The causes of loneliness as experienced by Toru Watanabe in Haruki Murakami`s Norwegian Wood.

Teks penuh

(1)

ABSTRACT

Putri, Christiana Anindya. (2015). The Causes of Loneliness as Experienced by Toru Watanabe in Haruki Murakami’s Norwegian Wood. Yogyakarta: English Language Education Study Program, Sanata Dharma University.

This study discusses the causes of loneliness which is depicted in Norwegian Wood, a novel written by a Japanese author named Haruki Murakami. The novel tells about Toru Watanabe who encounters loneliness during his college time and it worsens after the death of his best friend. The loss of his beloved one disconnects him from those around him and it leads him into loneliness.

The aim of this study is to discover the causes of loneliness as experienced by Toru Watanabe as the major character of the novel. Two research problems are formulated in this study, i. e. 1) How is Toru Watanabe’s character described in the novel? and 2) What are the causes of loneliness as experienced by Toru Watanabe?

To answer both research questions, the writer used library research as the method of this study. Psychological approach was applied in this study because it focuses on the psychological side of human being. The primary source of the study was a novel entitled Norwegian Wood. Meanwhile, the secondary sources of this study were books, journals, and articles that contained the related theories or reviews about psychological approach, loneliness, theory of character and characterization, and theory of human needs.

From the analyses, the study reveals that Toru Watanabe is described as a loner, caring, ordinary, unconfident, and self-doubted person. In addition, there are three causes of loneliness as experienced by Toru Watanabe, namely Toru lacks of companionship, Toru is unable to attain his desired relationship with Naoko, and Toru lacks of belongingness and love needs, self-esteem needs, and self-actualization needs.

The suggestions for the future researchers who are interested in analyzing Norwegian Wood are to discover the causes of loneliness as experienced by other characters, such as Naoko. In addition, the future researchers may also explore about Naoko and her schizophrenia. Besides, since there are some characters who commit suicide in the young age, the future researchers may also analyze the meaning of death as seen by Toru Watanabe.

(2)

ABSTRAK

Putri, Christiana Anindya. (2015). The Causes of Loneliness as Experienced by Toru Watanabe in Haruki Murakami’s Norwegian Wood. Yogyakarta: Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris, Fakultas Keguruan dan Ilmu Pendidikan, Universitas Sanata Dharma.

Penelitian ini membahas tentang kesepian yang diceritakan dalam Norwegian Wood, sebuah novel karya penulis Jepang bernama Haruki Murakami. Novel ini menceritakan tentang Toru Watanabe, tokoh yang mengalami kesepian yang terjadi setelah kematian sahabatnya. Rasa kehilangan yang dialami oleh Toru Watanabe membuatnya menjauh dari orang-orang di sekitarnya dan mengakibatkan rasa kesepian.

Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk menemukan penyebab kesepian yang dialami oleh Toru Watanabe sebagai tokoh utama dalam novel. Dua masalah telah dirumuskan dalam penelitian ini, yaitu 1) Bagaimana tokoh Toru Watanabe digambarkan dalam novel? dan 2) Apakah penyebab kesepian yang dialami oleh Toru Watanabe?

Untuk menjawab rumusan masalah tersebut, penulis menggunakan studi pustaka sebagai metode penelitian. Pendekatan psikologi juga diterapkan karena pendekatan tersebut membahas tentang sisi psikologis manusia. Sumber primer dari penelitian ini adalah sebuah novel yang berjudul Norwegian Wood. Sumber sekunder dari penelitian ini adalah buku, jurnal, dan artikel yang terdiri dari teori atau ulasan yang berkaitan dengan pendekatan psikologi, kesepian, teori karakter dan karakterisasi, serta teori kebutuhan manusia.

Berdasarkan analisa data, hasil temuan dapat disimpulkan sebagai berikut. Pertama, Toru Watanabe digambarkan sebagai tokoh yang penyendiri, perhatian, sederhana, tidak percaya diri dan meragukan diri sendiri. Kedua, penyebab kesepian yang dialami oleh Toru Watanabe adalah Toru tidak mempunyai banyak teman, Toru tidak dapat mencapai hubungan yang dikehendakinya dengan Naoko dan Toru kekurangan kebutuhan akan rasa cinta dan rasa memiliki, kebutuhan akan harga diri, dan kebutuhan akan aktualisasi diri.

Saran untuk penelitian lebih lanjut yang tertarik untuk menganalisa Norwegian Wood yaitu menemukan penyebab kesepian yang dialami oleh karakter lain, yaitu Naoko. Terlebih lagi, peneliti berikutnya dapat meneliti tentang Naoko dan penyakit schizophrenia yang dideritanya. Selain itu, karena banyaknya karakter yang bunuh diri di usia muda, para peneliti berikutnya dapat menganalisa makna dari kematian dilihat oleh Toru Watanabe.

(3)

THE CAUSES OF LONELINESS

AS EXPERIENCED BY TORU WATANABE

IN HARUKI MURAKAMI’S

NORWEGIAN WOOD

A SARJANA PENDIDIKAN THESIS

Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements to Obtain the Sarjana Pendidikan Degree

in English Language Education

By

Christiana Anindya Putri Student Number: 101214094

ENGLISH LANGUAGE EDUCATION STUDY PROGRAM DEPARTMENT OF LANGUAGE AND ARTS EDUCATION FACULTY OF TEACHERS TRAINING AND EDUCATION

SANATA DHARMA UNIVERSITY YOGYAKARTA

(4)

i

THE CAUSES OF LONELINESS

AS EXPERIENCED BY TORU WATANABE

IN HARUKI MURAKAMI’S

NORWEGIAN WOOD

A SARJANA PENDIDIKAN THESIS

Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements to Obtain the Sarjana Pendidikan Degree

in English Language Education

By

Christiana Anindya Putri Student Number: 101214094

ENGLISH LANGUAGE EDUCATION STUDY PROGRAM DEPARTMENT OF LANGUAGE AND ARTS EDUCATION FACULTY OF TEACHERS TRAINING AND EDUCATION

SANATA DHARMA UNIVERSITY YOGYAKARTA

(5)
(6)
(7)

iv

There is no

elevator to success.

You have to take

the stairs.”



(8)
(9)
(10)

vii ABSTRACT

Putri, Christiana Anindya. (2015). The Causes of Loneliness as Experienced by Toru Watanabe in Haruki Murakami’s Norwegian Wood. Yogyakarta: English Language Education Study Program, Sanata Dharma University.

This study discusses the causes of loneliness which is depicted in Norwegian Wood, a novel written by a Japanese author named Haruki Murakami. The novel tells about Toru Watanabe who encounters loneliness during his college time and it worsens after the death of his best friend. The loss of his beloved one disconnects him from those around him and it leads him into loneliness.

