Submitted to the Faculty of Language Education as a Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Sarjana Pendidikan
English Education Department
Faculty of Language Education
Universitas Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta
The Effectiveness of Using Pop-up Book to Improve Students’ Vocabulary Mastery at the Fifth Grades of SD N 2 Trikarso, Kebumen
Submitted to the Faculty of Language Education as a Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Sarjana Pendidikan
English Education Department
Faculty of Language Education
Universitas Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta
Author’s Declaration of Originality
I hereby certify that I am the whole author of this skripsi and that no part of this skripsi has been published or submitted for publication.
I certify that, to the best of my knowledge, my skripsi does not infringe upon anyone’s copyright nor violate any proprietary right and that ideas, techniques, quotations, or any other material from the work of other people include in my skripsi, published or otherwise, are fully acknowledged in accordance with the standard referencing practice.
I declare that this is a true copy or my skripsi, including any final revisions, as approved by my skripsi committee and the Faculty of Language Education, and that this skripsi has not been submitted for a higher degree to any other University on Institution.
Yogyakarta, December 29th, 2016
All praises is to Allah that guide us, help us and bless us. Alhamdulillah for being me in Islam and Alhamdulillah I had finished this skripsi.
Thank you for my advisor Mr. Roy, my examiner Ms. Jackie and Ms. Rizki who help me, guide me and advise me doing my skripsi. For all my lecturers, thank you very much for everything that you had taught to me. It was really beneficial for my bright future.
Thanks for my family, my mom and my father who have been supporting me. Thanks for everything that you have given to me. Alhamdulillah I have got an opportunity to study in UMY because of you and it is really beneficial for my life.
Thank you for my participants, who have helped me complete my data for my research. Thanks to my friends who have been supporting me and motivating me to keep spirit face this life together. Thanks also to my friends in Wisma Qonita, Wisma RI 1 and 2, Wisma Hilyah you are really inspire me. To my students in SDIT YB, you are really precious for me.
Yogyakarta, December 29th, 2016
Table of Contents
Approval Sheet ... Error! Bookmark not defined. Author’s Declaration of Originality ... iii Acknowledgement... iv Abstract ... Error! Bookmark not defined. Table of Contents ... vi List of Table ... viii Table of Figure ... ix List of Appendices ... Error! Bookmark not defined. Chapter One ... Error! Bookmark not defined. Introduction ... Error! Bookmark not defined. Background of the Research ... Error! Bookmark not defined. Identification of the Problems ... Error! Bookmark not defined. Limitation of the Problems ... Error! Bookmark not defined. Formulation of the Problem ... Error! Bookmark not defined. Purpose of the Research ... Error! Bookmark not defined. Significance of the Research ... Error! Bookmark not defined. Chapter Two ... Error! Bookmark not defined. Literature Review ... Error! Bookmark not defined.
The Definition of Vocabulary ... Error! Bookmark not defined. The Importance of Learning Vocabulary ... Error! Bookmark not defined. The Difficulties of Learning Vocabulary ... Error! Bookmark not defined. Media... Error! Bookmark not defined. Visual media... Error! Bookmark not defined. Pop-up Book ... Error! Bookmark not defined. Types of Pop-up Book ... Error! Bookmark not defined. The Advantages and Disadvantages of Pop-Up Books.... Error! Bookmark not defined.
Research Design ... Error! Bookmark not defined. Research Setting and Participants ... Error! Bookmark not defined. Instruments of the Research ... Error! Bookmark not defined. Data Collection Method ... Error! Bookmark not defined. Data Analysis ... Error! Bookmark not defined. Chapter Four ... Error! Bookmark not defined. Finding and Discussion ... Error! Bookmark not defined. Findings ... Error! Bookmark not defined. The Condition of the Students’ Vocabulary Mastery ... Error! Bookmark not defined.
The Effect of Using Pop-up Book to the Students’ Vocabulary Mastery .. Error! Bookmark not defined.
Discussion ... Error! Bookmark not defined. The Condition of the Students Vocabulary Mastery. ... Error! Bookmark not defined.
The Effect of Using Pop-up Book to the Students’ Vocabulary Mastery .. Error! Bookmark not defined.
Chapter Five ... Error! Bookmark not defined. Conclusion and Suggestion ... Error! Bookmark not defined.
viii List of Table
Table 3. 1 Time Series Design... Error! Bookmark not defined. Table 3. 2 Data Collection Schedule... Error! Bookmark not defined. Table 3. 3 The Criteria of Reliability (Alpha)3 ... Error! Bookmark not defined. Table 3. 4 The Reliability of Pre-test ... Error! Bookmark not defined. Table 3. 5 Indicator of scoring ... Error! Bookmark not defined. Table 4. 1 The Descriptive Statistics of the Pre-test ... Error! Bookmark not defined.
Table 4. 2 Descriptive Statistics Mean of the All Pre-tests .. Error! Bookmark not defined.
Table 4. 3 Descriptive Statistics Normality of the Pre-test .. Error! Bookmark not defined.
Table 4. 4 Reliability Statistics of the Pre-test ... Error! Bookmark not defined. Table 4. 5 Descriptive Statistics Mean of the Post-test ... Error! Bookmark not defined.
Table 4. 6 Descriptive Statistics Mean of the All Post-tests Error! Bookmark not defined.
ix List of Figure
List of Appendices
Vocabulary is a fundamental factor in learning English. The aim of this research was to improve students’ vocabulary in the fifth grade of SD N 2 Trikarso, Kebumen. The problem was students face difficulties in remembering English vocabulary that they had learnt. Besides that the teacher also rarely uses media in the teaching activities. To solve the problem, the researcher was used pop-up book as media to learn English vocabulary in the learning activities. The method that was used in this research was experimental research. The participants were 21 students of fifth grade of SD N 2 Trikarso, Kebumen. In this research the researcher gave pre-tests to know the participants’ vocabulary mastery before using pop-up book. After that, the researcher applied the pop-up book in the learning activities. It was conducted for three times. Then, the researcher gave post-tests to the participants in order to know the effect of using pop-up book to the students’ vocabulary mastery. Based on the analysis of the pre-test scores’, the students’ vocabulary mastery of fifth grade was in low level, the score was 47.3.
