Teks penuh





Submitted to Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for The Degree of SarjanaPendidikan



Registration Number: 2123321090





Expect where appropriate acknowledged, this thesis is my own work, has been expressed in my own words, and has not previously been submitted for publication. I understand that this paper may be screened electronically or otherwise for plagiarism.

Medan, Februari 2016


i Abstract

Amelia, Zhana Sabrina, 2123321090. Developing English Reading Material For Fashion Design in Vocational School, A Thesis, English, Department, Faculty of Languages and Arts, State University of Medan, 2017.

This study concern on how reading text materials are developed for fashion design vocational school. The objectives of this research were: (1) to design English reading material for students in Fashion Design Program, (2) to develop English reading material for students in Fashion Design Program. This study was conducted by using developmental research (R & D). The subject of the research was grade twelve in SMK N 10 Medan consisting of 33 students. Instrumentation for collecting data was document, questionnaire, and interview. After analyzing

the data, the writer got the students’ need learning English based on their program in school. Based on the students’ need analysis, it was got some reading materials from the students’ book are not appropriate with the syllabus. Then, there is reading material that should develop based on their syllabus and their need. After the materials had been designed, the reading materials were done. The results show of the 84.1% from the Expert – lecturer and 92.1% from the Expert – English teacher, for the new reading material and the categorized is “relevant” as the reading material criteria. The developed teaching materials were related to the vocation that the students had; it was fashion design program. The development of materials followed six stages; those were gathering information and data, analyzing data, designing new reading material, validating expert, revising new

reading material from experts’ suggestion and developing reading material (final


Keywords: Develop, Reading Text Materials, Fashion Design, Vocational School,



In the Name of Allah SWT, the most Gracious, the most Merciful All praises be to Allah, king of the king, the Lord of the world, and the master of the day after, who has given us blessing and guidance. Because of His graciousness and mercifulness the writer can write well. The writer realizes and feels very sure that without His blessing, mercy, and guidance, it would be possible for herself to finish the Thesis which entitled: Developing English Reading Material For Fashion Design Program in Vocational School. This Thesis is aimed to fulfill one of the requirements for the degree of SarjanaPendidikan of the English Department, Faculty of Language and Arts, State University of Medan (UNIMED)

Sholawat and Salam may Allah send them to our Prophet Muhammad

SAW, (peace be upon him), his families, his companions, and his followers. The best

messenger for people all over the world. This world becomes peace because of his hard effort in giving the human being advices.

On this opportunity, in completing the Thesis, the writer realized that she faced some problems and she had received the academic guidance, suggestions, and comments and got a lot of assistance and moral supports from many people. Here the writer would like to express her profound gratitude, more than she can express, to:

Prof. Dr. Syawal Gultom, M.Pd., the Rector of State University of Medan. Dr. Isda Praminiati, M.Hum., the Dean Faculty of language and Arts, State

University of Medan.

Prof. Dr. Hj. Sumarsih, M.pd., the Head of English and Department Dra. Meisuri, M.A., the Secretary of English Department

Nora Ronita Dewi, S.S., S.Pd., M.Hum., the Head of English Education

second Thesis Advisor who have a tought, guided, advised and also given the precious time in completing this Thesis.

Dr. Rahmad Husein. M.Ed., and Rafika Dewi Nasution, S.Pd.,M.Hum.,

the Thesis Reviewer and Examiner, who have given their precious time, guidance, suggestion and comments.

All the Lecturers of English Department who have taught, guided and

advised her throughout the academic years.

Eis Sri Wahyuningsih, M.Pd., the Administration Staff of English



Her beloved parents, Alm. Sugiman, SE and Nursawaliah Sari, S.Pd, her lovely sister Nurmasniar Elvaradina, S.Sos and her lovely brother Ilham

Alfahrezi, and all her big families who always give tons of prayers, love,

motivations, encouraged, reminded the writer to finish this Thesis as soon as possible.

Her closest friend belong her lovely, Ilham Imaman, SH, who always gives her tons of supports, happiness, jokes and love. So much thankyou for you, Marisa Silaen, Siti Halisa, and especially for Meishara Defani Nasution,

who always help me to finish this paper as being my translator and grammar Nazi of this paper

Her Friend in PPLT SMK Trisakti 4 Pariwisata Lubuk Pakam 2015 for many experiences and togetherness, especially for My Kamboja, Maria Diva

Simamora, Wijayanti Ibrahim, Rindika Miraza Naustion, Gesti Riwanda, Rifki Tanjung, and Osalia Putri Utami, thankyou all for the

supports, the togetherness, the silly love and the pray in completing this thesis

 For all the writer’s friends, Arief Hidayat, Meisura Dwini Girsang, Windi Love Pita Sari, Swidanty Annisa, Elnoviamy, Sri Lestari, Anggita Kasanra Lubis, Nayara Hafiza, Geby Cindy Sitanggang, Rika Wahyuni, Nurul Huda, Dara Yulyanti, Andika Pratama, Supra Cipto, Steven Karta, and many more who cannot write them all, thank you for glorious and

memorable time to always make the writer happy.