The aim of this study is to discover the causes of loneliness as experienced by Toru Watanabe as the major character of the novel. Two research problems are formulated in this study, i. e. 1) How is Toru Watanabe’s character described in the novel? and 2) What are the causes of loneliness as experienced by Toru Watanabe?

To answer both research questions, the writer used library research as the method of this study. Psychological approach was applied in this study because it focuses on the psychological side of human being. The primary source of the study was a novel entitled Norwegian Wood. Meanwhile, the secondary sources of this study were books, journals, and articles that contained the related theories or reviews about psychological approach, loneliness, theory of character and characterization, and theory of human needs.

From the analyses, the study reveals that Toru Watanabe is described as a loner, caring, ordinary, unconfident, and self-doubted person. In addition, there are three causes of loneliness as experienced by Toru Watanabe, namely Toru lacks of companionship, Toru is unable to attain his desired relationship with Naoko, and Toru lacks of belongingness and love needs, self-esteem needs, and self-actualization needs.

The suggestions for the future researchers who are interested in analyzing Norwegian Wood are to discover the causes of loneliness as experienced by other characters, such as Naoko. In addition, the future researchers may also explore about Naoko and her schizophrenia. Besides, since there are some characters who commit suicide in the young age, the future researchers may also analyze the meaning of death as seen by Toru Watanabe.

(11)

viii ABSTRAK

Putri, Christiana Anindya. (2015). The Causes of Loneliness as Experienced by

Toru Watanabe in Haruki Murakami’s Norwegian Wood. Yogyakarta: Pendidikan

Bahasa Inggris, Fakultas Keguruan dan Ilmu Pendidikan, Universitas Sanata Dharma.

Penelitian ini membahas tentang kesepian yang diceritakan dalam Norwegian Wood, sebuah novel karya penulis Jepang bernama Haruki Murakami. Novel ini menceritakan tentang Toru Watanabe, tokoh yang mengalami kesepian yang terjadi setelah kematian sahabatnya. Rasa kehilangan yang dialami oleh Toru Watanabe membuatnya menjauh dari orang-orang di sekitarnya dan mengakibatkan rasa kesepian.

Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk menemukan penyebab kesepian yang dialami oleh Toru Watanabe sebagai tokoh utama dalam novel. Dua masalah telah dirumuskan dalam penelitian ini, yaitu 1) Bagaimana tokoh Toru Watanabe digambarkan dalam novel? dan 2) Apakah penyebab kesepian yang dialami oleh Toru Watanabe?

Untuk menjawab rumusan masalah tersebut, penulis menggunakan studi pustaka sebagai metode penelitian. Pendekatan psikologi juga diterapkan karena pendekatan tersebut membahas tentang sisi psikologis manusia. Sumber primer dari penelitian ini adalah sebuah novel yang berjudul Norwegian Wood. Sumber sekunder dari penelitian ini adalah buku, jurnal, dan artikel yang terdiri dari teori atau ulasan yang berkaitan dengan pendekatan psikologi, kesepian, teori karakter dan karakterisasi, serta teori kebutuhan manusia.

Berdasarkan analisa data, hasil temuan dapat disimpulkan sebagai berikut. Pertama, Toru Watanabe digambarkan sebagai tokoh yang penyendiri, perhatian, sederhana, tidak percaya diri dan meragukan diri sendiri. Kedua, penyebab kesepian yang dialami oleh Toru Watanabe adalah Toru tidak mempunyai banyak teman, Toru tidak dapat mencapai hubungan yang dikehendakinya dengan Naoko dan Toru kekurangan kebutuhan akan rasa cinta dan rasa memiliki, kebutuhan akan harga diri, dan kebutuhan akan aktualisasi diri.

Saran untuk penelitian lebih lanjut yang tertarik untuk menganalisa Norwegian Wood yaitu menemukan penyebab kesepian yang dialami oleh karakter lain, yaitu Naoko. Terlebih lagi, peneliti berikutnya dapat meneliti tentang Naoko dan penyakit schizophrenia yang dideritanya. Selain itu, karena banyaknya karakter yang bunuh diri di usia muda, para peneliti berikutnya dapat menganalisa makna dari kematian dilihat oleh Toru Watanabe.

(12)

ix

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

First of all, I would like to send my greatest gratitude and praise to Jesus Christ. I truly thank Him for His endless blessing and love upon the process of writing this thesis. I believe that without His guidance I would not have been able to finish this thesis and give my best and my very best.

The greatest gratitude and deep appreciation of mine go to my thesis advisor Ibu Veronica Triprihatmini, S.Pd., M.Hum., M.A. who has patiently guided and encouraged me during this challenging process of writing my thesis. I thank her for the valuable advices, correction, suggestions, and motivation given to me sincerely. Her dedication has surely led me to finish the thesis successfully. I also owe a great debt to all lecturers of English Language Education Study Program for their assistance during my study in Sanata Dharma University. I would peculiarly thank Drs. Barli Bram M.Ed., Ph.D. for being a supportive academic advisor of my class. Besides, I also thank all staff of English Language Education Study Program for all the help during my study.

(13)

x

My sincerest thanks also go to my beloved best friends Dhea, Siwi, Mbak Nay, Ratih, Gistha, Ajeng, Yeskha, and Tika – for helping, reminding, and supporting me in writing my thesis and for all the ups and downs that we have been through together. I also would like to thank my best friends who have been great companions since six years ago and still counting: Bernadetta Prawesti, Eska Nugrahaeningtyas and Fransiska Novieta. For every companion, support and togetherness, I thank my Global Leadership Program buddies (Billy, Detha, Lili, Nino, Nafta), all best friends in Galaxy, all best friends in Adele, all best friends in Kelompok 39 KKN XLVII USD, and all good friends in ELESP Sanata Dharma University batch 2010. I also would like to express my appreciation to my friends in OMK Santo Laurensius for spending time together and forgetting thesis for a while. I also want to address my gratitude to Mas Paskalis Damar Aji Kurnia, S.Pd, and Mbak Musrifatun Nangimah, S.Pd. for proofreading my thesis and giving valuable suggestions.

Last but not least, I want to address my gratitude to those people who sincerely motivate, inspire, and help me in many ways. I apologize for not being able to mention the names one by one. May God grant them His sincere love and blessing.

