Penentuan Kos Variabel PERTEMUAN 7 Dr Rilla Gantino, SE., Ak., MM Prodi Akuntansi- FEB

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Penentuan Kos Variabel PERTEMUAN 7

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KEMAMPUAN AKHIR YANG DIHARAPKAN

Mahasiswa dapat menjelaskan : pengertian,

manfaat dan pandangan harga pokok variabel, perbedaan antara harga pokok variabel dan Full Costing., manfaat informasi yang dapat diperoleh dari penentuan harga pokok variabel, dan

penentuan harga pokok variabel di dalam

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Managerial Accounting

by James Jiambalvo

Chapter 5:

Variable Costing

Slides Prepared by:

Scott Peterson

Northern State

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Full (Absorption) Costing

1.

Full (Absorption) Costing includes:

a.

Direct material

b.

Direct labor

c.

Manufacturing overhead (both

variable and fixed)

2.

Decision making and “what-if”

decisions are difficult because of the

commingling of fixed and variable

overhead.

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Variable Costing

1.

Variable Costing includes:

a.

Direct material

b.

Direct labor

c.

Variable Manufacturing overhead

2.

Variable Costing lends itself well to

decision making and “what-if”

analyses.

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Differences Between Full

(Absorption) and Variable Costing

1.

Fixed manufacturing overhead

(included in Full Costing).

2.

Fixed manufacturing costs, like

depreciation, are a period

expense on the income statement

under variable costing.

3.

Fixed manufacturing costs, like

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Variable Costing Income

Statement

1. The format uses a contribution margin

approach.

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Variable Costing Income

Statement Example

Sales $100,000

Less Variable:

Variable COGS $20,000 Variable Selling 10,000

Variable Admin. 5,000 35,000 Contribution Margin 65,000 Less Fixed:

Fixed Mfg. 10,000 Fixed Selling 8,000

Fixed Admin 7,000 25,000

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Full (Absorption) Costing Income

Statement Example

Sales

$100,000

Less COGS

30,000

Gross Margin

70,000

Less Selling and Admin:

Selling

18,000

Admin

12,000

30,000

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Effects of Production on Income for Full

Versus Variable Costing: Clausen Tube

Facts:

 5,000 units produced and sold

 Selling Price: $2,000 per unit

 Variable Manufacturing:

 Direct Materials: $600 per unit

 Direct Labor: $225 per unit

 Variable MFG: $75 per unit

 Fixed Manufacturing: $1,200,000 per year

 Selling Expense: $40 per unit variable plus $100,000 fixed.

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Clausen Tube Income Statement: Full

Costing

Sales

$10,000,000

Less COGS

5,700,000

Gross Margin

4,300,000

Less Selling and Admin:

Selling

$300,000

Admin

500,000 800,000

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Clausen Tube Income Statement:

Variable Costing

Sales $10,000,000

Less Variable:

Variable COGS $4,500,000 Variable Selling

and Admin 200,000

Contribution Margin 5,300,000 Less Fixed:

Fixed Mfg. 1,200,000 Fixed Selling 100,000

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Variable Costing Income

Statement: Considerations

1. When sales volume and production

volume are exactly equal, net income

is the same under either full or variable

costing.

2. Contribution margin is easily calculated

under variable costing: 2,000 – 940 =

1,060.

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Clausen Tube: Production is Greater

Than Sales

Facts:

 6,000 units produced and 4,800 units sold

 Selling Price: $2,000 per unit

 Variable Manufacturing:

 Direct Materials: $600 per unit

 Direct Labor: $225 per unit

 Variable MFG: $75 per unit

 Fixed Manufacturing: $1,200,000 per year

 Selling Expense: $40 per unit variable plus $100,000 fixed.

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Clausen Tube Income Statement: Full

Costing-- Production > Sales

Sales

$ 9,600,000

Less COGS

5,280,000

Gross Margin

4,320,000

Less Selling and Admin:

Selling

$292,200

Admin

500,000 792,200

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Clausen Tube Income Statement:

Variable Costing-- Production > Sales

Sales $ 9,600,000

Less Variable:

Variable COGS $4,320,000 Variable Selling

and Admin 192,000

Contribution Margin 5,088,000 Less Fixed:

Fixed Mfg. 1,200,000 Fixed Selling 100,000

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Variable Costing Income Statement:

Considerations-- Production > Sales

1. Net income is higher under full costing

than variable costing.

2. $3,528,000 vs. $3,288,000 = $240,000

3. The $240,000 difference is due to the

1,200 (6,000 – 4,800) additional units

produced and unsold.

4. Fixed manufacturing $1,200,000 /

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Summary of Effects of

Production on Net Income

If units produced = units sold, then no

difference between full costing and

variable costing net income.

If units produced > units sold, then full

costing net income is greater than

variable costing net income.

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Impact of JIT on the Income

Effects of Full Versus Variable

Costing

1. JIT (Just-In-Time) inventory systems

lead to low inventories.

2. Results in little difference between

production and sales.

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Benefits of Variable Costing for

Internal Reporting

1. Variable costing facilitates C-V-P

analysis because it uses a

“contribution” approach.

