinginkan terwujud

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FRAMEWOERK PHILOSOPHYCAL ABTRACTIOANS

SCIENCE

Object of the Intellect

From the First Degree of Abstraction

Cosmology Other Physical Science

From the Second Degree

of Abstraction

Mathematics

Other Quantitative

Science

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SOURCING PHILOSOPHY PRINCIPLES

1.

A Priori, Deductive, From

general/universal to specifics.

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CONCEPTUALIZING THE PHILOSOPHY OF BUSINESS

Science

Business is structured in body of principles

and theories

Business is governed by principles both in its

study and in its practice.

Research is one of the most important tools in the study of business and its various field of

operation.

Art

Policy, strategy, practice, and artifacts

Require both intellectual and manipulative skills in

proper perspective

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THE ULTIMATE CAUSES OF BUSINESS

―The study of the nature of business in its

ultimate causes‖

1. Formal causes includes the definition of business

together with theories and principles as propounded by philosophers and business thinkers

2. Material causes is the product or economic good that is, what business deals with

3. Efficient causes

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BUSINESS IN PHILOSOPHY FRAMEWORKS

Philosophy of Business

Ethical Principles Philosophy Concepts

Nature of Business

Social Responsibility Others Fields of

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BUSINESS AS OBJECT OF THE INTELLECT

First Degree: Material or corporal level:

production, resources, manpower

Second Degree: Cots and prices, income

and expenses, profit and lose

Third Degree: Ideas for products and

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BUSINESS AS OBJECT OF THE WILL

The objective is to create quality of life and of

society by providing the consumers with product that will satisfy their

human needs

Act

of

will

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Philosophical Triad of Business

Philosophycal imperatives

Ethics Social

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DIMENSIONAL FOUNDATIONS OF BUSINESS

1. Business as a fundamental social

process

2. Business as an economic function

3. Business as a corporate activity

Nature, objective, their role in

society, and the development of

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Business as a Fundamental Social Process

THE FUNDAMENTAL SOCIAL PROCESS

INDUSTRY (Economic Function)

BUSENISS FIRM (Corporate Function)

SATISFACTION OF HUMAN NEEDS (Integration of Human

Existence)

To Provide Generates

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Business as an Economic Function

 Economics is the study of how scarce resources are allocated in a society of unlimited wants

 Business as an economic function, constituting

functional areas where the fundamental social process is given expression

 Functional sectors are industry, commerce, production, distribution

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Business as a Corporate Activity (1)

 Business provides – individuals or group of individuals – to engage in the actual undertaking of producing and bringing the goods to those who need them.

 Aristotle

 The natural art of property acquisition arises out of the circumstances that some men have too little and others have too much. The exchange of necessaries of life with one another is no contrary.

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Business as a Corporate Activity (2)

Aquinas - on the issue of whether or not it is

lawful to sell a thing at a higher price than what

was paid for it.

 A tradesman is one whose business consists in the exchange of things

 The natural exchange is where one commodity is exchanged for another, or money taken is exchange for the commodity in order to satisfy the needs of life.

 The other kind of change is either of money for money or of the commodity for money, not on account of the necessities of life but profit.

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Business as a Corporate Activity (3)

Adam Smith ―Wealth of nations‖ – ―free

competition‖. ―businessmen should be left alone

to do what is in their self-interest, and the result

would be that, as if guided by an invisible hand

or divine, they will automatically and inevitably

do what is the best for the consuming public and

/ or the national economy.

The Populist Philosophical Concepts. James W.

Culliton (HBS), business as the attempt by

owner of private property (or their

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THE GOAL CONCEPT

AN AGENT

Intends

To Do To Achieve

AN Act

(Agent’s Act) (Agent’s End)AN END

Which is Pursued Which is Achieved

Either As Either As

Or As Or As

THE INTENDED

ACT

THE INTENDED CONSEQUENCE

(Act’s Natural

End)

A MODIFIED ACT

(Circumstantial Act)

THE INTENDED CONSEQUENCE

(Circumstantial End)

Naturally Tends Towards

Naturally Tends Towards

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THE MAJOR PROPONENT

That which the company would never

abandon under any circumstance

That which the company must do in order

to survive

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OBJECTIVES OF BUSINESS

Social Process To provide a process

Quality of life and of society

Man

Industry Function

To provide a venue/arena

Quality of life and of society

Man

The Corporate Entity

(company)

To provide company core service

Human needs satisfaction

Quality of life and of society

Man

The

Businessman

To provide personal core service

Customer satisfaction

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DEFINITIONS PROFIT

It is the excess of the total revenues over

total costs during a specific period of time.

(Business)

Its is the excess over the return to capital

(interest), to land (rent), and to labor

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CONCEPT OF PROFIT

PROFIT AS A CAUSE

1. It serves as the motivating ultimate end or objective of the businessman.

2. It serves as a standard against which the operational efforts or performance of the businessman is measured.

3. It is the further measure of how well the

businessman can undertake the other objective of his business.

PROFIT AS AN EFFECT

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PRODUCT DEFINITION

1. Something that can be offered in an exchange

2. Intended to satisfy human needs.

• Anything that can be offered to a market for attention, acquisition, use or consumption, that might satisfy a want or need.

• A bundle of utility that the buyer receives as a result as of a lease or purchase.

• A set of tangible physical and chemical attributes assembled in an identifiable form.

• Anything offered for sale for the purpose of satisfying a want or need on both sides of the exchange process.

• A combination of functional and psychological features that provide are offered in an exchange including goods, services, ideas,

people, places and organizations.

