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Submitted in Partial Fulfillment Of the Requirements for the Degree of

Sarjana Pendidikan

Gregorius Tricella Marikhi













A Thesis

Submitted in Partial Fulfillment Of the Requirements for the Degree of

Sarjana Pendidikan

Gregorius Tricella Marikhi


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Supervisor, Examiner,



This thesis contains no such materials as has been submitted for examination in

any course or accepted for the fulfillment of any degree or diploma in any university. To the best of my knowledge and my belief, this contains no material

previously published or written by any other person except where due references is made in the text.

Copyright@ 2017. Gregorius Tricella Marikhi and Dian Toar Y. G. Sumakul, M. A.

All right reserved. No part of this thesis may be produced by any means without

the permission of a least on of the copyright owners or the English Languege Education Program, Faculty of Language and Arts, Universitas Kristen Satya

Wacana, Salatiga.



Table of Contents

Abstract ... 1

Introduction ... 1

Review of Literature ... 3

Mobile Assisted Language Learning (MALL) ... 3

Theories in M-Learning ... 5

Impacts of M-Learning in Language Learning ... 6

Learners‟ Perception in MALL ... 7

The Study ... 9

Context ... 9

Participants ... 9

The Instruments of Data Collection ... 10

Data Collection Procedure ... 10

Data Analysis Procedure ... 11

Discussion ... 11

Willingness to adopt the mobile technology for Learning ... 11

The Improvement of Knowledge ... 13

Casual Usage of Mobile Device ... 15

Technical Problem experienced by the Learners ... 18

Network ... 18

Power ... 19

The Performance of the Mobile Phone ... 20

Inverse Opinion on Mobility in Learning ... 21

Conclusion ... 22

Acknowledgement ... 24







Gregorius Tricella Marikhi


Nowadays, mobile phones start to take part in the process of EFL learning. With the development of technology, EFL learners are able to learn through their mobile phones. However, the incorporation of technology in teaching and learning should take into account the learners‟ perception on it. Correspondingly, this study looked at how EFL learners perceive the use of mobile phones in their learning. To get the data, this qualitative descriptive study used interview questions adapted from Suki & Suki (2011). There were eight students participated in this study. The results showed that the learners‟ perceptions could be categorized into 5 different themes, namely their willingness to adopt the technology, the improvement of their knowledge, the casual usage of mobile phones, technical problems, and the performance of the mobile phones. However, all of the participants agreed that despite their positive perceptions toward the use of mobile phones in their learning, mobile phones could not change face-to-face meetings in the classrooms.

Keywords: EFL Learning, Perception, Language Learners, Features.


Since learning English is very popular in non-English speaking countries, developing modern assisted-learning tools that support effective English learning

is considered to be a critical issue in the English-language education field. Nowadays, Mobile Assisted Language Learning (MALL) is currently attracting a



exploitation of technological developments needs to be guided by more than just enthusiasm. The students from all levels tend to use mobile phones especially in

their English language learning. They prefer to use the applications in their mobile phones to help them in language learning such as finding the difficult words and

to search some information on the internet.

Mobile devices provide the opportunities for the learners to collaborate, discuss the content with their classmates and instructors, and to engage new

meaning and understanding. Hoffman and Pang (2009) stated that mobile social media applications provide collaborative and engaging opportunities for students.

Furthermore, Cochrane and Bateman (2010) identify how the use of mobilecomputing devices in one project-based course created a sense of connectivity with students, instructors and their clients by giving the opportunity

to access the Internet to blog about work progress, to share photos and to communicate using instant or text messaging.

Since students of FLA UKSW are also familiar with the use of mobile phones in their learning, this research aimed to find out the perceptions of FLA UKSW students toward learning English using mobile phones. The research question for this study was “what are the students‟ perspectives of learning

English through mobile phones? Through this study, the researcher wanted to

contribute in this area of study. The significance of this study is to know the learners‟ progress of their study by using mobile phone. Moreover, the teachers



language. This present study examined students‟ perspective toward mobile learning in learning English.