Then, the researcher compared it with the students’ post-test scores. The result showed that students’ vocabulary mastery had increased. The mean of post-tests
scores were 85.4. It could be concluded that the use of pop-up book was effective to improve students’ vocabulary mastery, so the hypothesis alternative was accepted because it showed that there was a significant effect of the use of pop-up book to improve students’ vocabulary mastery and hypothesis null was rejected.
1 Chapter One
In this chapter the researcher will explain several parts introduction of the study. The first part talks about the background of this research. Then, the researcher will talk about identification of the problems, limitation of the problem, formulation of the problem, and purpose of the research. Then, the last part of this chapter is ended with significance of the research.
Background of the Research
English vocabulary is any kind of words in the English language. English vocabulary is important to be learnt by students who are learning English
language. It is important because it is a fundamental factor in learning English language. Vocabulary is needed by students because before a person is able to produce language, they have to know the smallest meaningful device of language which is words or vocabulary. If they do not have enough vocabulary they will face difficulties to convey their messages or understand messages, answer
cited in Ahmadi, 2012) there are two forms of vocabulary. Those forms are verbal and nonverbal. Those forms include speaking, listening, reading and writing. Students need to master the vocabulary to make them able to produce their ideas using English words, to recognize English sound and the appropriate meaning, to be able to receive messages from a written form and able to arrange words into a correct order. Those are some reasons why the students are required to master the vocabulary as their first step to understand language.
Some students may face difficulties when they learned English
vocabulary. There are some reasons why students get difficulties to learn English vocabulary. One of the reasons is because English is used as a foreign language in this country. That is why students are rarely used it to communicate. They also hear it rarely so, it makes them confused when they use it. This statement is supported by Ciotkowski (2005), for children who are learning the vocabulary of foreign language, this partial knowledge is compounded that some of foreign language words will map on to word meaning that are already fully formed in the first language. English foreign learners as like students in Indonesia may relate the new words that they have learnt to their first language because it may has similar sound or similar structure, but it has different meaning. There are many
sentence are different from Indonesian form. Therefore, people especially students who learn English often find difficulty in learning English vocabulary.
Then, the other problem is the students easily forget the materials that they have learnt. Pratiwi (2013) explained in her research that “students often get difficulties in learning vocabulary especially in remembering and pronouncing
words” (p. 22). She argued that students are difficult to remember the vocabulary
well after the students have gotten the materials in the last meeting. This problem also found in the school that the researcher did her research. The English teacher of the school said that most of students have problem to remember the vocabulary that they have learnt.
Therefore, students need an opportunity to see the relationship, to help them figure the material that delivered by the teacher, so it will help the students remember it. As Chinese proverb (as cited in Benson & Odera, 2013) said “when I am told I forget, what I see I remember and what I do I build a castle in my head”.
Therefore, media is needed by students to fill the gap between theory and practice. It is needed to facilitate the students to see the relation between the theory and practice. The media that is used in the educational setting will complement the teaching and learning activities to be more effective, and able to enhance students’ understanding. Moreover, they will internalize it, if they practice. In this research the researcher chose pop-up book as media that is used in the teaching and
general way. Therefore, it makes the students imagine the real object easily by seeing the texture of the pictures. Then, the picture objects are able to move when the students are opened the pages. It makes the book looked more alive and this kind of book is not usually used as media in the school.
This research begins with the researcher who found that her students felt difficult in learning English vocabulary when the researcher taught English subject in SD Muhammadiyah Surowijayan without any media was used and only explained the new vocabulary. This case made the students did not give enough attention in the learning activities. This condition made them did not enjoy the lesson and they remember only a few new vocabularies that they had learnt and it was also influenced their English score test. Based on the background above, the researcher is interested in doing this experimental research by the title “The Effectiveness of Using Pop-up Book to Improve Students’ Vocabulary Mastery at
the Fifth Grades of SD N 2 Trikarso, Kebumen”.
Identification of the Problems
There are some studies that can be conducted by researchers about English vocabulary mastery. First, teaching strategies in teaching vocabulary. Teachers may face some difficulties when they teach their students. Some problems that commonly found by teacher are students feel sleepy, students do not give
attention to the material, and students forget the material easily. It is important to the teachers to choose appropriate strategy by considering some reasons such as students’ grade, students’ condition and school’s finance. Then, the second study
mastery. Some students may get difficulty in choosing which strategies are appropriate for them. It is important for them in choosing appropriate strategies for them that make them enjoy and able to understand the materials well. It is because it influences their comprehension. Then, the other study is about kind of media to learn vocabulary. Choosing learning media determines the teaching and learning activities to be run well or no. It is also appropriate or no if it is used to enhance students active in the learning activities. Those are some problems and there are still many other problems that can be investigated by researchers about English vocabulary mastery.
Limitation of the Problems
Based on the identification above the researcher limits the scope of the study. The researcher wants to know the effectiveness of using pop-up book as media to learn English vocabulary. Then, the object of this research is students at fifth grade students of SD N 2 Trikarso, Kebumen. This research is conducted by using time series experimental research design.
Formulation of the Problem The formulation of this research is:
1. What are the fifth grade students of SD N 2 Trikarso, Kebumen in the academic year of 2016/2017 vocabulary mastery level?
6 Purpose of the Research
The purpose of this research is:
1. To identify the students’ vocabulary mastery level at the fifth grade
students of SD N 2 Trikarso, Sruweng, Kebumen in the academic year of 2016/2017?
