PIDGINIZED ENGLISH IN CONVERSATION SPOKEN
BY SILVER SHOP ATTENDANTS IN UBUD
MADE WAHYU ADI DHARMA
FACULTY OF ARTS
First of all, I would like to express my greatest thanks to Almighty God, Ida Sang Hyang Widi Wasa for the great blessing that leads to the completion of this paper entitled “Pidginized English Spoken by Silver Shop Attendants in Ubud”. It is a partial fulfillment of requirements for obtaining the Scholar degree of the English Department, Faculty of Arts, Udayana University. There are no proper words to convey my deep gratitude and respect for any help and contribution from many sides.
Secondly, I have to thank my research supervisors, I Nyoman Tri Ediwan, S.S, M.Hum. and I Komang Sumaryana Putra, S.S, M.Hum., without their assistances and dedicated involvements in every steps throughout the process, this paper would have never been accomplished. I would like to thank very much for all lecturers who has given your knowledge and also your support and understanding over these past four years. My sincere thanks also go to Yana Qomariana, S.S., M.Ling. as my academic supervisor for her unflagging willingness to advice, assist and accompany me during my academic years.
of this paper. My thanks also dedicated to the dearest Ni Wayan Dessrimama for the encouragement and support both in helping and accompanying in any conditions. Last but not least, to my best friends in English Department, especially our SOMPLUG group; Ari, Bion, Budi, Cahya, Dewa Sidanes, Dwi, Gung Wira, Ray, Rico, Teguh and Widi, these four years moments with you all are priceless experiences for my life.
Denpasar, Mei 2016
The undergraduate thesis entitled Pidginized English in Conversation Spoken by Silver Shop Attendants in Ubud attempted to analyze the forms, functions, and meanings of structure spoken. This study aimed to identify the forms, functions and meanings of pidginized English spoken by the silver shop attendants in Ubud which were compared to Standard English Grammar. The data was taken in Ubud, specifically in silver art shop. It was chosen because pidginized English were still existed nowadays which had its forms, functions and meanings. The data was collected by making simulations of the conversations of silver shop attendants and visitors afterwards record it. After that, the data was classified into each kinds of forms and afterwards its functions and meanings were identified.
There are three theories used in conducting this study. The first theory is theory of pidgin language proposed by Wardhaugh (1986) and other supporting theories. These theories were applied to identify the forms of structures of pidginized English and classified its types of sentences and were compared to Standard English. The next theory applied in this study was the theory of pragmatics and semantics proposed by Leech (1974). These theories were applied to find out the functions and intended meanings of the classified structures. Regarding to the analysis, there were three kinds of forms of pidginized English found in Ubud, namely: Positive, Negative, and Interrogative forms. There were three of each functions and meanings found regarding to those forms namely in succession: Descriptive, Signalling, Argumentative functions and Conceptual, Affective, Thematic meanings.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Page APPROVAL SHEET
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ... i
ABSTRACT ... iii
TABLE OF CONTENT ... iv
CHAPTER I Introduction 1.1 Background of the Study ... 1
1.2 Problems ... 2
1.3 Aims ... 3
1.4 Scope of Disscussions ... 3
1.5 Research Method ... 4
1.5.1 Data Source ... 4
1.5.2 Method and Technique of Collecting Data ... 5
1.5.3 Method and Technique of Analyzing Data ... 5
1.5.4 Method and Technique of Presenting Data ... 6
CHAPTER II Review of Literature, Concept, Theoritical Framework 2.1 Review of Literature ... 7
2.2 Concept ... 10
2.2.1 Sociolinguistics ... 10
2.2.2 Varieties of Language ... 11
2.2.4 Registers ... 12
2.2.5 Standard Language ... 12
2.2.6 Pidgin Language... 15
2.2.7 Shop Attendant ... 16
2.3 Theoretical Framework ... 17
CHAPTER III Pidginized English in Conversation Spoken by Silver Shop Attendants in Ubud 3.1 The Forms of Pidginized English that were Spoken by Silver Shop Attendants in Ubud ... 23
3.1.1 Pidginized English in Positive Forms ... 24
3.1.2 Pidginized English in Negative Forms ... 31
3.1.3 Pidginized English in Interrogative Forms ... 34
3.2 The Functions and Meanings of Pidginized English that were Expressed by Silver Shop Attendants in Ubud ... 40
3.2.1 Functions and Meanings of Pidginized English in Positive Forms ... 40
3.2.2 Functions and Meanings of Pidginized English in Negative Forms ... 45
3.2.3 Functions and Meanings of Pidginized English in Interrogative Forms ... 48
CHAPTER IV Conclusion ... 53
CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study
Bali is one of worldwide famous tourism destinations known as the Island of Gods and Thousand Temples. Bali has many unique traditions and cultures, also has its beautiful views like mountains, mounts, beaches, bays, capes, lakes in it which make many tourists from all over the world love to visit Bali. Since Bali will be visited by many tourists from various countries, means that Balinese people will get involved in tourism activities, therefore they need the language as a tool to interact and serve them.