Mobile Assisted Language Learning (MALL)

Quinn (2000) defines m-learning (mobile learning) as the “intersection of mobile computing and e-learning (electronic learning): accessible resources

wherever you are, strong search capabilities, rich interaction, powerful support for effective learning, and performance-based assessment. E-learning is independent of location in time or space” (p. 8). Meanwhile, Sharples, Taylor, and Vavoula

(2007) define it as the process of conversations across multiple contexts amongst people and personal interactive technologies. Wood (2003) indicates that

m-learning is location-based, situation-dependent and based on the interaction between mobile devices and learners. A wide definition of m-learning is the ability to learn independently in the context of place and time, facilitated by a

range of mobile devices (Learn direct & Kineo, 2007). To construct a fixed meaning toward mobile learning is untenable, as mobile learning is the summation

of multiple and evolving concepts (El-Hussein & Cronje, 2010). Moreover, mobile computing devices have included compact technologies such as cell phones and smart phones, and these may include tablet computers, laptop



can learn by using the electronic devices such as: mobile phones, computers, laptop, netbooks, etc.

Regarding the use of mobile devices in education, Dong and Agogino (2004) conclude that Mobile Assisted Language Learning (MALL), or

m-learning, is most useful when it links with the real-world situation to the relevant information resources. For example, when the learners find it difficult to know the meaning of certain information, they can use mobile phones to make them

understand about of the particular information. Therefore, it would motivate them in using mobile phone as their media in studying English.

Furthermore, Winters (2007), Sharples et al. (2007), Traxler (2007, 2010), Cook, Pachler, and Bradley (2008), and Pachler, Bachmeir, and Cook (2010)

identify mobile learning as both formal and informal. Formal learning, by design, is where learners are engaging with the materials developed by a teacher to be used during a program of instruction in a highly structured, institutionally

sponsored, and generally recognized in terms of a certificate or a credit upon completion educational environment (Colley, Hodkinson, & Malcom, 2003). For

example, the learners do the formal learning in class with the teacher as a facilitator in their learning. The learners learn the materials given by the teacher in the class. Furthermore, informal learning is often defined as learning that results

from “daily work-related, family or leisure activities” (Halliday-Wynes & Beddie, 2009, p. 3). As an example, when the learners want to learn about certain topics,


5 Theories in m-learning

According to Stockwell (2016), the main theories in mobile learning are

divided into two parts. The first one is called Second Language Acquisition (SLA) theory. This theory talks about the way how the learners could achieve through

mobile phone learning. For example, Glenn Stockwell used an approach from Lan, Sung and Chang (2009) that is called constructive approach. It means that the learners make their own foundation for their study in using mobile phone.

However, de la Fuente (2014) tried to use noticing hypothesis to listening task in learning the other language to the English native speakers. The learners using

their mobile phone were compared with the learners using computer. It showed that the learners using mobile phone got a higher score than the learners using computer because of the learners had more control in using mobile phone instead

of computers, which were controlled by the teacher.

The second theory from Stockwell (2016) is called Cognitive Psychology.

It is divided into two theories: dual coding and cognitive load theory. Dual coding theory was originally written by Paivio in 1970s, but then it was updated so many times because of findings from related psychological research (Paivio, 2007). The

point of this theory is learning through verbal and non-verbal code combination. Verbal here is text, while non-verbal is visual. Furthermore, according to Glenn

Stockwell, cognitive load theory talked about the quantity and quality of the information that is required to be processed. However, there is an extension and the most appropriate way to these theories related to technology is multimedia



channels (combination of auditory and visual input) that the learners have, the

more effective the learners could learn.

Impacts of m-learning in language learning

Mobile phone is the most outstanding thing that is being used by many

people around the world. Among the types of technologies, GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications) is still the most popular mobile technology

(MarketResearch.com, 2009). In the researcher‟s opinion, the challenges for the learners about mobile learning (m-learning) is about the addiction to playing games or chatting through the social media which is on the gadget. It can be

stopped if there is no Internet connection in that gadget, so that they could learn and doing their homework by using that kind of technology that has some applications which do not require Internet connection such as offline dictionary.