2. To explore the effectiveness of using pop-up book in the students’ vocabulary mastery at the fifth grade students of SD N 2 Trikarso, Sruweng, Kebumen in the academic year of 2016/2017.
Significance of the Research
The result of this research is expected as one of reference to be used by the teachers, students and the other researchers:
For the teachers. This research gives information about interesting media that can be used by teachers. The media is Pop-up book. This media is interesting because it has movable pages that show interesting pictures. It is hopefully becomes appropriate to be used, and make students interested in learning and active in the learning activities.
8 Chapter Two
This chapter presents the specific discussion of this research. The first discussion is the definition of vocabulary. Then, the second part is the importance of learning vocabulary. The next part is the difficulties in learning vocabulary and then it is followed by part of media and visual media. Afterwards, it is followed by literature about pop-up book, the types of pop-up book and it ends with the advantages and disadvantages of using pop-up book.
The Definition of Vocabulary
Vocabulary is defined as collection of words. Like Wehmeier et al. (as cited in Cahyono & Widiati, 2008) stated the definition of vocabulary as “all the words in a particular language” (p. 2). It means that vocabulary is part of language
that consists of words. Language is formed of words. Therefore, it is important to master the words in order to master the language.
Hanson & Padua (2011) explained that “vocabulary refers to words we use
to communicate in oral and print language” (p. 5). They explained that vocabulary
produce it, like in listening and reading. While, active vocabularies is consist of words which is students are able to understand and able to construct it, like in speaking and writing.
The Importance of Learning Vocabulary
Learning vocabulary is important. There are some reasons why learning vocabulary is important. First, vocabulary is an achievement that students should have. Rosko et al. stated that vocabulary learning is an essential component of early literacy achievement (as cited in Han et al., 2010). It is needed by people to have many collections of words in order to master the language. Some studies also have found that the size of vocabulary can be used as a predictor for students’ academic achievement. The capacity of vocabulary influences students’ academic
achievement. It is because the students are able to understand language in oral or written text, understand the instruction, able to give their ideas and active
participate in the learning process when they are able to master the vocabulary. It means that the ability of mastering the vocabulary influences the students’ academic achievement.
Then, it is the basic step to communicate. Wilkins explained “without grammar very little can be conveying, without vocabulary nothing can be convey”
(as cited in Thornbury, 2002, p. 13). If students only emphasize on the grammar, their skills in mastering English language will not improve very much. It is different from students who are learning more words they will have more
understand the message that the other people deliver easily. That is why vocabulary is important to be mastered by people in order to be able communicating well.
It is also linked to students’ reading comprehension. The National Reading Panel (2000) analyzed scientific studies that led them to conclude that readers’ vocabulary strongly related to their understanding of text. The NRP explained that students who have been taught vocabulary before reading text, they have greater comprehension than students who did not learn vocabulary first. The
comprehension is gotten because they know the content of the text by knowing the vocabulary first. The comprehension is different from students who did not learn vocabulary before read the text. It is because they do not know the meaning of the words in that text, so they do not understand the content of the text.
The Difficulties of Learning Vocabulary
Vocabulary is words in language that is used to communicate. People who do not use English as their native language may face some difficulties when they learn English vocabulary because of some reasons. The explanations below are some factors why people feel difficult to learn English vocabulary which is explained by Gower, Phillips and Walter (as cited in Setiawan, 2010).
example, if students have already known the word important, so they should be able to guess the meaning of unimportant.
Connotation. The other problem is that the students are difficult to choose the right connotation. They confuse to use which connotation is appropriate to use because the inappropriate chosen will give negative meaning to the native
speaker. The example is either word of skinny or slim could be used to describe someone who is thin, but both of those two words have different connotation. The word slim has more positive meaning than skinny. Therefore, it is important for students to be able to choose an appropriate connotation when they communicate with the others, because it is part of attitude.
Spelling and pronunciation. The way English words spelt and pronounced are different from the way of students who speak English using regular spelling system. The students will be confused between the words and the meaning if they hear a word that sounds like the other word that has different meaning. For examples are the words through, though, tough, and thorough. Multi-word items. Students may confuse with a lexical item that may consist of more than one word. The examples are tennis shoes and sport car. Then, phrasal verb also makes students confuse because it consists of more than one word. For examples are called off, put off and brush up. Most of students feel difficult with this part because they are made up of simple words that are combined from verb and preposition or adverbs.
or wounded but things are damage, and we can say a strong wind and strong coffee, but it’s a light wind not a weak wind and weak coffee not light coffee.
Appropriate use. The use of appropriate vocabulary is also problematic for students. In this part, student should be able to choose an appropriate word depend on the context. For example, the use of word pushing means almost in the
sentence “he is pushing fifty”. The word “pushing” in the sentence above means
older than fifty and it is inappropriate to use in the sentence. Therefore, it is important for students to pay more attention in the use of appropriate words in the informal style and formal style that they use.
easily because media facilitate the students to figure the material that teacher has delivered. Then, students will have more ideas about the materials, so the students are able to turn into active learning. By the use of media, hopefully students can achieve the competence and comprehend the material clearly.
That is why students in elementary school who have limited literatures and like to learn in the pleasurable atmosphere, the use of media are needed.
Interesting media will help students construct their comprehension, and engage students into active learning. It is supported by Clark (as cited in Kosim, 2013), he explains that the use of media is important as a way to develop students
elementary school into active learning. The media plays an important role for students in elementary school because their characteristic is still difficult to keep calm for long time and like to play, so the teacher cannot bring them into effective learning if the teacher does not use any media. They also lack of literacy about knowledge. The media is used to help students in elementary school to understand the materials more easily, so it will be easier to engage the students in to active learning.