Last, but far from least, her very sincere thanks to who are not mentioned personally here, without their patience, guidance, support and cooperation this Thesis could have never been written. Finally, the writer surrenders everything to Allah SWT and the writer hope it will be a useful thing for the writer herself and for all to improve educational quality.

Medan, January 2016 The Writer,



A. The Background of Study ...1

B. The Problem of Study ...5

C. The Objective of Study ...6

D. The Scope of Study ...6

E. The Significance of Study ...6


A. Theoretical Framework ...8

1. Teaching Materials ...8

8. English of Specific Purpose (ESP) ...23

1. Need Analysis ...25

9. Fashion Design ...27

B. Related Studies ...27

C. Conceptual Framework ...29



A. Research Design ...31

B. Instrument of Collecting Data ...32

C. Technique of Data Analysis ...33

D. Material Development ...34


A. Gathering Information and Data ... 37

B. Analyzing Data ... 38

1.Existing Material ... 39

2. Objective Learning English ... 40

3. Target Need ... 43

4. Learning Need ... 48

C. Designing New Reading Material ... 50

D. Validating by Experts ... 51

E. Revise the New Reading Material from the Experts’ Suggestion .. 53

F Developing Reading Materials(Final Product) . ... 54


A. Conclusion ... 55

B. Suggestion ... 57




Table 3.1.The Categories of Expert Validator Table 3.2. Data Conversion Table

Table 4.1.The Students’ Background Related to Learning Experience Table 4.2. Students’ Purpose in learning English

Table 4.3.The Place the Students Will Use English Table 4.4.The Situation the Students using English Table 4.5.The Motivation the Students Learn English

Table 4.6. Students’ Difficulty in Learning English Table 4.7. The Problem of the Students in Reading Table 4.8. The Students Want to Achieve

Table 4.9. Willingness to Read After Graduated From School Table 4.10. The Students like Reading’s Type

Table 4.11. The Students’ Role in Learn English






APPENDIX A : Need Analysis Questionnaires

APPENDIX B : The Result of Need Analysis Questionnaires APPENDIX C : Need Analysis Interview

APPENDIX D : Script Interviewing Teacher APPENDIX E : Script Interviewing Students APPENDIX F : Syllabus

APPENDIX G : Existing Material

APPENDIX H : Instruments of Validator APPENDIX I : List of Revision Final Product





A. The Background of the study

Nowadays, many people say that English is an important lesson to be learned because it is common used in every field such as economics, science, international relationship, and etc. Therefore, English is one of the subject that is taught and learned in every level of education.

In Indonesia, English has been used as a foreign language. English consists of four skills which have to be mastered by the students, they are listening, speaking, reading and writing. In this case, the learners are required to comprehend (listening and reading) the language and produce (speaking and writing) the language.

Among the four language skills, reading is one of the skills that should be learned well by the students because by having reading skill they will be easy to get information, knowledge, and science. Grabe and Soller (2002) state that

through reading, student can get many various’ information, such as: social,



related with their needs and sometimes the text had a high level in terms of language or grammar.

Actually, there were some various problems which are always happened in teaching learning process: such as: students’ interest in learning English has been low, the teacher mostly dominated the teaching learning process by tutoring, the teaching media has not supported the teaching learning process and the major

factor is the students’ course book is too monotonous and even sometimes the

students’ course book is not appropriate.

Therefore, teaching material has an important role in teaching learning process. The availability of teaching material should be in accordance with curriculum. Actually there are two kinds of curriculum that are used in Indonesia right now, they are: K13 (Kurikulum 2013) & KTSP (Kurikulum Tingkat Satuan Pendidikan). Romine (in Hamalik, 2012) states that curriculum is interpreted to mean all of the organized courses, activities, and experiences, which students have under direction of the school, whether in the classroom or. Curriculum has a big role on the growth and development of education. Government determines the curriculum for each region in Indonesia and it applies in a strategy plan that is called as Syllabus.



2003). The other things that should be had by the teacher is lesson plan. It is the planning or concept that is going to be implemented in the classroom. After having a lesson plan, a teacher has to have a textbook as a tool which support the quality of learning. One of the teaching material that is usually used by the teacher is a text book. A textbook means a created material design for teaching learning process and it can be defined as a book preparation for students in teaching learning process. Alshumaimeri (2015) states that textbooks are effective resources that help English teachers to activate daily life communication in their classes, English syllabus designers should take them into their consideration the necessity of integrating authentic materials within the text-based materials while designing an English textbook.

