Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui nilai balikan pendidikan (returntoschooling) serta menganalisis terjadinya miss-match tenaga kerja lulusan Sekolah Menengah Kejuruan (SMK) di Indonesia. Dalam rangka mencapai tujuan tersebut maka penelitian dilakukan dalam dua tahap. Pada penelitian tahap I telah dilakukan analisis regresi dengan model yang dikembangkan dari model Mincerian dari data Sakernas 2014 dengan jumlah sampel 271.861 tenaga kerja. Analisis ReturntoSchooling menunjukkan hasil bahwa semakin tinggi jenjang pendidikan semakin tinggi pendapatan. SMK memiliki returntoschooling lebih besar dibandingkan tenaga kerja lulusan SMA. Pada penelitian tahap II telah dilakukan analisis deskriptif dan analisis regresi dengan model analisis mismatch dari data Sakernas 2015 dengan jumlah sampel 192.267 tenaga kerja. Hasil analisis deskriptif menunjukkan telah terjadi mismatch (over education dan under education) di semua jenis pekerjaan. Hasil analisis regresi menunjukkan overeducation berpengaruh signifikan.
Hubungan dimensi ekonomi dengan pendidikan kejuruan secara konseptual dapat dijelaskan dari kerangka investasi dan nilai balikan (value of return) dari hasil pendidikan kejuruan. Dalam penyelenggaraan pendidikan kejuruan, baik swasta maupun pemerintah semestinya pendidikan kejuruan memiliki konsekuensi investasi lebih besar daripada pendidikan umum. Di samping itu, hasil pendidikan kejuruan seharusnya memiliki returntoschooling lebih besar dibandingkan dengan pendidikan umum. Kondisi tersebut dimungkinkan karena tujuan dan isi pendidikan kejuruan dirancang sejalan dengan perkembangan masyarakat, baik menyangkut tugas-tugas pekerjaan maupun pengembangan karir peserta didik. Pendidikan kejuruan merupakan upaya mewujudkan peserta didik menjadi manusia produktif, untuk mengisi kebutuhan terhadap peran-peran yang berkaitan dengan peningkatan nilai tambah ekonomi masyarakat.
Recent within-twin estimates of the returntoschooling that use instrumental variables to correct for measurement error are considerably higher than existing estimates. This paper extends Griliches’ [Griliches (1979) Sibling models and data in economics: beginnings of a survey, Journal of Political Economy 87, S37–S64]. analysis of sibling or twin estimates of the returntoschoolingto show that small ability differences among twins can lead to more upward omitted ability bias—and more upward bias overall—in the instrumental variables estimate that corrects for measurement error than in the standard within-twin estimate. This point is relevant for any application in which differencing may not fully remove the omitted variable, and may explain high within-twin instrumental variable estimates of the returnto school- ing. [JELI21] 1999 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
The earnings function is estimated on three samples: a combined sample of males and females (with a female intercept shift term), and separate samples of male and female workers. The estimates of the returntoschooling in Indonesia in Table 3 are 4.72 per cent for the combined sample, 4.36 per cent for males, and 5.26 per cent for females. The gender differential in the returntoschooling is turn out to be statistically significant. This result is consistent with the findings of earlier empirical studies for Indonesia, such as Deolalikar (1993) and Behrman and Deolalikar (1993). These estimates of the returntoschooling are substantially smaller than the Psacharopoulos (1981) average estimate of 14 per cent for Less Developed Countries, and the Psacharopoulos (1994) average estimate of 9.6 per cent for Asian countries. However, our results are in agreement with some empirical studies, for example: Jamison and Gaag (1987) for China, Flanagan (1998) for the Czech Republic, Aromolaran (2006) for Nigeria, and Aslam, Bari, and Kingdon (2012) for Pakistan. A relatively low rate of returntoschooling in our study is due to several reasons. A likely candidate in this regard is a decline in the quality of schools and a significant increase in the supply of educated workers in the labour market, due to a combination of events such as the massive school construction program in 1973 and 1974 and the compulsory education program in 1984 that provides the basis for one of our sets of instruments.
Over the last few years, several studies—including the Rouse (1999) and Behrman & Rosenzweig (1999) art- icles in this issue—have pursued this strategy of estimat- ing the returntoschooling by comparing monozygotic twins. In this paper, we ask what we have learned from these studies. We emphasize a point previously raised by Griliches (1979) and reiterated by Neumark’s (1999) article in this issue—that between-twins estimation does not eliminate the inconsistency of the conventional cross-sectional estimator and can even aggravate it. The intuition is that, even though differencing between twins does difference out much of the endogenous variation in schooling, it does not eliminate it, and it also filters out much of the exogenous variation. If endogenous vari- ation comprises as large a proportion of the remaining between-twins variation as it does of the cross-sectional variation, then between-twins estimation is subject to as large an endogeneity inconsistency as the cross-sectional estimator. This important point is an old one, but we develop it in detail because it has been largely over- looked in the latest twins research. This research, how- ever, has given more careful attention to another problem also stressed by Griliches (1979)—that differencing between twins exacerbates the errors-in-variables incon- sistency due to measurement error in schooling.