By using mobile devices, actually there are some theories which are potential for students to access references materials to support doing their

homework/assignment. According to Stockwell (2016), there are three roles of mobile devices despite the sizes and input limitation. The first theory is ubiquitous learning. It is more practical because the learners could bring their mobile phone

anytime and everywhere including to non-learning time or place. Accordingly, learners would be able to use that easily because it retrenches their time if they

want to do their homework. The second theory is called distributed cognition. The learners could use their mobile phone to set everything in it without forgetting their schedule, because it was set on their phone that they have. Therefore, they



last theory about the roles of mobile device is called situated learning. Mobile device is a probable media for students to interact with their surroundings,

famously it is well-known as GPS (Global Positioning Systems). By using GPS, the mobile devices „know‟ where it is or receives input that is applicable to a

particular event or action. As the impact of mobile technology on the learning process is to contemplate about how the mobility on the devices could adjust the learning environment. Despite of that, mobile devices can also advance students

to another type of learning process where the students interact with or communicate to their surroundings in order to assist a meaningful learning.

Stockwell (2016) also added by knowing how potential the roles of mobile devices of the learning approaches could achieve teaching and learning goals which are relevant. It is also important to consider the learning outcome from the

potential impact of using mobile devices which adjust to when the devices are used. Hence, students are expected to be thoughtful in using mobile device as the

media for them to support their learning process to be better as the impact of technology.

Learners’ perceptions in MALL

It is important that teachers explore their learners' perceptions on factors

believed to enhance the learning of a new language and make effort to deal with potential conflicts between learners‟ beliefs and instructional practices. Since



to anticipate the behavior to a large extent. Hence, the learners‟ perceptions can be aligned to the use of mobile phones as a tool/media to language learning. The learners‟ interests in using mobile phone may enhance a meaningful result in

language learning achievement.

There have been studies that look at the students‟ perceptions on the use of

technology in their learning. One example is Attewell (2005) about m-Learning project in three partner countries, UK, Italy and Sweden. She looked at learners‟

motivation to learn a foreign language with an SMS-based course. She found out that 82% of respondents claimed that their reading comprehension and spelling

skills improved with the help of mobile learning games, while 62% of them were enthusiastic about m-Learning and, thus, willing to learn this way in the future. She further pointed out some significant cognitive and psychological advantages

of m-Learning – e.g. collaborative learning among learners – noting that their self-esteem and self-confidence can be boosted.

Another example is from Suki & Suki (2011) who found that the students did not like m-learning since the majority of the students did not rely greatly on mobile phones in accessing their learning materials, such as lectures and lab

sessions. They were more familiar with studio-based and face-to-face learning approaches instead of m-learning. Therefore, they were not receptive to this new

idea of learning using mobile technology, even though they always used the mobile device features such as the SMS and other chatting applications and also infotainment and entertainment applications. The limitations in the mobile device



from fully accomplishing their m-learning exercises. This setback causes various challenges for the lecturer on how the best learning method should be designed

and delivered to the students because the students were skeptical to this new learning approach and they could not see any relevance in using the technology.

The Study


The research was a descriptive qualitative study on students‟ perception in using mobile phones in EFL learning at Faculty of Language and Arts in

Universitas Kristen Satya Wacana. Descriptive method was chosen because it has the derive acceptance as a valid form of research in education. Borg and Gall

(1989) state that descriptive research describes natural or man-made educational phenomena those are of interest to policy makers and educators. It observed the students‟ perception in learning English as a foreign language using mobile



There were eight students (five females and three males) in Faculty of

Language and Arts at Universitas Kristen Satya Wacana who belong to English Language Education (ELE) Program that were selected as the participants of this



approaches, techniques, including m-learning. Thus, the researcher wanted to get a perfect reason in answering the researcher‟s questions which were asked. They

were selected randomly based on the target age that had been said before. Moreover, the researcher used pseudonyms from Participant 1 until Participant 8.