Visual media is one of media that it can be used to enhance students’
motivation in the learning activities. Syandri (2015) defines “visual media are
media that can be seen” (p. 49). Visual media is a device that is used to facilitate
the students’ understanding with the materials by seeing the media. Puspitasari
(2014) explain that “visual media highly used to promote learning” (p.22). She
photographs or pictures, graphic in a book, cartoons and so on. Likewise, Perry (2013) points out that the use of visual media is able to strengthen students understanding, especially for abstract processes that are hard for students to envision in their mind. It means that the visual media helps students to get the figuration related to the real objects and help students understand the materials easily. Accordingly, the use of visual media is able to develop students’ ideas and promote them into active learning by seeing the media.
When a student is able to figure and relate it with the real object, the students will remember it easily. The use of visual media is effective for memorizing materials. As Amstrong (as cited in Karimi & Rokni, 2013) stated that the use of visual media to learn and to memorize vocabularies is better to be used than only using text book. Therefore, the use of visual media gives students a chance to memorize the materials easier by its illustration.
Pop-up book is a type of book which has interesting movable page form
and it has been using for a long time. According to Glaister (2002) “pop-up is
movable book which has many different movable pages types” (p. 2). Another source defines pop-up as “a book or a card with a picture that stands when the user opens the pages” (“Longman dictionary of contemporary English,” n.d.).
Pop-up book has interesting 3D visualization with budging picture when the user opens the page of the book. Then, the nice arrangement pictures form can
illustrate a thing like its real appearance. Its’ pictures are used to help students to
The history of pop-up book is started from seven century ago. Puleo (2011) explains in his book that the first movable book was introduced in the 13th century. It is used to illustrate the theories of poet Ramon Llul. Then, in that era movable books were made for educational purpose. It was used to educating and conveying ideas for adults’ learners. Therefore it was considered more appropriate to use than for statistic illustration, so at that era movable books were not made for children but for adults, but now it is popular used by children.
Types of Pop-up Book
There are some types of pop-up book. There are three types of pop-up book (“Hung Hing Printing,” n.d.). Those types are open 90 degree, open 180
degree, and open 360 degree.
Open 90 degree. This is the first style of pop-up design. It is fully open at 90 degree then a complete arrangement pop-up will show. This format is simple to make, because it is easy to assemble and it does not spend much money. That is why this type can be the simplest style than the other pop-up book in the market now day.
Open 180 degree. This style works well when fully open at 180 degree and can be viewed 360 degree. This style is easily to find in the market because its form is flexible to make for many purposes. This style is common used to tell short story, to explain some materials in the classroom, to tell someone life story or as a birthday present.
Figure 2. 2Open 180 Degree
Open 360 degree. The other name of this style is “Corousel” pop-up. The most suitable used of this style is to design a building. This style works when the fully open at 360 degree.
The Advantages and Disadvantages of Pop-Up Books
Pop-up book can be used as media in the teaching and learning activities. The use of pop-up book gives some advantages and disadvantages in the learning activities (Glaister, 2002). The advantage of pop-up book means that pop-up book gives positive impact to the teaching and learning activities. Meanwhile, the use of pop-up books also has some inadequacies. The inadequacies may give
disadvantageous for teaching and learning activities.
First, the advantage of pop-up book is to help bridge the gap between subject content and literature. The example is mathematics pop-up book that gives information about mathematics literature. Then, it also helps bridge the gap for abstract literature. For example, in biology subject there many processes
molecular which cannot be seen by the naked eye so the used of pop-up book is needed to help the students understand the process. The third is, those creative creation objects are appeal to children because it has surprising elements. That is why this type of book is popular with children although it is a reluctant reader. The other advantage is that this book has a great medium to memorize the
materials easily. It is because of pop-up book can help to see the relation between the theory and practice, so students will be able to figure the subject material more and memorize it well.
disadvantage is that this book is fragile. It means that students should treat them gently.
Review of Related Studies
In this research, the researcher took review of related literature from other studies as comparison. One of the related studies was conducted by Inez in 2013.
The tittle of her research is “Using pop-up pictures through exploration,
elaboration, and confirmation strategy to improve vocabulary mastery of the first grades in elementary school”. The reasons she conducted the research were the
students had difficulty to remembering new vocabularies. The other reason was only 2 from 18 students who passed the minimum standard score. The minimum standard score that decided by the school was 60. This research was a
collaborative classroom action research that this research did collaboratively with the English teacher. The researcher implemented the use of pop-up pictures in the learning activities with 18 participants in first grade. In this research she
concluded that the use of pop-up pictures during teaching and learning activities was effective to improve vocabulary mastery in the first graders of SD N
Mulyoarjo 04 Lawang, Malang.
The other study that related with this research was conducted by Putri in
2011. Her research tittle is “The use of pop-up pictures to improve vocabulary
mastery of the second year students of elementary school Gempol 3 at Pasuruan
Regency”. This research was based on the researcher experience when she asked
consisted of two cycles. The cycles were conducted in five times. She used pop-up pictures to explain English vocabulary. After she conducted the research, she concluded that the use of instructional media in the learning vocabulary was appropriate because these media have interesting forms and colors.
Those were some research studies that had been done by Inez in 2013 and Putri in 2011. The studies that they had done are related with this study but there were some differences between their study and this study. The differences between those studies were this research was done in different place with them. Then, there was no collaboration between teacher and the researcher while doing this research. This research was done by the researcher self. Next, this research was not kind of action research but experimental research.
Based on the problems above, the hypothesis can be formulated as follows: 1. Null Hypothesis
There is no significant effect on using pop-up book to improve students’ elementary school vocabulary mastery.
2. Hypothesis Alternative
In this chapter the researcher will talk about the methodology that the researcher uses in this research. The first part, the researcher talks about research design. Then, the researcher talks about research setting and participants, instruments of the research, data collection method and the last part is data analysis.
