Nanoelectronics [1–3] and the study of mesoscopic systems in solid state devices at low temperature  consider ensembles of small numbers of interacting particles. A single donor atom in a semiconductor [1, 3], defects , and quantum dots  may contain one or two localized electrons. These electrons are in thermal contact with a thermal bath consisting of a two or three dimensional electron system confined in the leads or in a nanometric channel. There, the total number of electrons may be of the order of tens up to several hundreds. Temperature is defined by the inverse of the partial derivative of the energy with respect to the entropy, at a fixed volume . Unlike in macroscopic system, for which the number of electrons in the reservoir is infinite and conventional statistical physics holds, thetemperature of a mesoscopic system consisting of few electrons confined in a nanostructure is defined by virtue of a time domain extension of the grand canonical ensemble in the limit of small finite N . A system constituted by a refrigerated ultra-dilute two dimensional electron gas at the Si/SiO 2 interface in a Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect-Transistor
Normally we can say that the roasting process is an endothermic process (absorbing heat), but at thetemperature of 175 °C (347 °F) it changes into exothermic process (blowing heat) . This means that the coffee beans heating itself which needs some changes to the heat source of the roaster. At the final step of the roasting process, the beans which already roasted are cooled outside the roaster using a blowing air. Sometimes the cooling process used water steam.
Background research is to see how many contemporary houses that much different from the Javanese house, contemporary house is usually attached to each other neighbor's house, do not have a yard, use half a stone wall, while the Javanese house has a large yard, far enough distance between the house and use a single wall stone. Objectives of this paper is to show natural differences in ventilation resulting from the use of materials, and types of homes are these different settings. Methodology used is to use CFD simulations to see how the difference and temperature difference. Using the measurement data base BMKG with winds measured at a height of 10m on the hottest and coldest months. Outcomes are thetemperature and wind speed in Java proved to be more comfortable home. Summary The results proved that the traditional Javanese house more comfortable because it uses the hinge side windows, that make it easier for air to flow than the type of window (upper hinge) and one brick wall material further inhibit heat conduction than half brick wall.
Research was conducted by building a mushroom house (4m wide x 6m long x4m high), steel framed, asbestos roofed with 3mm plywood ceiling, and 60% screen net wall layered with 14%UV transparent plastic. The mushroom house was equipped with a microcontroller to monitor and control the room temperature and relative humidity. Twenty units of SHT22 sensor were installed to monitor thetemperature and humidity; eighteen in the room, one above the ceiling, and the last was placed outside the house (above the roof). The system was equipped with 4 units of water sprayer heads to elevate the room humidity and decrease the room temperature. Two units of vents were installed at the upper wall to exhaust the room air when the humidity and temperature were above the optimum ranges. A unit of heater was added at the middle of the room to elevate the room temperature when it went down bellow 28 o C. Results showed that when thetemperature and humidity were not controlled, they could fluctuate
The process of blow and blow has 2 main processes inside blank mold, i.e. settle blow and counter blow. In the settle blow, outward air blow vastly affects the shape of bottle mouth; while in counter blow, the velocity of air blowed into parison (bottle liquid in blank mold) considerably influences parison temperature distribution. The inhomogeneity of parison temperature distribution will consequently result in defective bottle. Therefore air velocity blowed in this phase must be considered so that thetemperature distribution in bottle spreads homogeneously and hence good quality of bottle can be obtained. There are 5 sorts of bottle defects which often occurs in PBL Quartz, namely loading mark, crack shoulder, crack body, and blow pipe mark . Loading mark defect is caused by error of temperature setting which particularly caused by inhomogeneity parison temperature distribution, such that the parison temperature may exceed the blank mold temperature. Under such conditions, this research is expected to provide solution to overcome loading mark bottle defect in PBL Quartz.