The Instruments of data collection

This study used interview questions that were adapted from Suki & Suki

(2011) as the tool for data collecting. Interview method is suitable for this research since it requires several types of information (Wray & Bloomer, 2006). As stated by Creswell (2008), the interview allows the researcher to discover and

to identify some pertinent points that are relevant to the study and would not have been obtained through the other methods discussed. Furthermore, by conducting the interview, the researchers would get richer data, opinions, patterns,

and various thoughts toward the topic (Carlson, 2008). In order to make the researcher gather maximum qualitative data and to communicate easily with the

participants, the researcher considered using Bahasa Indonesia in the interview. When it is presented in this manuscript, the results of the interview have been

translated into English.

Data Collection Procedure

This study was started by making appointments with the participants to be

interviewed. After the permission was granted, the participants were interviewed about their perception of using mobile phone in learning English as a foreign



the data without losing any moments. The recording was then transcribed for data


Data analysis procedure

Based on the participants‟ answer, the analysis could be done. After the

data collection was completed, the transcribed interview results were analyzed based on the approach used by Suki & Suki (2011). During the analysis, the data were grouped into different categories based on the emerged themes and being

discussed to see their pedagogical implications in language learning.


This section discusses the findings of this study. The data shows that most participants showed positive perceptions towards the use of mobile phones in learning. Based on Suki and Suki‟s (2011) approaches to mobile learning, the

findings were grouped into 5 themes: (1) the willingness to adopt mobile phone in learning English, (2) the improvement of knowledge, (3) the casual usage of

mobile phone, (4) the technical problem that is experienced by the learners. It is divided into three parts, such as: network, power, and the performance of the mobile phone itself, (5) the mobile phone itself.

Willingness to adopt the mobile technology for learning



learning. Mobile phones would be more effective if learners are willing to use

them in their learning.

In this study, the interview data indicated that all participants show

willingness to adopt the mobile technology for their learning. For example,

Participant 2 said that:

In my opinion about using phone in learning English as a foreign language is very helpful, because it is a medium to search the information that we don‟t know about English material.” (Participant 2 / my translation)

From that statement, she agreed that mobile phones can help her in learning English, because from the Internet, she could find anything that she wanted to find

out. That was why she wanted to use mobile phone for her study. Another example is from participant 4:

“We need technology usage, like handphone because it is easier, faster, and able to be used everywhere.” (Participant 4 / my translation)

It can be concluded that from her statement, she liked to use mobile phones in

learning English because the benefits of that kind of technology can help her to learn English as a foreign language better.

Reflecting on the two representative examples above, students nowadays are familiar with the use of technology, even in their learning, especially in

learning English as a foreign language. Therefore, as learners are already aware with the potentials of mobile phones in learning, they could use their phones to



learning. It is in line with Quinn (2000) who defines m-learning (mobile learning) as the “intersection of mobile computing and e-learning (electronic learning):

accessible resources wherever you are, strong search capabilities, rich interaction, powerful support for effective learning, and performance-based assessment.

E-learning is independent of location in time or space” (p. 8). Therefore, the learners could learn effectively about the materials wherever and whenever they want by using mobile phones.

The Improvement of Knowledge

By making a good use of mobile phone in this internet-era, students can easily enhance their knowledge of difficult subjects. They can definitely broaden

their knowledge to the next level with the help of Internet. The use of mobile device plays a part as a practical assistant to help the students understand the particular of difficult subjects. For instance, if they encounter some problems in

their traditional face-to-face learning section with their teachers or if they have the difficulty in understanding the printed materials or even textbooks, they can

simply look up in the internet through their personal mobile phones. A mobile phone could help the learners in their learning.