(14)

xi

PERNYATAAN PERSETUJUAN PUBLIKASI ... vi

ABSTRACT ... vii

1. Psychological Approach to Literature ... 9

2. Theory of Character ... 10

3. Theory of Characterization ... 11

4. Theory of Human Needs ... 12

5. Review about Loneliness ... 15

(15)

xii CHAPTER III. METHODOLOGY

A.Object of the Study ... 22

B. Approach of the Study ... 23

C.Method of the Study ... 23

CHAPTER IV. ANALYSIS A.The Description of Toru Watanabe ... 25

1. A Loner ... 27

2. An Ordinary Person ... 33

3. A Caring Person ... 35

4. A Self-Doubted Person ... 40

B. The Causes of Loneliness as Experienced by Toru Watanabe ... 43

1. Lack of Companionship ... 43

2. Unable to Attain His Desired Relationship ... 48

3. Lack of Belongingness and Love Needs, Esteem Needs, and Self-Actualization Needs ... 52

CHAPTER V. CONCLUSIONS, IMPLICATIONS, AND SUGGESTIONS A.Conclusions ... 60

B. Implications ... 62

C.Suggestions ... 66

(16)

xiii

LIST OF APPENDICES

(17)

1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION

This chapter is divided into five parts. The first part is background of the study which explains the description of the topic and also the reasons why the topic is chosen. The second is the objectives of the study that describes the aim of conducting the research. The third is problem formulation which consists of two questions that describe the problems which will be answered. The next part is the benefits of the study that identifies the benefits for the writer, the reader in general, and the next researchers. The last is definition of terms which presents some terms related to the study and its explanation.

A. Background of the Study

Humans are not just biological creatures; they are social creatures as well. Living in this world insists human to be social creatures because human’s life depends on other humans. All human beings are unable to live without others. Thus, they have to build relationship in order to fulfill their needs. Besides, all of us need other people in order to be well and thrive. It also means that their survival also depends on another human’s effort and help. The relationship and

connections among humans are the key of survival even happiness. For instance, people need others to talk to and to have fun in order to be happy.

(18)

and tend to be alone. Those who withdraw themselves from society might have difficulties in establishing relationship with others. People who have difficulty in establishing relationships will have negative effect, for instance: loneliness. Loneliness is an unpleasant psychological experience which occurs in human

being’s life. According to Perlman and Peplau (1984), a person’s characteristics

such as shyness, low self-esteem, introversion, and lack of social skill are able to trigger loneliness. Dissatisfaction with the quality of actual relationship and the loss of an important relationship through death or breaking up can also cause loneliness.

(19)

Losing beloved one because of death is one example of the events which happens in our real life. Normally, the sad feelings will slowly disappear and new hopes to start a new life will come as well. However, if the sad feelings stay in one’s heart for a long time, it will influence his or her life. The condition of losing

a beloved one happens in Toru Watanabe, the major character of Haruki

Murakami’s Norwegian Wood. Toru Watanabe has lost his best friend and he

experiences loneliness during his adolescent.

Set in Tokyo in the 1960s, the story focuses on Toru Watanabe, a university student who is haunted by the suicide of his best friend named Kizuki, which brings him into his loneliness and withdrawal toward society. Toru falls in love with Naoko, Kizuki’s girlfriend who is isolated in her own mind. The death

of Kizuki affects Toru and Naoko deeply and it also brings Naoko into depression. Both decide to attend college in Tokyo where they can get away from their past memories. After a chance encounter on a train, Toru reignites his friendship with Naoko and recalls his love to Naoko. As their relationship deepens, it becomes apparent that Naoko is encountering depression. When they are separated, Toru hopes that Naoko will recover, but his life becomes more complicated when he meets an outgoing girl named Midori.

(20)

happens in the novel also happens in the reality. Novel also brings out many things in life which the readers have not experienced before. When reading a novel, the readers are invited to visualize what they are reading with their own imagination and, if possible, act as if they were one of the characters in the novel. In addition, by reading the novel, the readers are able to get and learn some life values provided in the story.

The writer chooses Norwegian Wood by Haruki Murakami because this novel presents the real life events, i.e. losing beloved one and how to cope with the grief. Besides, the sense of loneliness happens in the life of most characters, including Toru Watanabe as the major character. Toru withdraws himself from society and he feels lonely although he is in a crowded place. The suicide of his best friend makes Toru deal with the grief and the loss of his beloved one.

From all those statements, the writer finds that the sorrow of loss is unavoidable. When a person unable to deals with the grief of losing and step forward, he or she will stick to the past and it might cause loneliness. Therefore, the writer wants to see the causes of loneliness as experienced by Toru Watanabe

in Haruki Murakami’s Norwegian Wood.

B. Problem Formulation

Based on previous explanation, the problems of this study can be formulated as follows:

1. How is Toru Watanabe’s character described in the novel?

(21)

C. Objectives of the Study

The objective of the study is to discover the causes of loneliness as experienced by Toru Watanabe, the major character of Haruki Murakami’s

Norwegian Wood. In order to discover the causes of loneliness, this study will

focus on analyzing the characteristic of Toru Watanabe. The characteristics of Toru Watanabe and the causes of loneliness will be presented in chapter IV of this study.

D. Benefits of the Study

The study hopefully brings some benefits in many ways for the writer and the reader as well. First, it is expected that this study will become one of the information sources and enrich the knowledge for those who read Haruki

Murakami’s Norwegian Wood. Second, the readers and the writer are able to

study the deeper message from the novel. Hopefully, the readers can get a better understanding about the novel since this study tries to explore the characteristic of Toru Watanabe as the major character and the causes of loneliness which is experienced by Toru. Third, the writer hopes this study can be beneficial for Sanata Dharma University students, especially for English Language Education Study Program, by providing learning materials. For the next researchers which related to the subject of this study, hopefully this study can give a contribution to the deeper comprehensive study concerned in literary works, especially in the

(22)

E. Definition of Terms

The following is the important terms used in this study. In order to avoid confusion and misunderstanding, the important terms used in this study are clarified, namely loneliness and character.

1. Loneliness

Loneliness is a psychological experience which occurs in human being’s

life and it is typically an unpleasant experience. According to Peplau and Perlman (1982), loneliness is a feeling which appears whenever a person is unable to attain his or her desired relationship (as cited in Baron, 1974, p. 521). Loneliness is different from solitude, as Tillich (1985) already states that solitude expresses the joy of being alone, while loneliness expresses the pain of feeling alone (as cited in Vanhalst, 2012, p. 4). This study will discover the causes of loneliness as

experienced by the major character of Murakami’s Norwegian Wood. Besides, the

phrase “the causes of loneliness” means to explain the nature of loneliness as

experienced by Toru Watanabe in the novel.

2. Character

Characters are the important element in literary works because characters

inhabit the story and build the readers’ interest. Abrams (2012) defines characters

(23)
(24)

8 CHAPTER II

REVIEWS OF RELATED LITERATURE

This chapter presents the theories which are used to analyze the topic of the study. It is divided into three parts, namely review of related study, review of related theories and theoretical framework. Review of related study reviews other related study on the same work which has been done previously. Review of related theory presents several theories which will be applied for conducting the study. Meanwhile, theoretical framework explains the contribution of the theories to solve the problem and the reason why this study applies such theories.