In actuality, English has so many complex aspects within it, for example English Phonology, Grammar, Vocabulary. However, those aspects will only be effectively used in either formal or important activities. It is different to the language which is used by silver shop attendants in Ubud, not depending on Grammar, much more easily be used, however, still can be understood either by the tourists or customers. This English structure phenomenon is usually called pidginized English.
Todd (in Wardhaugh, 1986:74) proposes that people know the vocabularies of different languages but is a kind of common grammar in speaking so that when they come across a new language they employ the ‘new’ vocabulary on the ‘old’ grammatical framework and manage to make themselves understood. This language is important to know because it is existed in our society especially tourism industry. Also, what more interesting is how they (the pidgin user) express the sentence structures like choosing the right dictions and pronouncing the right pronunciations.
1. What forms of pidginized English that were spoken by silver shop attendants in Ubud?
2. What are the functions and meanings of pidginized English that were expressed by silver shop attendants in Ubud?
The aims of the study were:
1. To identify the forms of pidginized English that were spoken by silver shop attendants in Ubud which were compared to Standard English Grammar.
2. To identify the functions and meanings of pidginized English that were expressed by silver shop attendants in Ubud.
1.4 Scope of Discussion
As has been mentioned above, this research focused on pidginized English which was spoken by silver shop attendants in Ubud, thus the discussion can be elaborated as:
1. The identification of the forms of pidginized English that were spoken by silver shop attendants which were compared to Standard English Grammar.
1.5 Research Method
There are four points in the research method including: the data source, method and technique of collecting data, method, technique of analyzing data, and method and technique of presenting data. They are very influential determining a success of the study as well as very important for the validity of the writing this undergraduated thesis. Furthermore, the last point is used to manage how this study is presented.
1.5.1 Data Source
The data from this study was taken from respondents which is called primary data. The primary data is the data which is taken from involved people through field research. In this study, the data was recorded from the conversations of silver shop attendants with foreigners in Ubud where the observation was conducted.
Therefore, this phenomenon was chosen due to its uniqueness. All these data are important to gather the clearest proofs for the case of this undergraduate thesis.
1.5.2 Method and Technique of Collecting Data
The method for collecting the data which is used in this study is qualitative method. Qualitative method is the method done by field research. As it was investigated, there were more than 40 silver shop attendants in Ubud. In this study, there were only 8 silver shop attendants which were being respodents because they are a homogenous population. They are homogenous because they are all the same silver art shop attendants, therefore, the respondents were chosen randomly. The data was collected by recording technique, either some simulations with the silver shop attendants or the bargaining conversations between the involved silver shop attendants and foreigners in Ubud were recorded.
1.5.3 Method and Technique of Analyzing Data
by the theory stated by Leech from both of his books entitled Principles of Pragmatics and Semantic-The Study of Meanings.