From the interviews, it was indicated that all of the participants showed that

mobile phones could help them learning, especially in learning English as a foreign language. For example, Participant 4 said that:



There are also Schoology, Edmodo, and F-Learn as a media between lecturer and students. There is also google translate which make it easier to translate sentences and a reading text.” (Participant 4 / my translation)

From her statement, it can be concluded that she thought mobile phone can help for her learning, especially in learning English as a foreign language. It could help her because some applications were useful for her better learning, especially in her

faculty, she needed to improve her language. That is why she was helped by this kind of technology to do so. As an addition, the use of mobile phone enables some

software or even the websites to be accessed easily and flexibly. It could also help the relation between her and the teacher where the teacher shared the materials, and she could see it in her mobile phone. Moreover, she could also send or post

the assignment by using the mobile phone easily. Another example is from participant 6. He said that:

“There are many applications that is in my mobile phone, such as online dictionary which can help me to understand some vocabularies that I haven‟t understood. Moreover, there is a mp3 player which the song is in English. It motivates me to learn pronunciation correctly.” (Participant 6 / my translation)

As what he had said, he agreed that using mobile phone could help his learning, because there are some applications that could help his learning, especially online

dictionary. He could use it for translate some vocabularies that he finds it difficult to translate. Furthermore, there is mp3 player that could help him for listening and pronunciation well in English. Therefore, he can improve his listening and



From the statements above, it could be reflected that the use of the mobile phone is not only for communication, but also for the learning. Suki & Suki (2011)

stated that the more useful the applications in the gadget, the more information that the users can get. Therefore, the learners can earn more knowledge about the

information that they want to know. In addition, the learners also learn about how to use the gadget itself instead of learning about some information. Besides using gadget for communicating only, the user could use it for learning (Suki & Suki,

2011). The result of the interview can be indicated the participants can get more knowledge, especially vocabulary, content-related, listening, and pronunciation by

using the gadget properly. Because of the applications in the gadget, the learners felt thankful and were very happy to use them both for communicating and


Moreover, nowadays there are many varieties of mobile phones with different specification of it. The participants liked the idea that mobile technology

could improve their knowledge. They could learn through mobile phones about something that they do not know, and they feel curious, so they try to use it to search about the certain material, and it works.

Casual Usage of Mobile Device

Many learners find some difficulties in learning English as a foreign



It was shown from the interview result, that the majority of all of the participants agreed with the statement that “mobile technology could enhance their knowledge

of difficult subjects.” (Suki & Suki, 2011). It is proven by the quotation from participant 4:

“I usually studied at home, because it made me more focus in a quiet place. Moreover, I used mobile phone for offline dictionary that is in my mobile phone.” (Participant 4 / my translation)

It can be interpreted from her statement that she found it easier to accelerate or

improve her knowledge and to solve her problems that she encounters in learning English by using mobile phone at home because she got more attention in learning English in a quiet place. By using that, she also added that mobile phone is the

appropriate media to look up relevant theories from many reliable sources. Moreover, she was helped in learning English by the applications in her mobile

phone such as offline dictionary.

Moreover, this finding is in line with Abilene Christian University (ACU) Mobile Learning Reports (2010) stating that the use of the Internet is an example

of informal learning. Taking everything into account, informal learning is often defined as learning that results daily, informal activities

(Halliday-Wynes & Beddie, 2009, p. 3). It is often intentional but unstructured and contextualized (Marsick & Watkins, 2001). This type of learning is sometimes “unanticipated, unorganized, and often unacknowledged, even by the learner”



utilize their mobile phones in learning. Furthermore, this is in line with Mottiwalla (2007) stated that mobile learning “combines individualized learning with anytime and anywhere learning” (p. 2). Therefore, learners could learn by using

mobile phone wherever they wanted to learn, or even outside of the classroom.

Moreover, the informal learning could be concluded that it was a learning activity outside of the classroom. So when the learners wanted to learn outside of the classroom, it was called informal learning. This kind of learning has some benefits

for the learners. The learners could learn wherever and whenever they want by using mobile phone. For the learners those like study in a quiet place, they feel so

happy to learn, and make them easy to understand the certain topics by using mobile phone while learning.