2. Variable costing mitigates the effects of

earnings management because fixed

manufacturing costs are not

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Quick Review Question #1

1.

Which of the following lends itself well

to C-V-P Analysis?

a.

Full Costing

b.

Absorption Costing

c.

Variable Costing

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Quick Review Answer #1

1.

Which of the following lends itself well

to C-V-P Analysis?

a.

Full Costing

b.

Absorption Costing

c.

Variable Costing

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Quick Review Question #2

2.

Units produced = 2,000, units sold =

1,800, contribution margin ratio is 37%,

fixed S & A expenses are $90,000.

Fixed mfg. Expenses are $80,200 By

how much is net income greater under

full costing than variable costing?

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Quick Review Answer #2

2. Units produced = 2,000, units sold = 1,800,

contribution margin ratio is 37%, fixed S & A expenses are $90,000. Fixed mfg. Expenses are $80,200 By how much is net income

greater under full costing than variable costing?

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Quick Review Question #3

3.

Which of the following complies with

GAAP for external reporting purposes?

a.

Absolute costing

b.

Variable costing

c.

Fixed costing

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Quick Review Answer #3

3.

Which of the following complies with

GAAP for external reporting purposes?

a.

Absolute costing

b.

Variable costing

c.

Fixed costing

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Quick Review Question #4

4.

Which of the following lends itself well

to internal decision making?

a.

Full costing

b.

Variable costing

c.

Absorption costing

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Quick Review Answer #4

4.

Which of the following lends itself well

to internal decision making?

a.

Full costing

b.

Variable costing

c.

Absorption costing

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Copyright

© 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted in Section 117 of the 1976 United States

Copyright Act without the express written permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. Request for further information should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. The purchaser may make back-up

copies for his/her own use only and not for distribution or resale. The Publisher assumes no responsibility for errors, omissions, or damages, caused by the use of these

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Learning Objective 1

Explain how variable

Explain how variable

costing differs from

costing differs from

absorption costing and

absorption costing and

compute unit product

compute unit product

costs under each method.

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Overview of Absorption and Variable

Costing

Direct Materials

Direct Labor

Variable Manufacturing Overhead

Fixed Manufacturing Overhead

Variable Selling and Administrative Expenses

Fixed Selling and Administrative Expenses

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Quick Check

Which method will produce the highest values for

work in process and finished goods inventories?

a. Absorption costing.

b. Variable costing.

c. They produce the same values for these

inventories.

d. It depends. . .

Which method will produce the highest values for

work in process and finished goods inventories?

a. Absorption costing.

b. Variable costing.

c. They produce the same values for these

inventories.

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Which method will produce the highest values for

work in process and finished goods inventories?

a. Absorption costing.

b. Variable costing.

c. They produce the same values for these

inventories.

d. It depends. . .

Which method will produce the highest values for

work in process and finished goods inventories?

a. Absorption costing.

b. Variable costing.

c. They produce the same values for these

inventories.

d. It depends. . .

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Unit

product cost

is determined as follows:

Under absorption costing, all production costs, variable and fixed, are included when determining unit product

cost. Under variable costing, only the variable production costs are included in product costs.

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Learning Objective 2

Prepare income

Prepare income

statements using both

statements using both

variable and absorption

variable and absorption

costing.

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Income Comparison of

Absorption and Variable Costing

Let’s assume the following additional information

for Harvey Company.

 20,000 units were sold during the year at a price

of $30 each.

There is no beginning inventory.

Now, let’s compute net operating

income using both absorption

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Absorption Costing

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Variable Costing

Sales (20,000 × $30) $ 600,000

Less variable expenses:

Beginning inventory $ Add COGM (25,000 × $10) 250,000 Goods available for sale 250,000 Less ending inventory (5,000 × $10) 50,000 Variable cost of goods sold 200,000 Variable selling & administrative

expenses (20,000 × $3) 60,000 260,000

Contribution margin 340,000

Less fixed expenses:

Manufacturing overhead $ 150,000

Selling & administrative expenses 100,000 250,000

Net operating income $ 90,000

Variable Costing

Sales (20,000 × $30) $ 600,000

Less variable expenses:

Beginning inventory $

Add COGM (25,000 × $10) 250,000 Goods available for sale 250,000

Less ending inventory (5,000 × $10) 50,000 Variable cost of goods sold 200,000 Variable selling & administrative

expenses (20,000 × $3) 60,000 260,000 Contribution margin 340,000

Less fixed expenses:

Manufacturing overhead $ 150,000

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Learning Objective 3

Reconcile variable costing

Reconcile variable costing

and absorption costing net

and absorption costing net

operating incomes and

operating incomes and

explain why the two

explain why the two

amounts differ.

