communities. In the case of petroleum, as stressed in this report, rents usually did not compensate social and environmental impacts and threats related with petroleum industrial activities. This is also an ethical issue, since, even if the petroleum rents are well perceived and the environmental impacts are better controlled, petroleum activities may affect native populations for which damages cannot be financially compensated. For electricity, usually local populations do not benefit from the generation itself because this is produced at large scale (and at high voltage) to be transmitted to other load centres. Therefore, in the second level, challenges include, in the case of petroleum, deciding whether or not s petroleum resources should be developed in some sites and, if so, how to divert benefits to local populations. In the case of electricity, interconnection and diversification are the main options for increasing the security of supply for regions outside Amazonia. Interestingly enough, some of these regions could benefit from the development of renewable energy sources, which is the case of wind in Northeastern, Brazil, and solar thermal power plant in Atacama, Chile. It is also worth noting that global climate policies might have different impacts on the different energy resources provided by the Amazon to other regions. The effort to mitigate GHG emissions may encourage the exploration of renewables, such as hydro, and even low carbon fossil fuels such as natural gas, causing local impacts at the expense of global environmental improvements. On the other hand, some climate scenarios indicate that hydropower reliability can be reduced in the long term, resulting in lower energysecurity to consumer centres supplied by Amazonian electricity. The most usual option to deal with this loss of
Agricultural sector is the government’s priority through fiscal policies. One of the policies implemented is the interest rate subsidy for Food and EnergySecurity Credit Program (KKP-E). Some Banks had been appointed and in collaboration with the government to provide KKP-E. KKP-E program had lower interest rate than the market rate and it was expected that the farmers could access it. KKP-E was intended to meet the needs of agricultural equipment and farm inputs purchase. Since the program rolled out from 2008 to 2015, the implementation of KKP-E was below the credit limit. This study aimed to analyze the KKP-E implementation, farmers’ perspectives of KKP-E, and change from KKP-E to KUR (People’s Business Credit) for Agricultural Sector. Results of the study showed that KKP-E disbursement was relatively low. KKP-E distribution channels needed enhancement and the credit could not satisfy all farm business. Farmers did not receive KKP-E from the bank on time. Continuity of subsidized credit was important for farmers. Basic scheme of KKP-E program should be applied to KUR for Agricultural Sector. The government and the Banks need to be more actively in socializing the program, to improve financial education, to utilize more advanced technology, and to simplify bureaucracy. Keywords: credit, farmers ’ perception, interest rate, subsidy
involved in, and affected by, global issues such as food security (driven by increased food demand from growing and more prosperous populations) and energysecurity (driven by the impacts of the global financial crisis, oil price volatility, and over dependency on fossil fuel) It will require both an increase in yields and more plantations. Much of the required land should be taken from existing stocks of degraded land, but if this is poorly planned and/or ill-managed, it could have serious consequences for the environmental and social capital of the country.
Abstract – Marine resources as energy resources has become one means for the construction maritime power and unifying the region's defense for Indonesia. The geographical condition of Indonesia as an archipelagic country with the vast majority of territorial waters, as well as its strategic cross-position, becomes a fundamental source for sustainable energy development through the utilization of microalgae as a potential marine plant for biodiesel fuel, a diesel mix for Indonesian coastal communities. The research method in this study uses literature study and observation of previous authors' research, which will result in an analysis of energy objectives as supporting maritime defense that includes: (1) comprehensive understanding on the management and development of marine energy resources through the use of biodiesel from renewable energy of marine microalgae; (2) raising effective awareness and cooperation among the coastal communities, government and industry regarding the greatness of Indonesian history that has been built from the control over the oceans as a source of defense in developing energysecurity to support maritime defense.