A. Review of Related Study

Norwegian Wood is a novel written by a Japanese author named Haruki Murakami. Since this novel is interesting to discuss, there are many studies and articles discussed this novel. One of them is an article written by Christopher Mihalo which is entitled “The Triviality of a Pop Song: How Murakami’s Character’s Overcome Detachedness”. This study analyzed the detachedness of

Toru Watanabe, the major character in Murakami’s Norwegian Wood, and

(25)

However, Toru is preferred to live in a comfortable solitude which means that his solitude and detachment are a conscious choice.

In his study, Mihalo stated that being detached from society means a person cares only on himself or herself. Thus, he concluded that overcoming detachment can be done by conveying feeling towards others. It can be seen on the novel when Toru is finally able to portray any internal feeling besides loneliness and this feeling is directed towards another person.

This study is also going to analyze the same character on the previous study. However, the goal of this study is different from the goal of previous study. The previous study analyzed how Toru Watanabe overcomes his detachment. Meanwhile, this study will analyze the character of Toru Watanabe and discover the causes of loneliness as experienced by Toru Watanabe.

B. Review of Related Theories

There are numbers of theories related to this study. This part includes those theories used in conducting this study. They are theory of character, theory of characterization, theory of human needs, and review of loneliness.

1. Psychological Approach to Literature

Rohberger and Woods (1971) note that there are five critical approaches used to analyze a work of literature, one of them is a psychological approach.

Psychological approach is an approach which focuses on the character’s feeling,

(26)

psychological approach analyzes a novel from psychological side of human beings. It intends to understand the pattern of human personality and behavior.

Thus, the characters’ behavior and thought can be appropriately understood by

using a psychological approach (pp. 6-15). In this study, a psychological approach is used to explore the information related to the personality of a character from the psychological point of view.

2. Theory of Character

Character is one element in a novel despite setting, plot, theme, symbolism, point of view, etc. In the novel, characters have important roles since

they enliven the story and build the readers’ interest. The creations of character

make the readers understand and experience what the author wants to convey through the works since characters are the representation of human being. Abrams (2012) defines characters as the persons introduced in a dramatic or narrative work that show moral, dispositional, and emotional qualities which are revealed through the action and the dialogue (p. 46). In this point, character is understood as the qualities that describes a particular figure in the story.

(27)

beginning until the end of the story. On the other hand, minor character or secondary character is a character which appears just in certain event and performs limited function in the story. However, minor characters are important to strengthen the development of major character since they become the background of the major character.

In addition, Foster (1927) distinguishes the characters into two kinds, namely flat and round character (as cited in Barnet, 2011, p. 358-359). A flat character is relatively simple and static. It usually has only one trait or feature and does not change as the story progresses. Compared to flat character, a round character is presented with several traits. It is likely to be complex and dynamic, in which the character changes at the end of the story.

3. Theory of Characterization

Characterization has an important role in a novel. Kennedy and Gioia (2011) define characterization as a technique used by the author to create, reveal, or develop the characters (p. 106). This is supported by Rohrberger and Woods (1971) who declare that characterization is a process in which the author creates a character. It means that the author can create the living characters which will

influence the reader’s perspective on a literary work through characterization.

(28)

attribute which may refer to the way character’s dresses. The authors also can give

the readers direct knowledge about the character from what he or she is saying and thinking about. Past life of the character also gives some hints of events that contribute in shaping the character. Besides, the author can describe the character indirectly through the eyes and opinions of other characters. It can be seen through conversation of others and things they say about him or her. Moreover, the author can present his or her comment on the character directly in order to make the character is easy to be understood. Also, the author can give clues of

one’s character by presenting how a person reacts to various situation and conflict

and describing that person’s mannerism, habits, or unusual features (pp. 161-173).

It means that the author can show the character directly and indirectly. Both of them are used to make the readers understand the character of the story. By understanding the character, the readers are able to imagine what kind of person he or she is.

4. Theory of Human Needs

Maslow (1954) develops hierarchy of needs which becomes the most

popular theory of human needs. The basis of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is that

human beings are motivated by unsatisfied needs, and that the needs on the lowest stage should be satisfied first before the higher needs can be fulfilled. According

to Maslow’s “Hierarchy of Needs” (1954), there are five stages in hierarchy of

needs. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is presented in the shape of a pyramid that

(29)

bottom and the highest of need is placed at the top of the pyramid. According to Maslow (as cited in Feist, 2011, p.280-284), those five basic needs are:

a. Physiological Needs

Physiological needs are the basic, lowest and strongest one in the hierarchy of needs. This need covers the basic life needs such as water, food, oxygen, and so on. These needs must be fulfilled at some minimal level by each human in his or her life before someone is able to move to the higher level. If these needs are not fulfilled yet, the person will be not motivated to fulfill the higher level of needs. Physiological needs differ from other needs because it is the only needs which can be satisfied or even overly satisfied. Besides, physiological needs are able to reappear because of its recurring nature.

b. Safety Needs

After the physiological needs are fulfilled, human will start to pursue the higher level of needs which is safety or security needs. This includes physical security, stability, dependency, protection, and freedom from threatening forces i.e. war, terrorism, illness, fear, anxiety, danger, chaos and natural disaster. c. Love and Belongingness Needs

Once the safety needs are fulfilled, people become motivated by love and belongingness needs. Humans need to feel a sense of belonging and acceptance,

which is expected to be found both in one’s society and family. Besides, they need

(30)

neighborhood, or a nation. Deprivation to this need will lead to loneliness, social anxiety and clinical depression.

d. Esteem Needs

To the extent that people satisfy their love and belongingness needs, they start to pursue esteem needs, which include self-respect, confidence, competence, and knowledge. Maslow divides two level of esteem needs namely reputation and self-esteem. Reputation is the perception of prestige or recognition achieved by a person which is seen by the eyes of others. Meanwhile, self-esteem is a person’s own feeling of worth and confidence. When this need is met, people will be confident and valuable. On the other hand, people with low self-esteem will show lack of confidence in themselves and often believe that they are unworthy of the attention or regard of other people. This can lead to isolation and loneliness. e. Self-actualization Needs

The last and the highest needs in Maslow’s hierarchy of needs are the self

(31)

5. Review about Loneliness

There are many reviews about loneliness proposed by experts which is related to the topic of this study. This part presents a review about loneliness used in conducting and supporting this study. They are definitions of loneliness, types of loneliness, causes of loneliness, and the effects of loneliness.

a. Definitions of Loneliness

Human being needs to interact with others by establishing relationships. Establishing relationships with others is a universal and fundamental human need. People who have difficulty in establishing relationships will have negative effects, which is likely to be loneliness. Loneliness is a psychological experience which

occurs in human being’s life and it is typically an unpleasant experience. Many

different definitions of loneliness have been offered by researchers. Peplau and Perlman (1982) define loneliness as a feeling which appears whenever a person is unable to attain his or her desired relationship (as cited in Baron, 1974, p. 521). This is supported by Kimnel and Weiner (1985), who define loneliness as an

unpleasant experience because of a discrepancy between one’s actual relationship

(32)