Another study which was conducted by Evans et all 2 demonstrated that standard TURP patients (temperature of irrigating fluid was 21 0 C) exhibited rapid central cooling with significant hemodynamic responses, while isothermic TURP patients (irrigating fluid temperature 38 0 C) exhibited minor decreases in core body temperature with stable hemodynamic. Central cooling is caused by the use of unheated irrigant. Heat is lost 32 times faster into water than into air. Since the bladder is close to the body core, heat is transferred rapidly down thetemperature gradient between the body core and the irrigant within the bladder. Rapid central cooling is inevitable when unheated irrigant is used. Hypothermia is a recognized cardiac stress and causes cardiovascular responses. Furthermore, hypo- thermia has a detrimental effects on all body systems and the stress of rewarming is poorly tolerated by patients with a limited cardiorespiratory reserve. 2
Peripheral and central skin temperature in 27 healthy newborns during the first two days of life were continuously analysed by wireless temperature sensors. All neonates were cared for by their mothers on the ward. The mothers kept diaries about the care situation, noting when the neonates were in close contact themselves and when lying in the cot. All mothers reported that thetemperature sensors did not interfere with the care of their babies. The local insulation added by the sensors was 2% and 3% of the total for the abdomen (with nappy, underpants, and cotton blanket) and foot (with rompers and cotton blanket) respectively. This may delay changes in skin temperature caused by a rapid change in the environment but only marginally influence
When people enter an air-conditional room in a building that using centralized air-conditional system, they cannot simply adjust thetemperature because thetemperature is controlled fully by the system. Hence, this situation will make someone feel uncomfortable with the current temperature where somebody want hotter and others want colder temperature. Discomfort can occur if the indoor climate is too warm, too cool or draughty. Somebody also maybe could easily feel unwell because of the current temperature where these conditions can irritate the eyes, nose and throat. Besides that, electrical equipment dries the air and static build up around a computer screen also attracts dust.
Land Surface Temperature (LST) is an important parameter in the land surface processes on regional and global scale. The Land Surface Temperature Diurnal (LSTD) cycle of different land cover is an excellent indicator of the surface processes and their interaction with planetary boundary layer. The Kalpana-1 very high resolution radiometer (VHRR) LST product is available with 30 minute spatial resolution and 0.1 degree temporal resolution. A study was carried out with an objective to determine the LSTD parameters directly from K1-VHRR monthly averaged LST observations over Indian landmass. In this analysis, a harmonic function is fitted to LSTD from the K1-VHRR observations, where cosine term describing the effect of sun and exponential term represents decay of LST during nighttime. Using LSTD parameters, one can directly know thetemperature amplitude, residual temperature and time of maximum temperature for each pixel. The LSTD parameters fitting accuracy in root mean square error (RMSE) and coefficient of determination (R 2 ) ranges between 0.5-2.5 K and 0.90-0.99 respectively for most of the pixels over Indian landmass. These LSTD parameters may bring new insight for estimation of thermal inertia and also useful in cloud screening algorithms.
Thermoelectric cooling system is achieved when a direct current is passed through one or more pairs of n- and p-type of semiconductor materials. Figure 1 is a diagram of a single pair consisting of n- and p-type semiconductor materials. In the cooling mode, direct current is allowed to passes through n and p junction of a semiconductor material. Thetemperature, denoted as TC (Cold Temperature) of the interconnecting conductor is decreased while heat is absorbed from the environment. This heat absorption from the environment (cooling) occurs when electrons pass from a low energy level in the p-type material through the interconnecting conductor to a higher energy level in the n-type material. The absorbed heat is transferred through the semiconductor materials through electrons to the other end of the junction, denoted as TH (Hot Temperature) where the electron are liberated once it return to a lower energy level in the p-type material. This phenomenon is called the Peltier effect [1-2].
There are 4 voltages used to do this experiment, which are 0 V, 0.66 V, 1.59 V and 1.06 V. This measurement is done within 30 seconds and data recording is done every 3 seconds. For every second, the wire that is flown with electricity will be experiencing a temperature change, except when flown by the 0 V. The result that was acquired from this experiment was not accurate, mostly because of a technical problem where I cannot see the web-cam. Thus I also cannot see if thetemperature of the wire has gone back to normal or not so the remaining voltage of the previous voltages may change the outcome of the results.
The system will be displayed in the form of a webpage. The 802.11 wireless specifications in an Arduino Wi-Fi shield allows an Arduino Uno Board to connect to the internet. The network specifications which are 802.11b and 802.11g help to connect Wi-Fi shield wirelessly. In addition, the data sent to the laptop will be translated into a radio signal using wireless adapter. The radio signal will be transmitted through an antenna to a decoder known as a wireless router. On top of that, the data received by the router will be passed to the internet. Then, the laptop wireless adapter will receive the coded data using radio signal from the internet. The Arduino will act as the brain of the system that monitor the input and output of the system. The program generated in Arduino Integrated Development will be transferred into Arduino UNO board. Arduino Wi-Fi Shield will control all the devices in the circuit to function. Thetemperature sensor is used in this project to detect the hotness or coldness of an object. There are two types of temperature sensor which were considered: contact and non-contact sensors.