The estimation of the augmented Mincerian earnings functions revealed that the return for an extra year of schooling is positive and significant. Employing the augmented Mincerian model that includes the control variables for tenure and its squared, marital status, and urban area of residence, the returntoschooling are 4.6, and 5.4 for male, and female samples, respectively. These results confirm that the returns toschooling in Indonesia are low in comparison with the returntoschooling in many other countries, particularly Asian and developing countries. Furthermore, it is clearly shown that the returns toschooling are higher for females than for males, which is in agreement with the findings of other studies, e.g. Deolelikar (1991) in Indonesia, Miller, Mulvey, & Martin. (1997) in Australia, Flanagan (1998) in the Czech Republic, Brunello, Comi, & Lucifora (2000) in Italy, Avecedo (2001) in Mexico, and Asadullah (2006) in Bangladesh.
an unobserved characteristic, say “ability”, has a positive effect on earnings and schooling then OLS estimates of the returntoschooling will be biased upward. On the other hand, measurement error in schooling may gener- ate a negative correlation between the two error terms and induce a negative bias in OLS estimates (see Gril- iches, 1977; Blackburn and Neumark, 1995). Further, as pointed out by Griliches (1977), unobserved factors that have a positive impact on labour market success may lead to lower schooling attainment (and cause OLS esti- mates to be biased downward). This latter case suggests that individuals with greater earnings potential at each level of education invest less in schooling, since they have a higher opportunity cost of schooling. A negative bias could also arise if, contrary to a comparative advan- tage story, those with low schooling have a higher earn- ings capacity (and higher returns toschooling) but cur- tailed their education due to higher discount rates. Such a negative correlation is implied by the Becker model of human capital investment in which schooling is acquired until the marginal returntoschooling equates the dis- count rate (see Card, 1995). Thus, while unobserved ability may bias the OLS estimates upwards, allowing for the endogeneity of schooling may impart a downward bias on the conventional OLS rate of return estimates. The overall size and sign of the bias are, of course, theor- etically indeterminate and need to be resolved empiri- cally.
The estimation of the augmented Mincerian earnings functions revealed that the return for an extra year of schooling is positive and significant. Employ- ing the augmented Mincerian model that includes the control variables for tenure and its squared, marital status, and urban area of residence, the returntoschooling are 4.6, and 5.4 for male, and female samples, respectively. These results confirm that the returns toschooling in Indonesia are low in comparison with the returntoschooling in many other countries, particularly Asian and de- veloping countries. Furthermore, it is clearly shown that the returns toschooling are higher for females than for males, which is in agreement with the findings of other studies, e. g. Deolelikar (1991) in Indonesia, Miller, Mulvey, & Martin. (1997) in Australia, Flanagan (1998) in the Czech Republic, Brunello, Comi, & Lucifora (2000) in Italy, Avecedo (2001) in Mexico, and Asadullah (2006) in Bangladesh.
In a recent, and widely cited, paper, Ashenfelter & Krueger (1994) use a new sample of identical twins to investigate the contribution of genetic ability to the observed cross-sectional returntoschooling. An inno- vation in their paper is the use of multiple measurements of schoolingto address the potentially severe attenuation bias in within-twin estimates of the returntoschooling that arise from measurement error. Surprisingly, Ashen- felter & Krueger’s within-twin estimate of the returntoschooling is larger than the comparable ordinary least squares (OLS) estimate. And, their measurement error corrected estimates of the returntoschooling range from 12 to 16%, with their most efficient estimate being approximately 13%. Although Ashenfelter & Krueger emphasize that these unusually large estimates result from the measurement error corrections, Neumark
Tyler shrugs. Many of the things that his family does were decided long before he had a vote. “That's the way it's always been done,” he's always told if he questions why. But in this case, anyway, Tyler thinks it's kind of cool naming cows after states. It makes up for the fact that their farm doesn't have a name. Everyone just calls it the Paquette farm, but since there are a lot of Paquettes, that can get con-fusing. They've tried out a bunch of names—Happy Valley Farm, Sunset View Farm, Windy Acres Farm—but by the time Dad has gotten around to having a sign made, every-one's grown tired of the agreed- upon name. Only one of Tyler's choices ever made it to a nal round: Milky Way Farm, which Sara vetoed on account of it sounded too much like a candy bar, one she didn't especially like.