1.5.4 Method and Technique of Presenting the Analysis
REVIEW OF LITERATURE, CONCEPT AND THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
2.1 Review of Literature
There are some related thesis of undergraduate program of Udayana University and articles from international journal to this study which were used as comparison in order to strengthen all aspects in this study. There are three thesis’
about the use of pidginized English used as review of literature of this study. Besides those three thesis’, there are two additions of articles from international journal about pidgin language used to this study.
The undergraduate thesis of Yakop (2008) entitled The Analysis of Pidgin Language Used by Art Shop Attendants in Ubud. The aims of the study were to investigate about forms of pidginized English used by art shop attendants in Ubud. The data of the paper was collected by qualitative method, by observing the language of art shop attendants’ daily conversation as participatory and non
participatory observer. The difference of the paper to this study is the second problem of the paper is discussing about the factors affecting the existence of the pidginized English in Ubud while this study is discussing about the functions and meanings of the structures that are expressed by the silver shop attendants in Ubud. The similarity of the paper with this study is the way of characterizing the material in discussion of first problem. The elaboration of its discussion of second problem is not in the right position. However, the way of its first discussions are characterized is good.
The undergraduate thesis of Swari (2016) entitled Pidginized English Formation by Traders at Kerthagosa Museum. The aims of the study were to investigate the forms of the pidginized English used by traders at Kerthagosa museum. The data of the paper was collected by 3 steps, they are; Interviewing, Recording, Transcribing. The similarity of the paper and this study is the same use of ‘Cross Reference’. The difference of the paper to this study is the grouping of
Addition, the article of Belrose (2001) from international journal entitled
Computer Pidgin Language: A new language to talk to your computer? The aims of the study were to teach people a new language that is efficient for dialogues with computers–a sort of artificial spoken language. The data of the paper was analyzed by exploring some of the wider implications of CPL and longer-term research directions. The diferrence of the paper to this study is the paper focused on pidgin language in computer while this study focuses on pidginzed English in real life. The similarity of the paper with this study is both concern about the relevance and importance of pidgin language. There were still a lot of theory that had not been proven in the paper. However, the idea was brilliant and will be very useful if the paper realized.
The concepts of this study focused on Language Varieties, they are pidginized English and Standard English from sociolinguistics. This study considered about silver shop attendants. Therefore, there is an additional concept shop attendants. The concepts contained the definitions related to this study. They are as follows:
Sociolinguistics is very important nowadays because it concerns about how the language is used in society. Hudson (1996:4) has described the definition of sociolinguistics as ‘the study of language in relation to society’. Since it
considers about the usage of language in society, it means that either a new language or modified language will be indentified.
2.2.2 Varieties of Language
Over half the world’s population is bilingual and many people are
multilingual. They acquire a number of languages because they need them for different purposes in their everyday interactions. Hudson (1996:22) defines a variety of language as ‘a set of linguistic items with similar distribution’.
Another name for variety is 'lect' which means language cluster. Variety may include dialects, registers, styles or other forms of the language, as well as the standard variety itself. The term 'Variety' avoids ambiguity. People only associate term 'language' to standard language and term 'dialect' to the non-standard varieties. Non-non-standard varieties thought of as less prestigious or ‘correct’ than the standard and to avoid misunderstanding and ambiguity the term
'lect' is used. This term will help decide whether or not two varieties are distinct languages or dialects of a single language.
Registers is another complex issue in any study of language varieties. Registers are sets of language items associated with discrete occupational or social groups. Register is needed because the same person may use very different linguistic items to express more or less the same meaning on different occasions. Hudson (1996:46) says ‘your dialect shows who (or what) you are, whilst your register shows what you are doing’.
Register is a variety of a language used for a particular purpose or in a particular social setting. For example, when speaking in a formal setting instead of an informal setting, an English speaker may be more likely to use features of prescribed grammar— like pronouncing words ending in -ing with a velar nasal instead of an alveolar nasal (e.g. ‘talking’, not ‘talkin’), choosing more formal
words (e.g. mother vs. mom, class vs. guys, etc.), and refraining from using contractions like ain't.