However, there is an example from participant 1 who gave the opposite statement:

“I prefer to ask about something to my lecturer who mastering about the certain material/topic, because I don‟t completely believe in online learning.” (Participant 1 / my translation)

She did not say that mobile phone could enhance her knowledge of difficult

subjects. She tends to ask to the lecturer who is mastering about the certain material than browsing it from the Internet. The casual usage of mobile phone is

not always could be applied by all people. Because of that, there are some people who are not able using mobile phones as the learning media.

Reflecting on the example above, this is in line with Suki & Suki‟s (2011)



They found some problems in using mobile phone, such as the network and the specification of their mobile phone. That was why all of the participants prefer

face to face learning than using mobile phone in learning EFL. Moreover, in online learning is not completely true about the certain topics. Due to these

limitations, the students-participants were skeptical toward the usage of mobile phone for their learning English as a foreign language. In-class and face-to-face

meeting with the teacher is still dominant or preferable by the students.

Technical problems experienced by the learners

In learning English by using mobile phone, it is not as simple as what

people usually imagine or think. There must be some problems that learners commonly face in learning English by using that kind of electronic thing. Therefore, this part discusses about the kinds of problem that the learners find

when they use their mobile phone in learning English as a foreign language (EFL). It is divided into three parts: network, power, and the performance of the

mobile phone itself.


Some mobile phones have a weakness on network depend on the operator of

their SIM card, so the mobile phone cannot be used for learning or even to search some information that they want to know from the internet. This part



“In campus, there is a problem with the network connection. Besides that, the wi-fi connection is just only in the certain place.” (Participant 2 / my translation)

As what she had just said before, she found it difficult to study by using mobile phone and it turned out to be not as easy as she thought. She tried hard to use mobile phone when the network was so bad. Moreover, although there

was a Wi-Fi connection in campus, it was hard too because it is a public network that every people in campus are able to use it, so it needs more effort

in learning English as a foreign language by using mobile phone than learning from the teacher who is the master of certain topics.


There are so many kinds of smartphones which have different power capacity of its battery. Some learners must use their mobile phone in a long time to learn about something that they want to know. Because of that, they often

make the power of their mobile phones runs low. When the battery is running low, the learners cannot continue their study if they do not bring their charger

to recharge their mobile phone. In addition, if they feel shy to ask to the teacher, how they can learn/study by using mobile phone if the power is

running out. That is why they should use their mobile phones as effective as possible.

This part shows that some participants agree that the mobile phone‟s power



“The battery of the smartphone itself can run out in a short time, so I find it difficult to earn some information that I want to find out by using that kind of technology.” (Participant 5 / my translation)

Based on his statement, he said that he tends to study from someone who

masters the certain topic, than to learn by using the mobile phone itself because he found it hard to use it when the battery is running out. Moreover, his battery in his smartphone is very lavish on her smartphone‟s battery

because it has a low power.

The performance of the mobile phone

Each mobile phone has different specifications. There are many phones that have high specification and low specification. High specification is a

specification that is used clearly, more advanced technology, while low specification is a specification when it is used to search some information, and there are some problems, such as too long waiting, not responding, and so on.

This part will discuss about how the performance of the mobile phone affect the learners in their learning English as a foreign language. Many participants

agreed that the performance of the mobile phone could affect their learning process. Here is the example from Participant 2:

“When I use dictionary, there is a certain word that there is not available in it.” (Participant 2 / my translation)

It can be interpreted that she found it hard to find the certain information



knowledge that she wants to find out, so she could not do more with her mobile phone.

Inverse opinion on mobility in learning

Learning English as a foreign language is not an easy thing. It could be

done in so many ways, such as: reading, asking lecturer, or even searching it on the internet using mobile phone. However, using mobile phone cannot change the educational function of the university. Many people thought that m-learning is the

appropriate way in learning English, but it is not. The role of the teachers is to facilitate the learners in learning English in the class. In this session, all of the

participants agreed about the ideas that mobile phone cannot change the educational function of the teachers. In other words, technology including mobile

phones and the other devices are only a tool for the learners to learning.