Inferences based on first-order and second-order asymptotics are misleading since they treat the coefficients on the instruments in the first stage as nonzero and fixed, an assumption which implies that the first stage F-statistic increases to infinity with the sample size. Because applied researchers often report small values for the first-stage F-statistic, there is a need to develop methods that are more reliable for the weak- instrument case. Staiger and Stock (1997) fill this gap by proposing an alternative asymptotic framework that assumes that the instruments’ coefficients are modeled as being in the neighborhood of zero, such that the first-stage F-statistic has a non- degenerate limiting distribution. Monte Carlo simulations show that these weak- instrument asymptotics provide better approximations in finite samples than the conventional asymptotics. In particular, under the weak-instrument asymptotics, the structural parameter β is not consistently estimated, and the limiting distribution of the Wald statistic is not nuisance-parameter-free. As a result of the latter problem, the null rejection probability of the Wald test is quite sensitive to the quality of the instru- ments. To fix this problem, it is natural to use tests with better size properties; see Anderson and Rubin (1949), Kleibergen (2002) and Moreira (2001, 2003). Since Moreira (2001) shows that, under some conditions, any test whose null rejection prob- ability does not depend on the quality of the instruments must necessarily be a con- ditional test, the next section discusses in detail the conditional approach used by Moreira (2003) to fix size distortions of commonly used tests.
Hasil perhitungan dengan model indeks ganda menghasilkan enam saham yang menjadi prioritas portofolio yaitu : TSPC, TINS, RALS, ASII, AALI, PNBN dan dari keenam saham tersebut hanya satu saham yang masuk sebagai portofolio optimal yaitu saham TSPC dengan return E(Rp) sebesar 155939.353 atau 156000 dengan tingkat risiko sebesar 150528 dan Bp (beta) 163.221.
The fifth grade was chosen as a compromise between two methodological concerns. First, since the purpose of the survey was to explore determinants of schooling among those with the lowest educational attainment, and drop-out rates are high even in primary school, students needed to be relatively young. (The primary school efficiency rate—the ratio of graduates to entrants six years earlier—was only 55% in the 1990–91 school year, as reported by the Secretarı´a de Educacio´n Pu´blica, 1986, 1991.) Second, students also needed to be mature enough to have some idea of their future plans and the ability to report accurately on basic information about their households. The sample, then, is restricted to chil- dren who have not dropped out of school as of the fifth grade and therefore contains potential sample selection bias against those with less schooling. The 1990 Census reports that 13% of children 15–19 years of age had attained four years of schooling or less. This figure com- bines urban and rural residents, and probably overesti- mates low attainment among urban children.
Every book has to have a story, a simple story that tells why the author wrote the book, why people should read it, and what the book says. Here is my book’s story. In 2006 I was living in New Delhi, working for the World Bank. I had occasion to take an overnight train to eastern Uttar Pradesh to visit an education project that was being run by Pratham, an Indian NGO that works on improving learning of the basics; the program was undergoing a rigorous evaluation by researchers from MIT. The Pratham team would visit a village and do very simple tests of the chil- dren’s mastery of literacy and numeracy. After a few days of testing, pub- lic meetings would be organized to reveal and discuss the results. The locally elected village leader, all the parents of the village, and the govern- ment school principal were invited to these meetings.
3.1 By the end of the 6-year primary schooling, pupils will be able to form letters and words in neat legible print including cursive writing. 3.2 By the end of the 6 year primary schooling, pupils will be able to write using appropriate language, form and style for a range
Abstract: Soil conservation problems in developing countries involve a large group of farmers. These farmers normally characterized with the following attributes: a) small land holding size (between 0.5 ha—2 ha), b) low income and, c) short term view, which causing lack of environmental appreciation. These attributes should be taken into consideration in introducing technology for sustainable soil conservation. Mechanical structures such as terracing, gully plug, etc proofed to be not sustainable in this environment due to high input and maintenance cost and high labor requirement, which small farmer with low income hardly can afford.
Hasil Perhitungan Efisiensi Perbankan dengan Metode Constant Returnto Scale Hasil analisis dengan metode constant returnto scale menunjukkan bahwa pada tahun 2000 bank yang memiliki efisiensi paling kecil adalah Bank Pembangunan Daerah DKI atau yang lebih dikenal dengan bank DKI yaitu sebesar 12,86 persen (lihat tabel 3). Sementara bank yang sudah mencapai efisiensi 100 persen ada 5 bank yaitu Bank Rakyat Indonesia (BRI), bank mandiri, BCA, bank danamon dan bank jabar. Inefisiensi bank DKI ini disebabkan oleh alokasi input yang kurang maksimal untuk memperoleh output. Variabel yang belum dialokasikan maksimal adalah aktiva yang masih menca- pai 7,3 persen dan harus ditingkatkan peng- gunaan inputnya sebesar 92,7 persen. Pada aktiva ini terjadi pemborosan aset karena target efisiensi seharusnya 4.542.969.9 ribu namun dialokasikan sebesar 62159479.0 ribu. Penggunaan tenaga kerja juga demi- kian. Seharusnya bank Jabar mempekarjakan 116 karyawan, namun yang terjadi jumlah
2.1.2 Able to recognise and articulate initial, medial and the final sounds in single syllable words within given context: (a) and (b) 2.1.3 Able to blend two to four phonemes into recognizable words and read them aloud. 2.1.4 Able to segment words into phonemes to spell.
Bab ini mencakup teori-teori yang mendukung atau mendasari penelitian yang meliputi: laporan keuangan, investasi, nilai buku saham, rasio leverage, rasio profitabilitas, price to book value, kerangka pemikiran, penelitian terdahulu dan hipotesis.