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Variable costing net operating income $ 90,000 Add: Fixed mfg. overhead costs

deferred in inventory

(5,000 units × $6 per unit) 30,000 Absorption costing net operating income $ 120,000

Variable costing net operating income $ 90,000 Add: Fixed mfg. overhead costs

deferred in inventory

(5,000 units × $6 per unit) 30,000 Absorption costing net operating income $ 120,000

Fixed mfg. overhead $150,000

Units produced 25,000 units= = $6 per unit

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Unit Cost Computations

Since the variable costs per unit, total fixed costs,

Since the variable costs per unit, total fixed costs,

and the number of units produced remained

and the number of units produced remained

unchanged, the unit cost computations also

unchanged, the unit cost computations also

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Absorption Costing

Sales (30,000 × $30) $ 900,000

Less cost of goods sold:

Beg. inventory (5,000 × $16) $ 80,000 Add COGM (25,000 × $16) 400,000 Goods available for sale 480,000

Less ending inventory - 480,000

Gross margin 420,000

Less selling & admin. exp.

Variable (30,000 × $3) $ 90,000

Fixed 100,000 190,000

Net operating income $ 230,000

Absorption Costing

Sales (30,000 × $30) $ 900,000

Less cost of goods sold:

Beg. inventory (5,000 × $16) $ 80,000

Add COGM (25,000 × $16) 400,000

Goods available for sale 480,000

Less ending inventory - 480,000

Gross margin 420,000

Less selling & admin. exp.

Variable (30,000 × $3) $ 90,000

Fixed 100,000 190,000

Net operating income $ 230,000

Absorption Costing

Fixed manufacturing overhead released from inventory is 5,000 units × $6 = $30,000.

Unit product

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Variable Costing

All fixed manufacturing

overhead is expensed.

Variable manufacturing

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Variable costing net operating income $ 260,000 Deduct: Fixed manufacturing overhead

costs released from inventory

(5,000 units × $6 per unit) 30,000 Absorption costing net operating income $ 230,000

We can reconcile the difference between

absorption and variable income as follows:

Fixed mfg. overhead $150,000

Units produced 25,000 units= = $6 per unit

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Learning Objective 4

Understand the

Understand the

advantages and

advantages and

disadvantages of both

disadvantages of both

variable and absorption

variable and absorption

costing.

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Impact on the Manager

Opponents of absorption costing argue that shifting fixed manufacturing overhead costs between periods can lead to faulty decisions.

Opponents of absorption costing argue that shifting fixed manufacturing overhead costs between periods can lead to faulty decisions.

These opponents argue that variable costing income

statements are easier to understand because net operating income is only affected by changes in unit sales. This

produces net operating income figures that are consistent with managers’ expectations.

These opponents argue that variable costing income

statements are easier to understand because net operating income is only affected by changes in unit sales. This

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CVP Analysis, Decision Making

and Absorption costing

Absorption costing does not dovetail with CVP analysis,

nor does it support decision making. It treats fixed

manufacturing overhead as a variable cost. It assigns per

unit fixed manufacturing overhead costs to production.

Treating fixed manufacturing overhead as a variable cost can:

• Lead to faulty pricing decisions and faulty keep-or-drop decisions.

Treating fixed manufacturing overhead as a variable cost can:

• Lead to faulty pricing decisions and faulty keep-or-drop decisions.

Assigning per unit fixed manufacturing overhead costs to production can:

• Potentially produce positive net operating income even when the number of units sold is less than the breakeven point.

Assigning per unit fixed manufacturing overhead costs to production can:

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External Reporting and Income Taxes

To conform to

To conform to

GAAP requirements,

GAAP requirements,

absorption costing must be used for

absorption costing must be used for

external financial reports in the

external financial reports in the

United States.

United States. To conform to

To conform to

GAAP requirements,

GAAP requirements,

absorption costing must be used for

absorption costing must be used for

external financial reports in the

external financial reports in the

United States.

United States. Reform Act of 1986,Under the Tax

absorption costing must be used when filling out

income tax returns. Under the Tax Reform Act of 1986,

absorption costing must be used when filling out

income tax returns. Since top executives

are typically evaluated based on earnings reported to shareholders in external reports, they may feel that

decisions should be based on absorption costing data.

Since top executives

are typically evaluated based on earnings reported to shareholders in external reports, they may feel that

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Advantages of Variable Costing

and the Contribution Approach

Advantages

Management finds it more useful.

Consistent with CVP analysis.

Net operating income is closer to

net cash flow.

Profit is not affected by changes in inventories.

Consistent with standard costs and flexible budgeting.

Impact of fixed costs on profits

emphasized.

(56)

Variable Costing

Variable versus Absorption Costing

Fixed manufacturing costs must be assigned

to products to properly match revenues and

costs.

Fixed manufacturing costs are capacity costs

and will be incurred even if nothing is

(57)

Variable Costing and the Theory of

Constraints (TOC)

Companies involved in TOC use a form of variable

costing. However, one difference of the TOC approach

is that it treats direct labor as a fixed cost for three

reasons:

 Many companies have a commitment to guarantee

workers a minimum number of paid hours.

 Direct labor is usually not the constraint.

 TOC emphasizes the role direct laborers play in driving

continuous improvement. Since layoffs often devastate morale, managers involved in TOC are extremely

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Impact of Lean Production

When companies use Lean Production . . .

Production

tends to equal

sales . . .

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