The kind of research design that the researcher was used to identify the effectiveness of using pop-up book in improving students’ vocabulary mastery was experimental design. Based on Creswell (2012) experimental design is an attempt to identify the influence or effect of independent variable to the dependent variable. The independent variable that was used in this research was pop-up book
and the dependent variable was the students’ vocabulary mastery. In this research
the researcher wanted to know the effect of the use of pop-up book to the
students’ vocabulary mastery. That was why experimental research design was
appropriate to use in this research. Experimental design was included in quantitative research.
measurement of the data is repeatedly. The reason why the researcher chose this type is because the researcher only used one group and there is no control group. Then, the researcher also felt hard to work in two groups because this research did not need many participants to get the result of this research and the school only had a class for each grade. That was why time series was appropriate to use in this research to identify the effectiveness of using pop-up book in improving students’ vocabulary mastery
There were some procedures that were used to measure the effect of the variable by using time series design. The first step was studying the group. Then, the researcher gave some pre-tests to the participants. The researcher gave the multiple pre-tests to identify the students’ vocabulary mastery before the
researcher used pop-up book in the learning activities. The multiple pre-tests were given to get the stable condition of the participants’ score and clearly description
of the students’ vocabulary mastery. Then the next step was intervention. In
The procedure of doing experimental research based on Cresswell (2012) the table below was illustrated as follows:
Table 3. 1 Time Series Design
Research Setting and Participants
The setting of this research was in SD N 2 Trikarso. The reason why the researcher chose this place was because this school near with the researcher house. The researcher also ever studied in this school so it made the researcher easily to build good cooperation in doing this research. Then, the teacher of this school used module and used media teaching rarely. The researcher wanted to introduce an interesting media that helped the teacher to deliver the material and to improve students’ elementary school vocabulary mastery.
sample based on consideration” (p. 85). This grade considered good enough to
receive this research. The reasons why the researcher chose this grade was because of students in this grade have already learned English in the primary grade. This condition was appropriate to measure the effectiveness of using
pop-up book to improve students’ vocabulary mastery. Students in this grade were not
too busy as students at sixth grade who must face national exam.
Instruments of the Research
Some instruments were needed in this research. The instruments were used in the process collecting the data and to process the data. Those instruments were:
Test. The test was used to measure the students’ vocabulary mastery. It was used as data to know the effect of using pop-up book in this research. In order to collect the data the researcher gave two kinds of tests for the participants. Those tests were pre-test and post-test. Pre-test was given before the
Pop-Up book. In this research, the researcher used pop-up book as media to teach vocabulary. The researcher used pop-up book in the teaching and learning activities. The pop-up book was made by the researcher.
Figure 3.1 Pop-up Book
Equipment. For learning activities, the researcher needed to prepare some instruments that enhanced learning activities. Those were lesson plans,
students’ attendance list, some learning facilities (eraser, marker, worksheet, and
Data Collection Method
In this research the researcher was used time series experimental research as the research design and the techniques that was used to collect the data was by giving the participants tests.
Intervention of this research was by giving treatment to the participants. The treatments were given by using pop-up book in the teaching and learning English activities. The researcher gave the treatments for three times. It was because of the materials of fifth grade that the researcher feels easily to make a pop-up was transportation and it did not base on the headmaster’s or the English teacher’s order. The researcher also felt hard if the researcher should make the other chapters because it was wasting the time and spending much money. The treatments were conducted based on the lesson plan that the researcher made. The teaching activities and learning activities were conducted out of school regular time. It was conducted after they went home that was at 13.30.
This research was conducted in the first semester, the table below was explaining the research plan:
Table 3. 2 Data Collection Schedule
Pretest Intervention Posttest
Validity and Reliability of the Instrument
measure” (p. 17). It means that there were compatibility between the instrument
with the target measurement, and the subject. It was a condition when an instrument was able to measure what it ought to measure. A valid vocabulary instrument was if the instrument was able to measure the students’ vocabulary mastery.
Reliability. According to Garson (2002) “reliability is a measure of the extent to which an item, scale, or instrument will yield the same score when administered in different times, locations, or populations, when the two administrations do not differ in relevant variables" (p. 190). It meant that the instrument that was used was able to measure the same thing accurately. The accuracy of the instrument was stable and consistent although it was used in different occasion.
question for the pre-tests and the post-tests were appropriate to measure the students’ vocabulary mastery because it was based on the lesson plans or
materials that students learned.
The reliability of the instrument was measured by using SPSS version 22. The reliability was known by identifying the result of the Cornbach’s Alpha. The table below was explained kind of reliability level of an instrument Phankania and Modi (2013).
Table 3. 3 The Criteria of Reliability (Alpha)3
No. Cronbach’s Alpha Interval Reliability
1. ≤ 0.90 Excellent
2. ≤ 0.80 Good
3. ≤ 0.70 Acceptable
4. ≤ 0.60 Poor
5. ≤ 0.50 Under acceptable
The instrument that was used in this research was tests. The tests were including pre-test and post-test. The reliability of the pre-test and post-test were shown in the table below:
Reliability Statistics Reliability Statistics
Table 3. 4 The Reliability of Pre-test Table 3.4 The Reliability of Post-test
Cronbach's Alpha N of Items Cronbach's Alpha N of Items
The value of pre-test and post-test was higher than 0.7. It means that the value of the tests was acceptable.