People can be alone without being lonely. According to Baron and Byrne (1987), being alone is different from feeling lonely (p. 523). It is supported by Tillich (1959), who also distinguishes solitude and loneliness (as cited in Vanhalst, 2012, p.4). He explains that solitude expresses the joy of being alone while loneliness expresses the pain of feeling alone. Many people prefer solitude; it is when they choose to be alone but they do not feel lonely. For instance, a person is able to make friends and interact with them well and yet prefer to spend some times alone. It is usually done in order to spend leisure time in solitary activities such as pursuing a hobby, reading a book, listening to music, or having a self-reflection.

b. Types of Loneliness

Many social scientists have identified various forms of loneliness. In Perlman and Peplau (1984), there are three dimensions which divide loneliness into different types (as cited in Peplau and Goldston, 1984, p. 16). These dimensions have to do with the positive or negative nature, the source, and the duration of loneliness.

(33)

self-confrontation. In contrast, loneliness anxiety is a negative experience as the result of alienation.

The second way of categorizing forms of loneliness can be seen from its source. Weiss (1973) distinguishes loneliness into emotional loneliness and social loneliness (as cited in Peplau and Goldston, 1984, p. 17). Emotional loneliness is a subjective feeling manifested by the absence of a personal or close relationship. The antecedents of this kind of loneliness are divorce, bereavement, etc. Meanwhile, social loneliness is a subjective feeling caused by the lack of a sufficient number of friends or an adequate network of social relationship. The antecedents of this form of loneliness are losing of a job, being rejected by peers, feeling unacceptable and not belonging to a community.

The third dimension is duration of loneliness. Young (1982) divides loneliness into three types (as cited in Peplau and Goldston, 1984, p. 17). Transient loneliness or everyday loneliness is the shortest duration of loneliness which includes brief and occasional lonely moods. Situational or transitional loneliness occurs when people who have satisfying relationships have to undergo a specific change, such as divorce, bereavement or moving to a new town. The last is chronic loneliness which occurs when a person lacks of satisfactory social relations for a period of two or more years.

c. The Causes of Loneliness

(34)

precipitating factors (p. 23). Predisposing factors are factors that make people vulnerable to loneliness while precipitating factors are factors that trigger loneliness.

The first predisposing factor is a person’s characteristics which are

associated with loneliness such as shyness, low self-esteem, self-consciousness, introversion, and lack of social skill. Situational factors are able to predispose people to loneliness. Some basic situational factors are time, distance and money. For instance, a student who takes a lot of courses and gets tight schedule may have little time to make friends and interact well with his or her friends.

Cultural differences in values also considered as predisposing factors. Perlman and Peplau (1998) consider that cultural differences in value seem likely to affect the experience of loneliness (p. 573). One example of culture differences that can lead to loneliness is individualistic values. American culture has been characterized as being individualistic and it influences their values. American values encourage personal independence and the attainment of individual’s goals. In contrast, other cultures in Asia are more collectivistic where the values encourage loyalty to family and harmony in social relations. The individualistic in American culture and the collectivistic in Asian Culture are the examples of predisposing factors towards loneliness.

According to Perlman and Peplau (1984), precipitating factor is an event

which usually changes a person’s actual or desired/needed relationship (p. 23).

(35)

has found that leaving family and friends to begin college, breaking up of romantic relationship, and having problems with friends or relative are the three most frequent events that precipitate loneliness among college students (as cited in Peplau and Goldston, 1984, p. 26). Indirectly, it can be said that precipitating factors mostly come from a troubled relationship with others.

Perlman and Peplau (1998) say that loneliness can also arise from the

nature of a person’s actual relationship and dissatisfaction with the quality of

existing relationship. In addition, Perlman and Peplau (1984) also state that loneliness results from a mismatch between a person’s actual relationship and a

person’s needed or desired relationship. In short, a failure to establish desired

relationship and dissatisfaction with an actual relationship can lead to loneliness.

d. The Effects of Loneliness

Loneliness is an unpleasant experience and it is usually seen as a negative experience with negative effects as well. Russel (1982) mentions that people with loneliness usually feel depressed, anxious, unhappy, and shy. In addition, Jones, Freeman, and Goswick (1981) also mention that those who are lonely express low self-esteem (as cited in Baron and Byrne, 1974, p. 522). Those negative feelings of lonely people will make them have difficulty to communicate and incapable of making and keeping friends, which may lead to antisocial behavior.

(36)

are lonely would have fewer friends and engage in fewer social activities (as cited in Baron and Byrne, 1994, p. 522). Having no one to talk to and no one to share with are painful since the lonely people distance themselves from others. Herbert (1995) also adds that social phobia is mostly likely to develop when lonely young people begin to distance themselves from others in adolescent stage (as cited in Baron and Byrne, 1994, p. 284). People with social phobia will avoid others as a way to protect themselves from embarrassments and humiliation.

According to Kimnel and Weiner (1985), loneliness also fosters the feeling of alienation and social inadequacy. Those who are lonely usually express low self-esteem and lack of confidence, which make them feel inferior to other people and believe that they are unworthy of attention. Page (1991) mentions that an extremely lonely person with worst feeling of despair considers that life is hopeless and it can sometimes lead to suicide (as cited in Baron and Byrne, 1994, p. 284). In conclusion, loneliness is an unpleasant experience since it has negative effects for the person who has loneliness problem.

C. Theoretical Framework

Based on the formulated problems, this study intends to reveal the causes of loneliness as experienced by Toru Watanabe, which is depicted in Haruki

Murakami’s Norwegian Wood. In order to find the causes of loneliness and help

the writer to answer the research problems, psychological approach is used as the approach of this study. Psychological approach enables the writer to explore the

(37)

based on the fact that this study focuses on a psychological problem which is about loneliness.

There are some theories applied to analyze the novel and answer the problem formulation. Theory of character and characterization are used to answer the first question of the problem formulation. It is used as the basis in analyzing the characteristic of Toru Watanabe as the major character in Norwegian Wood

novel. Toru’s characteristic can be identified from his past life, personal

description, reactions, speech, thoughts, and character as seen by another. Therefore, in order to cope with the analysis of the character, it is important to present theories related to the character.