• The result of whatever value is added to material as consequence

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PRINCIPLES OF THE PRODUCT CONCEPT

Possession Utility

The Goodness Principle of the Product Concept Functionally Convenience

Safety

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PRINCIPLES OF THE PRODUCT CONCEPT

The Commodity Principle of the Product Concept

Goods

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UTILITY

Utility is best circumscribes value (usefulness) in a product.

 Subject Of Utility

 Venditor Utility is the usefulness of the product to the seller or marketer who, in selling the product does no utilize it according to its primary or core service but in its secondary usefulness.

 Consumptor Utility is the usefulness of the product to the consumer when he uses it according to its primary or core service, which may be either use utility or possession utility.

• Use Utility is the capacity of product to satisfy human needs through the practical use or application of the product either by an individual or by an institution.

• Possession utility is the capacity of a product to provide a person’s

satisfaction goes beyond the mere availability or the ease of possessing the product, deeper than the satisfaction of the

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The Object of Utility

Objective Utility

refers to the intrinsic or coe

service that the product provides.

Subjective Utility

refers to what the user gets

or derives from the product, basically in the

form of the satisfaction of the user’s need.

The Application of Utility

Everything we posses has two uses

(Aristotle): (1) the proper or primary use

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The Corporate Concept

• The term ―corporate‖ refers both to a structure and to a specific level in that structure.

• As a structure, it refers to the whole organization or the ―corporate entity‖ .

• In this sense corporate philosophy refers to the philosophy of the whole organization.

• ―Corporate‖ may also refer to the top organizational level of decision-making, i.e., top management.

• This is the source, the motive force of what the organization is all about.

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Corporate Endeavor

• Refers to the totality of the life and operations of an organization’s present status,

• the ―what is‖ of an organization at any given time,

• the starting point of all its subsequent development and progress toward the corporate goal.

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The Corporate Philosophy

• How the corporate entity views the realities of its own existence in terms of what the institution is all about.

• It is the company’s way of thinking and directs its way of life. • It is what the company stands for, gives meaning to its

existence, and provides ultimate direction to its operations. • It is the sum total of the company’s beliefs, principles,

integrated ideals and attitudes which guide management in its decision.

• More concretely, corporate philosophy is expressed in terms of the corporate vision, mission, and the goal as often

contained in the company’s credo.

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What influences corporate philosophy?

The manager’s personal value orientation

The value orientation of everyone in the

organization

The prevailing societal processes.

Since values and social pressures are

dynamic and time-bound, corporate

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Corporate Vision

• The Corporate Vision is the expression of the company’s aspirations which provides the motive force and

inspiration to the company’s continuing pursuit and sustenance of what it wants to be as an institution. • Within the context of corporate philosophy, Corporate

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The Corporate Mission

• The Corporate Mission Is the statement of what the company wants to do within the framework of the

corporate vision, and thus serves to provide the direction for the company’s corporate goal.

• While the corporate vision looks inward, the corporate mission projects outward to its client and to society.

“To do what should be done in order to be what we want to be‖ is the basic corporate mission principle.

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The Corporate Credo

• The company credo, where one exists, is the synthesis of the corporate philosophy.

• It expresses the corporate vision, mission, stated in

terms of what a company believes in (credo, L. credere, to believe).

• Company credos may differ in enunciation of particular points of ideals but they all agree in some basic and

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The Corporate Code

• The corporate code is a set of standards that guide the behavior of its officers and employees.

• It aims to mold a pattern of behavior that is supportive of the company’s policies, objectives, and its credo.

• May be found either in fragmented documents in the

form of memoranda, circulars, etc., or are codified in one formal document which may be called a Code of

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The Corporate Goal

It is what the business organization seeks to

achieve in the pursuit of its mission.

It is what puts the corporate endeavor into

action.

Basically, the corporate goal of any business

organization is profitable service or service with

profit.

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Corporate Policy

• The corporate policy flows directly from the corporate

philosophy drawing its strength from the corporate vision and mission, and is therefore entrenched at the highest level of the organization.

• It is a direct expression of the corporate philosophy, so closely identified with it, that the corporate policy is

sometime identified with the corporate philosophy itself. • Two levels of policies:

• Corporate level – encompasses the whole organization and provides boundaries and directions of managerial decisions. • Operational level – forms the guidelines to provided uniform

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The Corporate Strategy

• The corporate strategy is the principal framework of the

organization’s effort in pursuing its corporate goal.

• From where the business organization is at any given time

(corporate endeavor) to where it wants to be (corporate goal), the organization maps out its corporate direction.

• The totality of all the programs, projects, operations, and undertakings of the organization to attain its corporate goal.

• The whole corporate strategy (policies, programs, projects, etc) should conform to management thought. Any incongruence between them could indicate that

• There are pressures which force management to act contrary to what it professes; or

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Organizational Culture

• The shared orientation of the members of the

organization towards the organizational objects (the

organizational vision, mission, goal; the corporate policy and strategy; the corporate functions and resources and the organization’s human elements).

• The general attitude of the members towards work and towards one another, the pattern of behavior in and out of the work place;

• The workings of the informal groups are expressions of the organizational culture.

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Organizational Climate

• The overall impact of the organization culture on the members.

• Employees’ perceptions of what occurs in the

organization and contributes positively or negatively to the development of work.

• The best indicator or organizational climate is employee morale.

• This is the measure of an employee’s willingness to stay with and work for the organization, motivated by the

same sense of commitment and respect for the organization and what it stands for.

Figur

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