In this part the researcher analyzed the students’ vocabulary mastery by
checking students’ tests answer. The researcher gave the students’ scores for their
answer in the pre-tests and post-tests. The minimum score was 0 and the maximum score was 100. The indicator for students’ score was based on the passing grade (Palupi, p.39) as the bellow:
Table 3. 5 Indicator of scoring
The next step after the researcher got the students’ tests score was inputted
those scores into Microsoft excel and SPSS 22. The used of Microsoft Excel was to find the average scores. The average scores of pre-tests and post-tests could be calculated with following formula:
M1 = ∑�
M1 = Mean pre-test
M2 = ∑�
M2 = Mean post-test ∑X2 = The sum of post-test
N = Number of case
Then, for the differentiation of students’ post-test and pre-test scores, it could be calculated as the formulation below:
S = M2 - M1
S = The deviation score M2 = Mean post-test M1 = Mean pre-test
Then, the used of SPSS 22 was to analyze the mean, the normality and
reliability of the students’ score. It was used to analyze the significant effect of
using pop-up book to the students’ vocabulary mastery by comparing the post-test and pre-test score.
Finding and Discussion
This chapter describes the analysis of the data that had been collected during the experiment. The first part talks about the finding of the data. The
finding includes mean, normality, reliability, and the students’ tests score. The
second part talks about the effect of using pop-up book to the students’ vocabulary mastery.
This part focused on answering the two research questions. Those were to
know the students’ vocabulary mastery level and the effectiveness of using
pop-pop book as media to master English vocabulary. To know the answer of those questions the researcher did an experimental research. There were 21 students in grade fifth who the researcher chose as participants. Then, the researcher gave some tests before and after the treatment. Both of the tests were used to measure
the students’ vocabulary mastery. The next step was the researcher gave the
students’ scores after they did the tests. Afterwards, the researcher analyzed the
data of the students’ tests score.
The Condition of the Students’ Vocabulary Mastery
times. The pre-tests were conducted on August 30, August 31 and September 01, 2016. After the participants did the pre-tests then the researcher checked their
answers to get the students’ pre-test scores. The scores were used to analyze the
students’ vocabulary mastery before they used the pop-up book in the learning
activities. Then, the results had shown that the students’ vocabulary mastery was low.
After the researcher got the students’ scores then the researcher
calculated the data. The researcher calculated the mean, normality and reliability as follow:
Table 4. 1 The Descriptive Statistics of the Pre-test
Std. Deviation Statistic Statistic Std. Error Statistic
Pretest1 21 40.95 2.279 10.443
Pretest2 21 48.10 2.638 12.091
Pretest3 21 52.86 3.173 14.541
The table above described the mean of each pre-test score. The mean of pre-test 1 was in poor level and the pre-test 2 and pre-test 3 was in low level based
on Palupi’s indicator scoring in the table 3.5. Then, the table below described the
mean of all pre-test.
Table 4. 2 Descriptive Statistics Mean of the All Pre-tests
N Mean Std. Deviation
Statistic Statistic Std. Error Statistic
Pretest 21 47.30 2.296 10.522
The mean total of students’ pre-tests scores were in the low level. The
table showed that the mean total of the pre-test was 47.3. It could be concluded
that the students’ vocabulary mastery was in low level based on the indicator
Table 4. 3 Descriptive Statistics Normality of the Pre-test
N Skewness Kurtosis
Pretest1 21 -.206 .501 .492 .972
Pretest2 21 .589 .501 -.412 .972
Pretest3 21 .310 .501 .894 .972
Valid N (listwise)
A data could be called as normal if the value of the skewness and kurtosis were around -1 up to 1. The skewness and the kurtosis of the pre-tests that showed in the table were normal because there was no value of the pre-tests that exceed from -1 up to 1. If the data was categorized as normal so, the
Table 4. 4 Reliability Statistics of the Pre-test
Cronbach's Alpha N of Items
The value of reliability of the pre-test that showed in the table was categories as reliable. If the cronbach’s alpha was bigger than 0.7. It meant that the reliability of the instrument was accepted. The table above showed that the
cronbach’s alpha was .797. It meant that the instrument that was used in this
research was reliable because the value was more than 0.7.
The analysis of students’ pre-test score showed that the students’ mean score was in low level vocabulary mastery. It could be concluded that students’ needed to improve their vocabulary mastery to master English language.
Students vocabulary mastery after using pop-up book. The students’ vocabulary mastery after the treatments was improved. After the researcher gave the treatments, the researcher gave the post-tests. The post-test were given for three times. It was conducted on September 13, September 14, and September 15, 2016. The scores of the students’ post-tests showed that students’ scores were higher than students’ pre-tests scores.
Table 4. 5 Descriptive Statistics Mean of the Post-test
The table above showed that the mean of students’ post-test scores in every post-test was categorized as excellent. Those scores were more than 80. The table below described the mean of all post-tests.
Table 4. 6 Descriptive Statistics Mean of the All Post-tests
N Mean Std. Deviation
Statistic Statistic Std. Error Statistic
Post-test 21 85.40 2.200 10.080
Table 4. 7 Descriptive Statistics of the Post-test
The data above showed that the data was categorized as normal because the skewness and the kurtosis were -1 up to 1. The value of the skewness and the kurtosis of this data were normal because there was no value that more than -1 up to 1. It meant that the researcher was able to use this data and went to the next step to find the data that the researcher needed to know the answer of the two research questions of this research.
Table 4. 8 The Reliability Statistics of Post-test
Cronbach's Alpha N of Items
The Effect of Using Pop-up Book to the Students’ Vocabulary Mastery After the researcher collected the data and analyzed it, the researcher found that there was an improvement of the students’ vocabulary mastery level. It was shown from the scores of the tests before and after using pop-up book in the learning activities. The mean score of the pre-tests was 47.3 and the mean score of the post-tests was 84.5. It meant that the mean of the post-test was higher than the mean pre-test. The difference was calculated from the post-test minus the pre-test, so 84.5-47.3=37.2. It meant that the result of students’ vocabulary mastery
improvement was increased 37.2 points.