2.2.5 Standard Language
Bell (1976:147-157) listed seven criteria that may be useful in discussing different kinds of language. They are:
2. Vitality is the second of Bell’s seven criteria. It refers to the existence of a living community of speakers. This criterion can be used to distinguish languages that are ‘alive’ from those that are ‘dead’.
3. Historicityis the third of Bell’s seven criteria. It refers to the fact that a particular group of people finds a sense of identity through using a particular language: it belongs to them. Social, political, religious, or ethnic ties may also be important for the group, but the bond provided by a common language may prove to be the strongest tie of all.
4. Autonomy is the fourth of Bell’s seven criteria. It is an interesting
concept because it is really one of feeling. A language must be felt by it speakers to be different from other languages. However, this is a very subjective criterion.
5. Reductionis the fifth of Bell’s seven criteria. It refers to the fact that a
particular variety may be regarded as a sub-variety rather that as an independent entity. There may be a reduction of resources; that is, the variety may lack a writing system or r there may be considerable restrictions in use.
6. Mixture is the sixth of Bell’s seven criteria. It refers to feelings
speakers have about the ‘purity’ of the variety they speak. This
criterion appears to be more important to speakers of some languages than of others.
and ‘poor’ speakers and that the good speakers represent the norms of
proper usage. Sometimes this means focusing on one particular sub-variety as representing the ‘best’ usage.
As a result, the standard is often not called a dialect at all, but is regarded as the language itself. It takes on an ideological dimension and becomes the ‘right’ and ‘proper’ language of the group of people, the very expression of their
being. From that definition of standardization, it can be concluded that from the process of standardization, will produce Standard Language for one of them is Standard English.
According to Holmes (1980:32) stated that Standard Language are the result of direct and deliberate intervention by society. This intervention, called ‘standardization’ produces a standard language where before there were just ‘dialect’. Standardization also requires that a measure of agreement be achieved
about what is in the language and what is not. Standard variety is also often regarded as the natural, proper, and fitting language of those who use-or should use-it.
and colloquial language, or with concepts such as ‘bad language’. Standard
English has colloquial as well as formal variants, and Standard English speakers swear as much as others. Standards must not only be established (by first criterion above), they must also be observed.
2.2.6 Pidgin Language
Holmes (1988:4-5) defines pidgin as: a reduced language that results from extended contact between groups of people with no language in common; it evolves when they need some means of verbal communication, perhaps for trade, but no group learns the native language of any other group for social reasons that may include lack of trust or of close contact. It means that there a process of the language to be called pidgin. The pidginization often involves the simplification of languages, for instance, reduction in morphology (word structure) and syntax (grammatical structure), tolerance of considerable phonological variation (pronunciation), reduction in the number of functions for which the pidgin is used (for example, you usually do not attempt to write novels in a pidgin), and extensive borrowing of words from local mother tongue (Wardhaugh, 1986:59).
cognitively. Thus, pidgin language is a confusing language by structure, yet still can be understood.
Wardhaugh (1986:68) discussed about the origin of pidgin that pidgins arise because the people among whom they are found lack the ability to learn the standard languages with which the pidgins are associated. For example, speakers of English have had to make themselves understood for the purpose of trade (economically and socially) and those trading with them have had to be understood. In this case, the vocabulary of a pidgin has a great many similarities to that of the standard language (with which is associated), yet, it will be much more limited, and phonological and morphological simplification often leads to words assuming somewhat different shapes.
Most people have a predictable reaction to pidgin languages, particularly for English speakers who think pidgin languages are humorous or babyish. It is very difficult for a native speaker of a language to change his/her attitudes towards pidgins which are partially based on their language. Yet pidgins and creoles are real languages, not baby-talk. They are oftentimes used as media for serious purposes, and each has a describable and distinctive linguistic structure.