The writer uses review of related study, theory of human needs, and review of loneliness to answer the second question of the problem formulation. The review of related study will be useful in analyzing the leading factors of loneliness experienced by Toru Watanabe. Moreover, understanding the leading

factors of Toru Watanabe’s loneliness will also help the writer to determine the

(38)

22 CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY

This chapter contains the methodology of the study, which is divided into three sections. They are the object of the study, the approach of the study, and the method of the study. The object of the study presents the description of the novel. Moreover, the focus of the study is also presented in this section. The approach of the study explains the approach that is applied in this study. The last method of the study explains the steps used in conducting the study, such as of the data gathering and analysis of the work.

A. Object of the Study

The object of this study is a novel entitled Norwegian Wood, written by a well-known Japanese author named Haruki Murakami. Norwegian Wood is a translated novel and originally published in Japan as Noruwei no Mori in 1987. Noruwei no Mori has been translated into English twice. This study used the

second translation by Jay Rubin which was first published in 2000. Published by Vintage International, the novel consists of 389 pages that are divided into 11 chapters. This story was also adapted to a movie with the same title with the novel, Norwegian Wood, which was released in 2010.

Norwegian Wood is narrated by Toru Watanabe as the protagonist, who at the age

(39)

Kizuki. He falls in love with Naoko, Kizuki’s girlfriend who is damaged by Kizuki’s suicide and struggling with her depression. The death of Kizuki affects

Toru and Naoko deeply. Both of Toru and Naoko decide to attend college in Tokyo where they can escape from their past memories. Moreover, Kizuki’s death

also makes Toru experience loneliness during his college time. The further information about the author and the summary of Norwegian Wood can be seen on Appendices I and II (pp. 70 - 74).

B. Approach of the Study

The study is focused on the causes of loneliness as experienced by Toru Watanabe, the major character in Murakami’s Norwegian Wood. Therefore,

psychological approach is applied in this study. This approach aims to examine and analyze the novel from psychological point of view of human beings. In this approach, psychological theories are used to know human behavior and motivation that may affect someone’s personality in the literary works. The psychological approach is suitable in this study because it analyzes the psychological condition, such as the characters’ behavior, thoughts, personality,

and motivation. Thus, the approach helps to reveal the characteristic of Toru Watanabe and the causes of loneliness.

C. Method of the Study

(40)

divided into two, namely primary source and secondary sources. The primary source was a novel entitled Norwegian Wood by Haruki Murakami. Meanwhile, the secondary sources of this study were books, journals, and online references that contained the related theories about character, characterization, and human needs and reviews of loneliness. The data collected from the secondary sources were used to support the analysis.

This study was conducted by following several steps. The first step was reading the novel thoroughly for several times for the sake of gaining a better comprehension of the character and the story as well. In this step, a number of quotations from the novel were marked to collect the data. The second step was collecting theories and reviews related to the study in order to support the analysis part. In the next step, the related theories and reviews were applied to analyze the problem formulation. The character and characterization theories were applied to discover how Toru Watanabe is described in the story. Meanwhile, theory of human needs and review of loneliness were implemented to identify the causes of loneliness. After discovering the causes of loneliness, the conclusions were drawn.

(41)

25 CHAPTER IV

ANALYSIS

This chapter aims to answer the formulated problems which have been stated in Chapter I. It is divided into two parts. The first part describes Toru

Watanabe as the major character in Haruki Murakami’s Norwegian Wood.

Meanwhile, the second part analyzes the causes of loneliness as experienced by Toru Watanabe.

A. The Description of Toru Watanabe

This section deals with the characteristic of Toru Watanabe as a major

character in Haruki Murakami’s Norwegian Wood. According to Henkle (1977),

major character has fullness of details and becomes the focus of the story (p. 88). Toru is the major character of the story since he dominates the story and he appears from the beginning until the end of the story. He also deserves the fullest attention because he has a crucial role in shaping and making up the story. The story itself tells about how Toru experiences loneliness during his college days.

(42)

Toru’s journeys as he is unsure of what he wants to do with his life, but towards

the ends he knows how to deal with the situation and comes out to be stronger. Thus, those evidences lead the writer to a conclusion that Toru is the major character of the story.

Toru is also considered as a round character in the story because he changes at the end of the story. It is supported by Foster (1972) who states that a round character is presented with several traits and it changes at the end of the story. In Norwegian Wood, Toru is described as a loner person who loves being alone. Although he is a loner, he makes some friends yet his friendship is limited to some persons only. Moreover, Toru is also unable to open up his heart and

speak honestly about his feeling since Kizuki’s death. Therefore, Toru finds it

difficult to get closer with others. Mihalo (2009) also states in his study that Toru shows a failure to communicate with others because of his loneliness. However, in the end of the story, Toru who gets involved with Midori finally conveys his feeling towards Midori. Mihalo (2009) says that if being lonely means caring about oneself, then a sign of overcoming loneliness is conveying feeling towards others. Toru who is unable to speak honestly about his feeling since Kizuki’s death finally portrays any internal feeling besides loneliness. Thus, it can be concluded that Toru is a round character because he changes his personality as a person who is unable to open up his heart by conveying his feeling for others.

(43)

Those are personal description, character as seen by another, speech, past life, conversations of others, reactions, direct comment, thoughts, and mannerisms. In order to determine the character of Toru, several ways of Murphy’s theory are applied in the study, i. e. personal description, character as seen by another, speech, past life, reactions, and thoughts.

1. A Loner

Throughout the story, Toru is told as a loner person who avoids the company of others and tends to isolate himself. He always spends his time alone and his socialization is limited only to some of his friends. Murphy (1972) states that past life gives information to the reader in order to obtain a clue or

information about events which will help to shape a person’s character (p. 166). In

his family, Toru is the one and only child who never once felt deprived or wished

to have siblings because he is satisfied of being alone (p. 285). Toru’s past life

shows that he used to be alone since he was a child and he does not have any wishes to have siblings because he feels alright. That is one of clues how he is depicted as a loner.

Toru’s character as a person who loves being alone can also be seen from

his speech. According to Murphy (1972), one’s character can be seen when a

character speaks, has conversation with others, and puts forward an opinion (p.

164). Based on Toru’s conversation with Midori, a class-mate in his drama class,

(44)

“Do you always travel alone like that?” “Uh-huh.”

“You enjoy solitude?” she asked, leaning her check on her hand. “Travelling alone, eating alone, sitting off by yourself in lecture halls…” “Nobody likes being alone that much. I don’t go out of my way to make

friends, that’s all. It just leads to disappointment.” (pp. 70-71).

Toru’s conversation with Midori depicts that Toru does not want to insist himself

to make friends because he thinks it will hurt and disappoint him. He is afraid of being left behind after he finally gets friends and builds a good friendship. Besides, Toru still has an emotional wound after Kizuki’s suicide since Kizuki is the one and only best friend he has.

Toru also confesses his reason why he likes to do things alone when he

talks with Reiko, Naoko’s roommate in sanatorium. When Toru has a chance to

visit Naoko’s sanatorium, Toru has a conversation with Reiko and he explains

why he tends to be a loner and it is because he loves to do things alone by himself. Moreover, Toru also says that he is not good at playing games with other people and he cannot get into them as well.