Here is the example from participant 1:

“There must be so many weaknesses in using m-learning method, because we do not study reading and writing only, but we also need listening and speaking skill in learning English as a foreign language.” (Participant 1 / my translation)

It can be interpreted that she still needs the teacher in learning, because

m-learning is not good enough in m-learning English. It just focuses on reading and writing, but in learning English as a foreign language, we need to have all of the

element skills, such as: reading, writing, speaking, and listening. Another example is from Participant 2:



In using m-learning, the lecturers do not know how far our progress in learning English is.

Although she wants to use mobile phone in learning English, she agreed that mobile phone cannot change the teachers‟ role, because in m-learning, the

teachers do not know how far our progress is.


The main purpose in this study is to find out the students‟ perception

toward using mobile phone in learning English as a foreign language. Based on the result of this study, there were 5 different aspects that were investigated: (1)the willingness to adopt mobile phone in learning English, (2)the improvement

of knowledge, (3) the casual usage of mobile phone, (4) the technical problem that

is experienced by the learners, and (5) about the mobile phone itself.

Overall, from the interview that had been done with all of the participants, it showed that mostly they accepted that mobile learning was good in learning

English as a foreign language (EFL). They could improve their knowledge in learning English as a foreign language. Furthermore, all of the participants agreed that However, some of participants said that they found some difficulties in using

mobile phone in learning English, such as: the network, the power, and the performance of the mobile phone itself. Furthermore, in learning English, the participants were willing to use mobile phone because they could find the material



learning English. Therefore, they could understand the certain topic by using that kind of technology. They could enrich their knowledge by using mobile phone in

learning English. Although they agreed to use mobile phone in their language learning, they did not agree that mobile phone could not change the role of the

teachers. Mobile phone is just as a tool or media that could help the learners in learning English. The result showed that all of the participants felt that they still need face-to-face learning than mobile learning in learning English as a foreign


Despite the findings, I have to confess that this study needs improvement.

As this is a smallcase study, it awaits more studies in more various study areas, i.e. the usage of mobile phone in learning English for young learner. I also call into question whether the used of mobile phone should be used for young learners

for better improvements of English language learning. Moreover, I still need more suggestions in doing this research, because I realize that the number of the




This study becomes a reality with the kind support and help of many individuals. I would like to extend my sincere thanks to all of them. First and foremost, I want

to offer this endeavor to Jesus Christ for without His graces and blessings, this study would not have been possible. My deep gratitude also goes to my supervisor, Pak Dian Toar Y.G. Sumakul, M.A., whose expertise, understanding,

generous guidance, unwavering support and mentorship made it possible for me to finish this study. Also, I would also like to thank my examiner, Yustina Priska

Kisnanto, S.Pd, M.Hum for the comments and constructive criticism for my thesis improvisation. Nevertheless, I dedicate this study to my parents for supporting

me, both morally and financially. It is their unconditional love that motivates me to set higher targets. I just want to say thank you to all of the participants for the time to me to be interviewed. I place on record, my sense of gratitude to one and

all who, directly or indirectly, have lent their helping hand in this venture. Also, I would like to give my thankful to Ranitia Apriliani Hartono, Putra Pamungkas,




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28 Appendix

Interview Questions (Suki & Suki, 2011)

1. bagaimana pendapat kamu tentang penggunaan handphone dalam pembelajaran bahasa inggris?

2. apakah fasilitas yang terdapat di handphone kamu dapat membantu kamu dalam mempelajari bahasa inggris?

3. bagaimana pendapat kamu tentang pembelajaran dengan menggunakan handphone dapat meningkatkan pengetahuanmu pada mata pelajaran yang menurut kamu itu sulit untuk dipahami?

4. apa ada masalah ketika kamu belajar dengan menggunakan jenis teknologi ini? 5. menurut kamu, apa yang dimaksud dengan konsep mobile-learning?

Apakah di masa depan mobile learning dapat menggantikan peran pendidikan formal seperti universitas?

1. Willingness to adopt the mobile technology for learning. All of the participants, S 01, S 02, S O3, S 04, S 05, S 06, S 07, S 08, S 09 and S 10 were willing to adopt mobile technology for learning.