Mercury Reducing Bacteria Activity Test Mercury reducing bacteria activity test was carried outtolook at the ability of superior isolates in reducing Hg. In this testing phase bacterial isolates were grown in NB medium for 24 hours in 250 ml erlenmeyer, then isolated cells were washed using saline solution and the absorbance was measured using a spectrophotometer at a wavelength of 620 nm. Culture with absorbance value of 2 was taken 0.1 ml and grown in 50 ml NB medium containing a concentration of 100 ppm HgCl 2 , then incubated for 7 days on top shaker (100 rpm). Furthermore, bacterial cells were separated from the medium by using a membran filter with the size of 0.2 µm. Hg concentration remaining in the medium was measured by Cold Vapour NB Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (CV - AAS). In addition, NB medium containing 100 ppm of HgCl 2 without inoculated with bacteria resistant to mercury was used as a positive control and NB medium without HgCl 2 and mercury resistant bacteria was used as negative control. The principle of CV-AAS working is to change the mercury dioxide compounds into the mercury ion, mercury ion subsequently reduced to metallic mercury and the cold vapor atomic absorption of it was analyzed at a wavelength of 253.7 nm. Reagents used were SnCl 2 reductant, H 2 SO 4 + HCl acid solution (Rondonuwu, 2011).To determine the levels of mercury removal efficiency, this formula was used:
Rigid pavements generally are made from concrete, with or without reinforcement. Rigid pavement lays over sub base and sub grade as shown in Figure 1. Sub base can be made from lean concrete or stone structure. Over the past few years, the reliance has shifted more to rigid pavement because of its low maintenance cost, long service life, and smoother riding surface . Besides its of the advantages, rigid pavement is expensive due to the high cost of concrete and reinforcement. The economic consideration are carried out for the pavement design of a section by using the results obtained by design methods and their corresponding component layer thickness . Because of low initial cost, flexible roads are preferred to concrete road pavement, but bituminous roads deteriorate during the rainy season and maintenance becomes costly . In concrete pavement, a single concrete mixture design and structural surface layer are selected to resist mechanical loading without an attempt to affect pavement shrinkage, ride quality or noise attenuation adversely . It is important to prevent water evaporation right after casting because micro cracks of rigid pavement can avoided. The micro cracks can grow and accumulate due to applied load and by climate. The accumulation of cracks can create deterioration in the concrete; therefore, rigid pavement performance is decreased and its service life becomes shorter. These circumstances can change into serious problems because accumulated cracks make the structure unsafe. Rigid pavement or concrete pavement needs high attention during planning, preparing, placing, curing and load scheduling. The faults in every step of producing
Park a car under the sun for a couple of hours and it gets very hot. It would be too hot to get into. This is due to the design and the material of the car which is closed thus trapping hot air. Due to the hot air in car it is not comfortable to sit in the car. On top of that, many other problems also occur such as decreasing the lifespan of the car interior, dangerous to pets or human in car and wastage of air condition as the user would switch it to maximum level to get rid of the hot air. This project is done to find solution to overcome these problems. The main idea is to use solar panel which would power a blower/fan to suck the hot air out of the car by harnessing the power of solar. The result would be to come out with a product which would fit as an accessory. What this product will/won't do: This is not an air conditioner, it is a ventilation system, and it will reduce the interior temperature of the vehicle, but not cool it (like an air conditioner would). The study of temperature difference in the car is done by using thermo couples and data logger. This is done to prove the effectiveness of the product.
By using different climate models, various scientists have claimed that the earth’s climate is currently unstable and that human activities play an important role in climate change. Rapid development and population growth has led to an ecological crisis around the world with varying degrees of damage. During the last century, climate change has KDGDJUHDWLQÁXHQFHRQWKHQDWXUDOHFRV\VWHP and social economy aspect; for this reason, research into temperature changes is becoming very important and more and more studies are being carried out (Li, 2009). As a result of industrialisation and deforestation, the level of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions has increased dramatically and changed the air composition of the atmosphere. Over the last 100 years, man-made GHG emissions, such as carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide, have increased; these three major gases resulted from the burning of fossil fuels and changes in land use (IPCC, 2008). In the last 20 years, it has begun to be assumed that these two phenomena are related to one another. In other words, the cause of the increase in the global average temperature is likely to be considered to also be a cause of the rise of GHG emissions, which have occurred simultaneously with the increasing concentrations of GHGs in the atmosphere.
The crystal size of the sample increases with the increase of the sintering temperature, where the crystal size is in the range of 46 to 52 nm. The increase of the sintering temperature from 500°C to 900°C accelerates the diffusion of grain Mn-doped ZnO at the grain boundaries, resulting from an agglomeration of a small grain into a larger grain. It affects the decrease of the lattice strain and dislocation density of the Mn-doped ZnO crystal system.