“Just kidding,” she said. “Don’t get mad. But really, though, what are you good at?”

“Nothing special. I have things I like to do.” “For instance?”

“Hiking trips. Swimming, Reading.” “You like to do things alone, then?”

“I guess so. I could never get excited about games you play with other people. I can’t get excited about games you play with other people. I can’t get into them. I lose interest.” (p. 153)

The previous excerpt reveals that Toru loves to do things alone because Toru loses his interest in activities with other people.

(45)

unsociable characteristic. Toru does not have a lot of friends at school and he only has Kizuki and Naoko as his close friends. It is proved from how Toru says about his relationship with others. “And Kizuki was my only friend. There was never

anybody I could really call a friend, before him or after him.” (p. 170). His

utterance points out that Kizuki is Toru’s best and only friend in high school and he does not have a close friend like Kizuki after Kizuki’s death. Toru also makes friend with Naoko who was Kizuki’s girlfriend. The three of them always stay together most of the time and embrace happy life. Unfortunately, the relationship between Toru and Naoko does not last for long because Kizuki has committed suicide leaving Toru and Naoko to a long life without him. Since there is nothing to bond them, both Toru and Naoko go their separate ways.

Murphy (1972) also says that a person’s character can be seen from what a

person is thinking about (p. 171). In this case, Toru is described as a loner from the way he thinks of his preference for living. When Toru moves to Tokyo as a freshman and chooses a place to live in, he thinks that it will be better for him to rent an apartment where he can live alone. Although he is new to Tokyo and new to live alone, Toru does not seem to be afraid and he chooses to live alone rather than shares a room with a friend. On the other hand, his anxious parents have found a private dormitory to live in due to its low expenses and facilities.

For my part, I would have preferred to rent an apartment and live in comfortable solitude, but knowing what my parents had to spend on matriculation fees and tuition at the private university I was attending, I

was in no position to insist. And besides, I really didn’t care where I live.

(46)

Toru’s preference for living alone rather than live in the dormitory with a

roommate reveals that Toru enjoys of being alone. Mihalo (2009) also states in his

study that Toru’s preference for living alone proves that Toru readily recognizes

his inclination towards spending life alone. Thus, it shows that not being engaged with other people by living alone is something that Toru willingly decides to do.

In the dormitory, Toru makes a good friend with a guy named Nagasawa and both of them share the same interest to read books. Nagasawa is the only

person in the dormitory who has read Toru’s favorite book at that time entitled

The Great Gatsby. Nagasawa occasionally takes Toru with him when he goes to

the bars and picks up girls for one night stand, but Toru soon does not find satisfaction by sleeping with other girls and becomes tired of this habit. Toru thinks that his relationship with Nagasawa stands in stark contrast to his relationship with Kizuki (p. 43). Although Toru is quite acknowledged in many ways, he never opens his heart and discusses his personal life or problems with Nagasawa because Toru ever saw him drunk and tormenting a girl. Moreover, Toru still cannot open up his heart towards Nagasawa because of Kizuki’s suicide. Toru thinks that he lost one person to whom he could speak honestly of his feelings when he lost Kizuki (p. 56). Toru and Nagasawa never really connect and they do not have deeper understanding of one another because Toru never told about his personal things to Nagasawa. Based on Toru’s thought, Toru seems reluctant to open up to anyone after the loss of his best friend.

Toru’s inability to show his openness and speak honestly about his

(47)

(1972) explains that a person’s character can be described through the opinions of

other characters (p. 162). In this case, Nagasawa comments on how tight-lipped Toru is when it comes to his personal life (p. 272). Toru never tells Nagasawa about his personal life although they already get along well together.

Toru’s reluctance to be open is also experienced by Midori, a girl from

Toru’s drama class. When Midori has her problems, Toru listens to her and even

helps her. However, when Toru has his problems, he just keeps it by himself and is unwilling to tell Midori. The next paragraph is an excerpt from Midori’s letter that proves that Kizuki’s death affects Toru’s openness with other people.

But don’t get me wrong. I’m not totally mad at you. I’m just sad. You were so nice to me when I was having my problems, but now that you’re

having yours, it seems there’s not a thing I can do for you. You’re locked up in all that little world of yours, and when I try knocking on the door, you just sort of look up for second and go right back inside. (p. 334)

Toru’s inability to speak honestly about his feeling makes a distance between him

and others around him. Besides, Toru’s choice to be a secretive person who does not share his personal life proves that Toru never really seems to form a close friendship with those around him since Kizuki’s suicide. As a result, Toru tends to be alone instead of being with his friends.

In Norwegian Wood, Toru is always alone whenever he is. Toru recognizes that he makes conscious choice to be alone. The description of Toru as a loner can be seen from his reaction as what Murphy (1972) states that the way a person reacts to various situations and events gives the readers information about

a person’s character (p. 168). Toru starts his new life in dormitory and university.

(48)

decides to establish a proper distance between himself and everything else (p.33). He decides to distance himself and everything else because of Kizuki’s suicide. The loss of Kizuki makes Toru believe that Toru will forget Kizuki’s death by keeping a distance from anyone and everything else.

Living in dormitory and going to the university do not make Toru become more sociable as well. Toru hardly knows anyone in the dormitory, except Nagasawa and Storm Trooper, because Toru tends to keep a distance from him

and others (p. 39). Storm Trooper is Toru’s stuttering and fastidious roommate.

He is called as Storm Trooper because he always wears the same outfit when he goes to classes: white shirt, black pants, black shoes, navy blue sweater, a uniform jacket, and black briefcase like a typical right-wing student. He wears that kind of uniform because he does not want to be bothered choosing clothes (p. 21). Storm Trooper actually seems to be a nice guy because he always keeps the room clean, like washing the curtain and airing their mattresses. After Toru’s first year of college, Storm Trooper moves out from dormitory without any clear explanation and leaves the room entirely to Toru. Although his roommate is annoying, Toru thinks and even misses Storm Trooper after he is leaving. But still, he enjoys living alone in the dormitory (pp. 66-67).

(49)

his classmates by being alone in the class and cafeteria and talking to no one. In addition, Mihalo (2009) also states in his study that Toru prevents himself from building a relationship and interacting with his classmate which makes him feel lonely. It shows that his act of isolating himself from others is a conscious choice he has made. Besides, it also seems that Toru does not show any efforts to make friends as well.

Through character’s past life, speech, thought, reaction and character as seen by another, it can be concluded that Toru is a loner. Kizuki’s death leads Toru into loneliness in many ways. He is more interested in being alone than spending time with other people. Even when he has a friend, he is unable to open up his heart and share his feeling with anyone because he has already lost Kizuki, the person to whom he is able to speak honestly about his feeling.