2. Improvement of knowledge. All of the participants liked the idea that mobile technology could improve their knowledge.

3. Casual usage of mobile device. Many students noted that mobile technology could enhance their knowledge of difficult subjects.

4. - Network problem. Some of the participants agree that the problem in learning by using mobile phone is on the network.

- Power. Many participants agree that it takes too much time, so the battery of the smartphone itself is sometimes running out.

- Technical. A little number of participants clarified that their mobile phone have some features, so it affects on the performance of their own mobile phone, or the data usage is running out.

5. - Inverse opinion on mobility in learning. The participants agreed that the function of the mobile phone could not change the function of the university in learning English as a foreign language.


29 Participants Willingness to adopt mobile


Improvement of knowledge Casual usage of mobile device Network

Nana Menurut saya, penggunaan handphone dalam

pembelajaran bahasa inggris itu cukup baik.

-Mempermudah kita seumpama kita kesulitan dalam memahami materi

-Kita pake kamus online atau apapun itu, kan sangat membantu, terus selebihnya kayak buat browsing, download materi, atau upload tugas, atau cari informasi.



- kadang kita sendiri masih memiliki pengetahuan yang limit dan kadang juga kita malu untuk bertanya pada dosen, misalnya aku ga tau tentang isu ini, misalnya LGBT, habis itu kan kita malu mau nanya, jadi lebih baik liat di internet sehingga aku ngerti dengan apa yang dimaksud dengan LGBT

- Soal fasilitas itu sendiri atau aplikasi yang terdapat di dalam handphone mungkin ada etmodo, trus ada schoology juga, trus ada kamus bilingual sama monolingual, sama internet browser, sama WPS (dokumen dokumen word, pdf, power point) yang dengan mudah untuk membukanya di handphone tanpa harus repot repot untuk membuka laptop untuk membukanya

aku ga tau tentang isu ini, misalnya LGBT, habis itu kan kita malu mau nanya, jadi lebih baik liat di internet sehingga aku ngerti dengan apa yang dimaksud

Fitri - pada era yang sangat modern ini, handphone menjadi salah satu alat penting dalam kehidupan kita. - setiap hari saya


- kita bsa memperoleh banyak informasi melalui handphone.

- disediain banyak fasilitas kayak internet, nah melalui internet kita bisa banyak belajar banyak hal.

- games itu kan biasanya rata-rata pake bahasa inggris, nah dari situ kita bisa belajar banyak vocab yang mungkin kita ga tau.vocab yang ada di game itu.

Wiwid kita pun butuh penggunaan teknologi seperti handphone karena mudah, cepat dan dapat digunakan di mana saja.

Aplikasi kamus di dalam smartphone juga sangat membantu. Karena saya tidak perlu membawa kamus yang berat, tapi cukup membawa smartphone aja dimanapun bisa menggunakannya.



Brainly.com membantu ketika membuat materi untuk lesson plan, Schoology, Edmodo, F-learn sebagai perantara guru dan siswa, ada google translate yang memudahkan untuk

A: saya belajar di rumah, soalnya saya ga bisa focus kalo belajar di tempat ramai. Saya pakai hp

saya dapat dengan mudah mencari materi bahasa inggris di internet, yang dapat diakses dari semua tempat, seperti di dalam kelas dan saat saya belajar di rumah.

dapat mencari cara mengingat teori yang sangat sulit di internet, dan memudahkan saya untuk

beberapa aplikasi yang terdapat di dlm handphone seperti kamus online, dapat membantu saya mengerti beberapa vocabulary yang saya belum mengerti. Selain itu, ada mp3 player yang lagunya berbahasa inggris. Ini mengindikasikan saya untuk belajar pronunciation dengan benar.

dapat browsing materi materi yang sulit untuk kita pahami. Kita juga bisa mencari beberapa

Pandu kalo lewat handphone kan kita bisa liat kamus dan

kamus elektronik dan juga web browser seperti Mozilla dan google chrome.

Firsta -pembelajaran bahasa inggris dengan menggunakan