According to the US Energy Information Administration, Malaysia s oil reserves have declined in recent years, from 771,000 barrels/day in 2000 to 703,920 barrels/day in 2007 (EIA 2010). CIA World Factbook has reported that Malaysia has produced an average of 603,400 barrels per day (Ali et al. 2012) in the year 2011, which clearly shown that there wasdepletion in oil reserves. As highlighted by the CEO of TNB, there is a need to import natural gas since future demand cannot be met from indigenous sources (Noh 2012). Apart from that, the coal reserves which is fully imported, is exposed to the risk of inadequate supply due to competition from other countries, especially from China and India (IEA 2012), and political issue (Muri 2003). Since petrol and diesel are connected to the global market prices, peak oil is now a significant issue for Malaysia s energysecurity. The gap in fuel supply at power generation plants has to be evaded in order to avoid any related issues of power blackouts.
reduced. The new, incremental energy contributions that can be obtained from waste biomass will depend on future government policies, on the rates of fossils fuel depletion, and on extrinsic and intrinsic economic factors, as well as the availability of specific residues in areas where they can be collected and utilized. All of these factors should be in detail examined to evaluate the development of the industrial waste contribution. Hope this conference will also discuss this issue in more detail as it is an important matter for all of us. We should no more think just how to produce high value product but it is also necessarily important how to keep our live in good quality by understanding following old saying…” only when the last tree has been cut, only when the last fish has been angled, and only when the last river has been polluted, then we realized that we could not eat money”.
Considering the fact that competition in the market is pivotal and interdependent between the Government and investors, the Government is under an obligation to create an effective regulatory regime in order to enable investors to participate in the industry. By doing so, it does not only serve the purpose of allowing investors to gain profits under infrastructure investment, but also securing security of electricity supply for customers in the long run. According to Freeman, the goals of efficacy and legitimacy are better served by a model that views the administrative process as a problem-solving exercise in which parties share responsibility for all stages of the rule-making process, in which solutions are provisional, and in which the state plays an active, if varied, role. 39 Therefore, it is highly encouraged for Governments to use
According to BPMIGAS data in 2012, Indonesia Energy Demand is increase about 6% every year from 2010 until 2025. For gas demand, Indonesia is expected consuming energy from 599.8 MBOEPD in 2010 to 1,405.4 MBOEPD in 2025. Indonesia has abundant gas reserve that is scattered throughout the Indonesia territory. That’s why Indonesia has to develop integrated gas infrastructure to facilitate the gas transportation and utilization in Indonesia. BPH Migas has proposed a long term recommendation of Natural Gas transportation in Indonesia to facilitate gas distribution. Indonesia need to build gas pipeline, LNG plant, LPG plant, gas compression station, and LNG receiving terminal, and also to provide LNG transportation and distribution.
Third, the study reveals the difficult tradeoffs among components of energysecurity. Japan achieved its low energy intensity, advanced technology, and mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions only with large government subsidies and comparatively high prices for energy services. The Lao PDR has a small carbon footprint and high penetration of hydroelectricity but has prioritized exporting energy rather than expanding domestic access, though it is now seeking to expand hydropower supply to the domestic market. Dam construction continues to erode environmental quality, and the country remains completely dependent on imported oil to fuel transport. Myanmar’s extreme export-oriented energy strategy can leave its population literally in the dark, its favorable score on environmental indicators reflecting only limited capacity and poor access. The fundamental problem is that some elements of energysecurity, such as affordability, apparently come only at the expense of others, such as sustainability and efficiency. Perhaps in recognition of this, Myanmar is beginning to change its export-oriented strategy.
In order to support its food and energysecurity targets, Indonesia is developing the Merauke Integrated Food and Energy Estate (MIFEE) in Papua. This programme was initiated in 2008, oicially launched in 2010 and backed by President Jokowi in 2015. It allocates more than 1.2 million hectares of adat (customary) land (mostly forest), for food crops (50%), sugarcane (30%) and palm oil plantations (20%). Development is divided into three phases: 423,251 hectares from 2010-2014; 632,505 hectares from 2015-2019; and 227,077 hectares from 2020-2030. From this, MIFFE is expected to produce 1.95 million tons of rice; 2.02 million tons of maize; 167,000 tons of soy; 64,000 cattle heads; 2.5 million tons of sugar; and 937,000 tons of oil palm each year 17 .