2.2.7 Shop Attendant
or part of a building where you can buy goods or services (Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary, 2010:1367), second, attendant is a person whose job is to serve or help people in a public place (Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary,
2.3 Theoretical Framework
This discussion in this research was based on sociolinguistic study. The study focused on pidgin in which the theory is proposed by Wardhaugh (1986) from his book entitled An Introduction of Sociolinguistics. In addition, some supporting theories were also added in order to find out the forms of pidginized English spoken by silver shop attendants in Ubud.
Wardhaugh (1986:74), in his book stated that pidgin is a language with no native speaker; it is no one’s first language but it is a contact language. Pidgin is also regarded as a ‘reduced’ variety of a ‘normal’ language, with simplification of
replace the vocabulary in terms of their culture, or maybe society. Wardhaugh also stated his idea that there are some general factors of pidginization, namely:
1. It involves some kind of ‘simplification’ of a language, e.g., reduction in morphology (word structure) and syntax (grammatical structure). 2. It involves tolerance of considerable phonological variation
3. It involves reduction in the number of functions for which the pidgin is used (e.g., the users usually do not attempt to write novels in a pidgin). 4. It involves extensive borrowing of words from local mother tongues.
Trudgill in Wardhaugh (1986:31) stated his ideas that Standard English is that variety of English which is usually used in print, and which is normally taught in school and non-native speakers learning the language. It is also the variety which is normally spoken by educated people and used in news broadcasts and other similar situations. Standard language will have passed through the four following processes (Hudson, 1980:33):
at all, for instance, Bahasa Indonesia (a newly created language) in Indonesia.
Some agencies such as an academy must have written dictionaries and grammar books to fix the variety, so that everyone agree on what is correct. Once, codification has taken place, it becomes necessary for any ambitious citizen to learn the correct forms and not to use in writing any ‘incorrect’ form he may have in his variety, which may
take literary years of child’s school career. 3. Elaboration of Function
It must be possible to use the selected variety in all the functions associated with central governmental and writing, for example in law courts, all kinds of educational and scientific document, require extra linguistic item to be added to the variety, especially technical words, however, it is also necessary to develop new convention for using existing forms, how to formulate examination questions, how to write letters, etc.
The data was firstly analyzed using the theory proposed by Wardhaugh in order to achieve a deeper analysis about pidginized English. In the next phase of analysis, the data was semantically and pragmatically analyzed to find out the meanings and functions of the language phenomena. The theories proposed by Leech were used in the second step of analysis.
Leech (1981) in his book entitled Semantics-The Study of Meanings
categorized that there are seven types of meaning. They are:
1. Conceptual Meaning
Conceptual meaning (logical, cognitive, or denotative content) is widely assumed to be the central factor in linguistic communication. It can be shown to be integral to the essential functioning of language in a way that other types of meaning are not.
2. Connotative Meaning
Connotative meaning is the meaning of what is communicated by virtue of what language refers to. It is the communicative value an expression has by virtue of what it refers to, over and above its purely conceptual content.
3. Social Meaning
4. Affective Meaning
Affective meaning is the meaning of what is communicated of the feelings and attitudes of the speaker/writer. It is often explicitly conveyed through the conceptual or connotative content of the words use.
5. Reflected Meaning
Reflected meaning is the meaning of what is communicated through association with another sense of the same expression. It is the meaning which arises in cases of multiple conceptual meaning, when one sense of a word forms part of our response to another sense.
6. Collocative Meaning
Collocative meaning is the meaning of what is communicated through association with words which tend to occur in the environment of another word. It consists of the associations a word acquires on account of the meanings of words which tend to occur in its environment.
7. Thematic Meaning
Popper in Leech’s book (1983) in entitled Principles of Pragmatics stated that in functionalism, there are four communication functions as the functions of language. They are:
1. Expressive Function
Expressive function is the function of language used for expressing internal states of the individual. This communication serves to express the emotions or thoughts of the speaker.
2. Signalling Function
Signalling function is the function of language used to communicate information about internal states to other individuals. This communication serves to stimulate or to release certain reactions in the hearer.
3. Descriptive Function
Descriptive function is the function of language used to describe things in the external world. This communication describes a certain state of affairs.
4. Argumentative Function