Furthermore, the significance of the treatments was measured by using Paired Sample T-test. Paired sample t-test was used to compare two means that were from the same individual, object or related unit (Kent, 2014). The two means were typically represent two different times. That was why the researcher used paired sample t-test because the researcher wanted to compare the condition of the
students’ vocabulary mastery before and after using pop-up book in the learning
activities. The result was shown in the table below:
Paired samples statistics
Table 4. 9 Paired Samples Statistics
Mean N Std. Deviation Std. Error Mean
Pair 1 Posttest 85.40 21 10.080 2.200
Paired sample test
The table above showed that the used of pop-up book had significant effect to the students’ vocabulary mastery. It was proven by the value of the significant paired sample test. The table showed that the significance was 0.000. According to Sugiono and Susanto (2015) a hypothesis was accepted if the
significance was smaller than 0.05 or 0.05, so alternative hypothesis was accepted and null hypothesis was rejected. The value of the significance for the data was 0.000 and it meant that it was smaller than 0.05, so it was accepted.
Table 4. 10 Paired Samples Test
Paired Differences Pair 1
Post-test – Pre-test
Standard Deviation 7.718
Standard Error Mean 1.684
95 % Confidence Interval of the Difference
Lower 34.592 Upper 41.618
To know the effect of using pop-up book to the students’ vocabulary mastery the researcher used Effect Size method. The method was used to calculate the effectiveness of the use pop-up book to the students’ vocabulary mastery Cohen (2011) explained the criterions of effect size as in the table below.
Table 4. 11 The Criterion of Effect Size
Effect Size Level Criterion
0.10 Small effect The effect explains 1% of the total variance.
0.30 Medium effect The effect accounts for 9% of the total variance.
0.50 Large effect The effect accounts for 25% of the variance.
Effect Size = √�2
Effect Size = √22,6262
√22,6262+2,086 = 0.99
The use of pop-up book in the learning activities had large effect in
improving students’ vocabulary mastery. It could be concluded as had a large
effect because the value of effect size was higher than 0.50. The effect size value
of the students’ score was 0.99. The score was higher than 0.50, so it could be
This research objective was to explore the students’ vocabulary mastery level before using pop-up as media to learn English vocabulary. Then, the researcher also wanted to identify whether the used of pop-up book in the
teaching and learning activities was effective to improve the students’ vocabulary mastery or no. In this part the researcher discussed the answer of those two questions.
The Condition of the Students Vocabulary Mastery.
The students’ vocabulary mastery level was determined by analyzing
students’ tests scores. To know the first condition before the students’ using pop
-up book in the learning activities that the researcher had done some pre-tests. The pre-tests were given for three times. Then the researcher got the students’ pre-tests score as follow:
Table 4. 12 Students’ Pre-test Score
Participant Pre-test 1 Pre-test 2 Pre-test 3 Mean
P1 40 40 50 43.3
P2 40 50 60 50.0
P3 40 60 50 50.0
P4 20 40 20 26.7
P5 30 50 50 43.3
P6 50 50 60 53.3
Table 4. 12 Students’ Pre-test Score
Participant Pre-test 1 Pre-test 2 Pre-test 3 Mean
P8 40 40 50 43.3
P9 30 50 50 43.3
P10 50 40 40 43.3
P11 40 40 40 40.0
P12 50 70 80 66.7
P13 40 50 40 43.3
P14 50 70 80 66.7
P15 40 50 50 46.7
P16 20 40 50 36.7
P17 40 60 60 53.3
P18 60 70 80 70.0
P19 40 30 50 40.0
P20 40 40 60 46.7
P21 40 30 40 36.7
The Mean of All Score 47.3
Based on the table above, the researcher classified the all mean of the
students’ pre-test score was in low level. Actually there were many variations of
the students’ vocabulary level. From the table above, it could be seen that there
level because they did not use media in the learning activities. Buckingham (2012) stated that media was used as instrument to transfer information. In this case the students got difficulties to understand the materials well.
The Effect of Using Pop-up Book to the Students’ Vocabulary Mastery Pop-up books in the learning activities were given after the researcher gave pre-tests. The treatment was conducted on August 30, August 31 and September 01, 2016. The purpose of using pop-up book in the learning activities was to improve students’ vocabulary mastery through interesting media and active in the learning activities. The researcher used the pop-up book to deliver the material and for students’ practice writing and memorizing new vocabularies. Like Clark (as cited in Kosim, 2013), he explained that the used of media was important as a way to develop students elementary school into active learning. The used of pop-up book in this research had helped students active in the learning activities. The students like to write their answered in the pop-up book.
It was shown in the diagram bellow:
Figure 4. 1 The Differentiation Score
Table 4. 13 The Students’ Differentiation Score
Participant Mean of the Post-test Mean of the Pre-test The Difference
P1 86.7 43.3 43.4
P10 P11 P12 P13 P14 P15 P16 P17 P18 P19 P20 P21
P17 90 53.3 36.7
P18 96.7 70 26.7
P19 76.7 40 36.7
P20 96.7 46.7 50
P21 76.7 36.7 40
The diagram and the table above showed that students’ scores had
increased. Fourteen students were in excellent level and seven students were in good level. There was a differentiation score among the students’ scores. The mean of the all pre-test was 47.3 and the mean of the all post-test was 84.5. It was showed that was an improvement on the students’ vocabulary mastery. The raising score was 37.2. It could be concluded that the use of pop-up book was effective to improve students’ vocabulary masterybecause of the students’ post
-test was higher than the students’ pre-test score.
The improvement also could be seen from the value of the t-value. If the t-value was higher than t-table it means that there was a significant effect of the use of pop-up book to the students’ vocabulary mastery. The t-value that was gotten was 22.626 and the t-table was 2.086. The table of the paired sample test showed that the t-value of this data was higher than the t-table. It meant that the used of pop-up book as media to learn vocabulary had a significant effect for
students’ vocabulary mastery.
students into active learning and improving their vocabulary mastery. Students felt enjoyed to learn new vocabulary by using pop-up book because it had interesting picture, colorful, and because it had movable pages. It helped them remembering the vocabulary better than using module, so it helped them to have many vocabularies. It was supported by Amstrong (as cited in Karimi & Rokni, 2013) stated that the used of visual media to learn and to memorize vocabularies was better to be used than only using text book. In this research, the students were remembering what they had learned better than before using pop-up book.