2. An Ordinary Person

In Norwegian wood, Toru says that he is an ordinary person. The description of Toru as an ordinary person can be seen from his speech as Murphy

(1972) states that a person’s character can be presented through what he or she

(50)

head (p. 148). Toru’s description about himself describes that he is just an ordinary guy.

According to Murphy (1972), the way a person reacts to various situations and events also gives the readers information about a person’s character (p. 168). When Toru is in college time, he is an ordinary youth at a revolution time where the student strikes happen and it is proven from the way he reacts toward those situations. Toru only watches his fellow students protest about the “established

order”, then slinks back to class so as not to fall the course (pp. 64-65). He is

detached from the student strikes and revolutionary movement which occurs around him. He manages to isolate himself more than ever from his classmate. None of the students speak to him and he does not speak to none of them as well (p. 65). Instead of joining the student strike, Toru chooses to study and attend the classes. Toru’s reaction towards the student strikes shows that he is an ordinary student.

Murphy (1972) also says that a person’s appearance helps the readers to obtain the description of one’s character (p. 161). In Norwegian Wood, Toru’s simplicity can be seen from the way he gets dressed. When Toru is invited to have dinner with Nagasawa and Hatsumi in a fancy French restaurant to celebrate

Nagasawa’s passing of the Foreign Service exam, Toru only wears an ordinary

(51)

conclusion, the previous descriptions of Toru which is based on his speech, reaction, and personal description prove that Toru is an ordinary person.

3. A Caring Person

Living in the dormitory makes Toru think that he has bad luck since he shares a room with an annoying and meticulous friend, who is known as Storm Trooper. Storm Trooper always wakes up earlier and does Radio Calisthenics

which broadcasts every morning in the radio. Storm Trooper’s morning habit

annoys Toru who is still sleepy, especially when Storm Trooper does the jumping part that makes the bed bounce every time he hits the floor. Although his roommate always annoys him, it does not make Toru be ignorant towards Storm Trooper. According to Murphy (1972), a person’s reaction towards particular

situation can give clues to the readers about a person’s character (p. 168). Toru’s

caring towards Storm Trooper is depicted from his reaction when Storm Trooper is sick. Toru decides to nurse his sick roommate and even cancels his appointment to watch a concert with Naoko.

At the end of January, Storm Trooper went to bed with a raging fever, which meant I had to stand Naoko up that day. I had gone to a lot of trouble to get my hands on some free tickets for a concert. Naoko had been especially eager to go because the orchestra was performing one of her

favorites, Brahms’s fourth symphony. But with Storm Trooper tossing around in bed on the verge of what looked like an agonizing death, I

couldn’t just go off and leave him, and I couldn’t find anyone crazy

(52)

Toru is unable to leave Storm Trooper alone with his severe fever. He decides to nurse his roommate by himself and cancels his appointment he has already made with Naoko although he has gone some problems to get free tickets. Toru knows that the other dormitory residents are unwilling to take care of his sick roommate. Thus, Toru passionately nurses his sick roommate by giving a hot compress, taking his temperature even changing the undershirt. What he has done for Storm Trooper proves that Toru cares for Storm Trooper although his roommate is an annoying and weird person.

Toru has a good friend since senior high school; she is Naoko, Kizuki’s ex-girlfriend who he falls in love with. Once they move to Tokyo, Toru and Naoko stumble into each other on a crowded Tokyo train and quickly revive their friendship. Since then, Toru subsequently accompanies Naoko to have an afternoon stroll every Sunday. When it comes to Naoko’s twentieth birthday, Toru manages to have a little birthday celebration for her.

(53)

Toru also cares about Nagasawa’s girlfriend named Hatsumi. The way Toru reacts towards the situation proves that Toru cares about Hatsumi after she has a fight with Nagasawa. Toru shows his caring by accompanying and comforting Hatsumi.

I flagged down a cab and let Hatsumi in first. “Anyhow,” I said to Nagasawa, “I’ll make sure she gets home.”

“Sorry to put you through this,” said Nagasawa, but I could see that he was

already thinking about something else.

Once inside the cab, I asked Hatsumi, “Where do you want to go? Back to Ebisu?” Her apartment was in Ebisu.

She shook her head.

“O.K. Want to go for a drink somewhere?” “Yes,” she said with a nod.

“Shibuya,” I told the driver. (p. 279)

The conversation shows that Toru wants to help Hatsumi by accompanying her. It happens when Nagasawa invites Toru to have a celebration dinner with him and Hatsumi, in which Nagasawa and Hatsumi end up in a fight because Nagasawa does not care enough for Hatsumi. The talk, more or less, is about Nagasawa’s habit of sleeping with random girls and sometimes taking Toru along and it raises the fight between Hatsumi and Nagasawa. Since Hatsumi is angry with Nagasawa, she asks Toru, instead of Nagasawa, to see her home. Therefore, Toru tries to comfort Hatsumi by accompanying her to have some drinks in a bar and shoot a game of pool to cheer her up. Toru also promises Nagasawa to make sure that Hatsumi will get home safely.

Toru does not only care towards Storm Trooper, Naoko, and Hatsumi but also to his classmate named Midori. In drama class, Toru meets Midori, a friendly and outgoing girl who falls in love with him. He finds himself attracted to Midori

(54)

help their hospitalized father to run a small family book store after their mother’s

death. One day, Midori asks Toru to accompany her to visit her sick father in the hospital. He knows that Midori becomes busier since her father is hospitalized. She comes to the hospital four days in a week, and on the other days she watches the bookstore and goes to the class as well. Thus, Toru asks Midori to take a walk and relax by herself.

“Get out of here for a couple of hours and go take a walk,” I said. “I’ll take care of your father for a while.”

“Why?”

“You need to get away from the hospital and relax by yourself – not talk to

anybody, just clear your mind out.”

Midori thought about it for a minute and nodded. “Hmm, you may be

right. But do you know what to do? How to take care of him?”

“I’ve been watching. I’ve pretty much got it. You check the intravenous

thing, give him water, wipe the sweat off, and help him spit phlegm. The

bedpan’s under the bed, and if he gets hungry I feed him the rest of his

lunch. Anything I can’t figure out I’ll ask the nurse.” (p. 248)

The previous conversation between Toru and Midori proves Toru’s characteristic as a caring person. It is supported by Murphy (1972), who states that the authors can give the readers direct knowledge about a person’s character from what he or she is saying (p. 164). In the conversation, Toru asks Midori to take a walk and relax by herself because he knows that Midori has been busy and she needs some time to be alone. Toru also cares about Midori by offering himself to take care of

Midori’s father while she is out. Although Toru has not met Midori’s father

Figur

Memperbarui...

Referensi

Memperbarui...