Based on the researcher observation at SMKN 10 Medan in Fashion Design Program (this program gives the students skill, knowledge and attitude in order to get a standard level as a worker which will be capable to develop their carrier, be a professional, competent and energetic in Fashion Design Industry). A preliminary observation was done to know the level of students’ comprehension of in reading texts. The observation was done through interview toward English teacher in SMKN 10 Medan. From the interview, the teacher said that the students of Fashion Design program were needed the specific reading text based on their needs, because they were using general textbook (English book for all genre of school such as SMA, SMK, MA, and MAK) and the reading materials on



Students’ English book that published by Education and Culture Ministry, in

which one of the reading materials, genre of report text, was not related to Fashion Design Program. The data as follow:


What is a reptile?

The word reptile means that which crawls. A reptile is an animal that crawls, though some prefer to swim. Reptiles usually have scales on their bodies, like fish, but they breathe through lungs as people do. Reptiles are cold-blooded. This means that the temperature of their blood changes when the air temperature change. Snakes, turtles, and lizard all reptiles.(Taken from Charlie Brown’s Cyclopedia. Volume 2.1990.Animal through the Ages: From Alligators to Zebra).

The data shows that the reading materials were inappropriate to the fashion design program. The students were very boring if they read which they have known before. The result was they are not enthusiastic and interesting to learn the reading materials, simply because they though it will not affect their Department and future job. The teacher admitted that students need more reading materials. Therefore, the teachers have tried to find other sources of reading material from internet, but the reading materials that they found in the internet sometimes could not meet with the students’ needs and they were not designed based on the syllabus.

By seeing the preliminary data we can conclude that there are many of students were not interesting with the existing materials just because all the topic of the texts are unrelated with their program, meaning that the function of ESP itself can decrease that problem, through ESP the teachers can analyze their

students’ needs and they also can design the appropriate reading materials for



students can improve their knowledge by having the suitable reading materials. The teaching material for vocational school should be good and suitable in their skill, so it will be created a professional generation. Based on Hutchinson’s and

Water’s theories, English for Specific Purposes (ESP) is a way of teaching and learning English for specialized subjects with some specific vocational or educational purpose in mind.

In this case the teacher needs to know the students’ needs, meaning that

teacher should adjust between the reading materials and learners’ majors. By knowing those things the teacher can develop some reading materials for the students. Developing the reading material is closely related to English for Specific Purposes, by understanding it the teacher can see the need analysis and course design as well. Before the teacher starting to make the new materials, he or she

should analyze the learners’ needs and consider the appropriate materials that are

going to be learned and after doing those things, the teacher can develop the

effective materials which are based on student’ needs. When the teacher can to do

this, the teaching-learning process in the classroom will be interested and it is going to be easy for the teachers and students to reach the learning goals.

B. The Problems of the Study

By seeing from the background, the problems of study are:

1. “What is English reading material which is appropriate for students in Fashion Design Program?”



C. The Objectives of the Study

As mentioned in the problem of the study, the objectives of this research are:

1. to design English reading material for students in Fashion Design Program 2. to develop English reading material for students in Fashion Design


D. The Scope of the Study

The scope of this study is the students in the third grade of SMKN 10 Medan-Fashion Design Program, in first semester. This study focuses on reading text, especially in report text.

E. The Significance of the Study

The result of this study are expected not only to be the merely data aggregation but something more advantageous theoretically and practically. It can be described as follows:

Theoretically, the result of this study can be a reference for those who are interested in developing English reading materials.

Practically, the writer expects this study will be useful for:



2. The teachers; this study is aimed to help teachers find advantageous information based on the contents and findings of this study, which is related to developing English reading material.




A. Conclusion

After analyzing the data, the conclusion are drawn in the following,

1. The students of Fashion Design Program in SMK N 10 Medan were needed the English reading materials which could support their learning activity and learning environment. Their learning activity was supposed to increase their knowledge about Fashion and their learning environment was to prepare themselves for their future job. The English reading materials did not only help them to learn English but also complete the mission of the school.

2. The reading materials on general English book did not match to their needs and it should be developed. The English reading materials should be developed through five phases, they were; 1) Gathering information and data, 2) Analyzing data, 3) Designing materials based on the needs analysis, 4) Validating the new reading materials by experts (Fashion Design subject teacher and English lecturer), 5) Revising – developing material (Final product)

B. Suggestions



1. Teacher

It was suggested that the English teacher should not just give the general English reading material. The teachers should consider the

students’ needs to choose the learning materials. The learning process can

be success if the reading materials were useful for their daily life and learning environment. The teacher should use authentic teaching materials based on the specific vocation which had by the students. The teachers should develop the reading materials if they found the materials were too general for the students. Students for Fashion design program by giving the material related to fashion design.

2. Institution

The institution should supervise the teachers and ensure them that

the reading materials supported the school’s mission. The institution also

should find the books which match to the students’ need. The number of

references of English reading materials had to be increased to ease the students learning English.

3. Other researcher

Other researchers should find many references to support in developing reading materials. The open questions of questionnaire should

be considered to give the students’ chance to deliver their wants in new



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Figure 3.1 Diagram of Material Development

Figure 3.1

Diagram of Material Development p.12