Conclusion and Suggestion
This is the last chapter of the thesis. This chapter will talk about the conclusion and the suggestion. In the conclusion the researcher will explain the result of this research. Then, the researcher will give her suggestion based on reflection of her research.
Vocabulary is important to be learned because vocabulary is the fundamental factor in learning English. It is a fundamental factor to understand language and produce language. Students who learn English and only use text book have limit vocabulary that they remember. They need media that help them to remember the vocabulary easily and pleasantly, so they will be able active participate in the learning activities. It is used to transfer the information about the subject material to the target learner. The researcher applied pop-up book in the learning activities at the fifth grade students of SD N 2 Trikarso, Kebumen. After applying the media, the researcher concludes the result as follow:
1. The students’ vocabulary mastery before the treatment was in the low level. There were 21 students and only three students who were in the good level and two students were in adequate level and the rest were in the low level. It could be conclude that many students needed an improvement 2. Pop-up book that was used in this research gave significant effect to the
scores and students’ pre-test scores. The students’ post-test scores were higher than the pre-test scores.
The result of this research shows that the level of students’ vocabulary
mastery before the use of pop-up book in the learning activities was in low level. Then, this research proves that the use of pop-up book in the learning activities was effective to be used as media to learn English vocabulary.
Through this research, the researcher gains valuable experiences in teaching and learning for students in elementary school. Based on those experiences the researcher will give some suggestions for teachers, students, school and for the other researchers.
For Teachers. The teachers are suggested to use appropriate media to teach English vocabulary. Then, the use of media is needed to help students understand English vocabulary easier. The use of media like pop-up gives more figuration about the object by seeing the picture. Pop-up book also has interesting page and colorful, so it would help them to remember it. The teacher also should be able to motivate the students to learn to make them active in the teaching activities and learning activities.
For Students. Students should learn and learn again not only in the school but also in their home. It is needed to reinforce their understanding.
School. Schools are suggested to supply media for the students. It is useful to help students understand the material easily. The example is pop-up book to learn vocabulary and there are many other media for the other subjects.
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Appendix 4. Lesson Plans
Lesson Plan 1 School : SD N 2 Trikarso
Subject : English (Transportation)
Class : V
Skills : Speaking and Writing Time Allocation : 2 × 35
A. Standard Competence
6. Expressing instruction and simple information in the classroom context. 8. Spelling and copying simple English text in the classroom context. B. Basic Competence
6.1 Responding instruction with oral response, able to give the example of doing an action and giving an instruction.
8.1 Spelling simple English words with appropriate punctuation and engage the use of word, phrase and sentences that relate with transportation.
D. Learning Objectives
1. Students are able to comprehend the new vocabulary about transportation. 2. Students are able to pronounce the new vocabulary about transportation. 3. Students are able to use and response the instruction accurately.
E. Learning Material Vocabulary
Land Transportation (Transportasi Darat)
Motorcycle Sepeda motor
Water Transportation (Transportasi Air)
Sailing boat Perahu layar
Speedboat Perahu motor
Ferry Kapal feri
Canoe Perahu lesung
Air Transportation (Transportasi Udara)
Hot air balloon Balon udara
Bookshop Toko buku
Bus stop Halte
Bus station Terminal
Railway station Stasiun
F. Learning Methods
Exploration, Elaboration and Confirmation G. Teaching and Learning Process
No. Activities Time Allocation
1 Pre-Learning Activities - Greeting
- Praying before learning activities begun
- Checking students’ attendance list - Telling the students today’s topic
2 Main Learning Activities: Exploration
- Ask the students to mention some English words of land transportation. - Ask the students to mention some
English words of water transportation.
- Ask the students to mention some English words of air transportation. Elaboration
- Teacher writes English vocabulary about transportation on the
- The students write the vocabulary that has written by the teacher. - Teacher pronounces the vocabulary
that has written.
- Students repeat what the teacher has pronounced.
- Students try to guess the Indonesian
- The teacher explains the Indonesian meaning.
- Teacher wipes the blackboard and asks students to close their book. - The teacher gives the pop-up book
and asks students to guess the English word of each picture in the pop-up and writes it beside the picture.
- After the students have finished with their work, the teacher asks some students to read their answer.
- Teacher gives the correct answer and the students check their answer and if there is incorrect answer they correct it.
- Giving feedback to students about the learning activities
- Motivate students to have more spirit to learn English
- Making conclusion
3 Post Activities
- Giving an opportunity for students to ask questions about the materials - Asking students some questions
about the materials
- Informing the next materials - Praying
H. Learning Sources Wp.robertsabuda.com
Fokus Bahasa Inggriskelas V semester 2
Modul EKSIS Bahasa Inggriskelas 5 semester 2 I. Learning Media
Lesson Plan 2 School : SD N 2 Trikarso
Subject : English (Transportation)
Class : V
Skills : Writing and Listening Time Allocation : 2 × 35
A. Standard Competence
5. Understanding simple instruction and the interaction in the classroom context.
8.Spelling and copying simple English text in the classroom context. B. Basic Competence
5.1Responding the instruction appropriately in the classroom context and about transportation context.
8.1 Spell simple English words appropriately with appropriate punctuation and engage the use of word, phrase and sentences that relate with transportation. C. Indicator
1. Understanding simple vocabulary about transportation. 2. Pronouncing simple vocabulary about transportation. 3. Describing transportation.
D. Learning Objectives