The GOI will implement enhanced actions to study and map regional vulnerabilities as the basis of adaptation information system, and to strengthen institutional capacity and promulgation of climate change sensitive policies and regulations by 2020. The medium-term goal of Indonesia’s climate change adaptation strategy is to reduce risks on all development sectors (agriculture, water, energysecurity, forestry, maritime and isheries, health, public service, infrastructure, and urban system) by 2030 through local capacity strengthening, improved knowledge management, convergent policy on climate change adaptation and disaster risks reduction, and application of adaptive technology.
LUCENA, A. et al. (2013) EnergySecurity in Amazonia. Report for Global Canopy Programme and International Center for Tropical Agriculture as part of the Amazonia Security Agenda project. Data for Bolivia: CNDC. (2010) Comité Nacional de Despacho de Carga. Gross Generation 2010. [Online]. Available at http://www.cndc.bo/ estadisticas/anual.php; for Brazil: EPE. (2011) Balanço Energético Nacional 2011. Rio de Janeiro; for Ecuador: CONELEC. (2012) Plan Maestro de Electriicación 2012 - 2021. Quito, Ecuador & CONELEC. Indicadores del Sector Eléctrico. [Online].Available from: http://www. conelec.gob.ec/indicadores/; for Peru: MINEM. (2011) Ministerio de Energía y Minas del Perú. Anuario Estadístico de Electricidad 2010. Lima, Peru & MINEM. (2011) Ministerio de Energía y Minas del Perú. Atlas del Potencial Hidroeléctrico del Perú. Lima, Perú.
For example, if I state that we really need to invest in $X for a security architect to help harmonize and reduce our attack surface size, that is not a tangible, investible item that a non-technical, executive decision maker can understand. If, however, I present that our products and services that generate our income of are extremely likely to suffer from an intrusion or loss costing at least $Y unless we spend $X on identifying and implementing a less vulnerable and more effective security architecture, then that is more likely to be considered. My case will be even stronger if I include the additional business revenue benefits that may be achieved by having better security architecture. Better security architecture can deliver a more trusted and robust customer experience, delivering more data value for both the customer and our company. Only when you can present and use real examples and numbers that have a business focus will investment be possible.
ini berupaya untuk meningkatkan pembangunan tanpa kerusakan lingkungan. Ketahanan air, energi dan pangan juga diakui sebagai inti dari strategi pembangunan ekonomi negara ini. Pencapaian ketahanan ini secara terus-menerus tidak dapat dipisahkan dari ketergantungannya pada ekosistem yang berfungsi dengan benar. Hutan dan lahan gambut diakui luas sebagai hal yang menawarkan jalur rendah biaya untuk mencapai ketahanan air, energi dan pangan dan di saat yang sama menjamin perlindungan keanekaragaman hayati, dan mendukung upaya-upaya untuk mencapai tujuan-tujuan penurunan emisi dan mitigasi perubahan iklim. Terdapat pengakuan yang semakin besar bahwa untuk memastikan pencapaian ketahanan ini, dibutuhkan pendekatan holistik yang terpadu, yang disebut ‘hubungan Air- Energi-Pangan (Water-Energy-Food atau WEF)’ 6 .
The current Government of Indonesia recognises the intense pressure this is putting on its natural ecosystems, and the resulting threat to water, energy and food security that could undermine the country’s ability to achieve sustainable economic prosperity. Its success at moving away from this ‘business-as-usual’ development model will depend on coordinated development strategies that both recognise and account for the true value of natural resources, their ecosystem services and the inherent resource trade-ofs between sectors. This brieing note outlines the challenges and opportunities for Indonesia to achieve water, energy and food security targets in ways that align with its long term development strategy 4 . A water-energy-food (WEF) nexus approach is used to identify and evaluate synergies and trade-ofs across diferent sector targets.This recognises the interdependency between water, energy and food systems and their reliance on natural resources, in particular forests and peatlands. Finally, it focusses on how Indonesia’s existing legislative and institutional frameworks can facilitate or hinder cross-sectoral coordination and the