Gamping and Depok are high endemic areas of DHF which have different trend. Gamping shows stable high while Depok shows a downward trend in 2008-2013. Some factors may affect the incidence such as agent, vector, host and environment. This study aims to determine the influence of host ’s factors to dengue incidence. This is an observational analytic study with case control design. Data obtained through questionnaires distributed to respondents. There were 136 respondents each 68 respondents for control and case group. Level of knowledge, behavior and socio-economic status was measured by calculating scores. Socio-economic level was in terms of level of education, type of job and the amount of income per month. The relationships between variables were analyzed by chi-squares. The analysis showed that knowledge related to DHF with moderate strength at Gamping (p = 0,000; r = 0.453), but not associated with DHF in Depok (p = 0.420). Behavior closely associated with DHF in Gamping (p = 0.000; r = 0.643) and weakly in Depok (p = 0.002; r = 0.396). There is no relationship of socio-economic parameters in both of Gamping and Depok. Education level (Gamping p = 0.194; Depok p = 0.801), type of job (Gamping p = 0.568; Depok p = 0.422) and income per month (Gamping p = 0.570; Depok p = 0.883). It was concluded that in high endemicarea with stable trend, DHF associated with knowledge and behavior, whereas in high endemic areas with a downward trend, it happened weakly related to behavior and not related with knowledge. There was no relation between DHF and socio-economic factor.
This was an experimental study with a block- randomized design. The population of Ae. aegypti larvae were within houses of dengue fever endemicarea in Tasikmalaya. A total of 700 larvae of Ae. aegypti, were obtained from houses in each endemicarea and have been bred to third generation (F3). The susceptibility tests against Ae. aegypti were obtained from four Villages as a sample, and from the Laboratory for comparison. The main material used was ABATE 1 SG Kimia Farma’s production.
Schistosomiasis was endemic neglected diseases in Central Sulawesi Province. This disease was found in Lindu, Napu, and Bada Plateau. Bada Plateau was a new endemicarea of schistosomiasis that was found in 2008. This spot survey aimed to know about schistosomiasis infection rate in its intermediate snail Oncomelania hupensis lindoensis and in rat, and also to identify the rat as definitive host beside human. Survey was conducted in January 2015. Schistosoma cercariae in snails were identified using crushing method. Schistosomiasis infection in rat was identified using dissection method to found adult worms. Among 20 snails examined, 3 were positive for cercariae of Schistosoma japonicum (infection rate 15%). Among 3 rats trapped, all were positive for adult S. japonicum (infection rate 100%). Rats trapped were Rattus norvegicus, R. argentiventer and Paruromys dominator. We concluded that infection rate in animals were high, that caused the sylvatic cycle of schistosomiasis still occurred.
Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever is a communicable disease caused by the dengue virus and transmitted by Aedes aegypti. Semarang City is an DHF endemicarea with 5.538 cases, IR 36,75/10.000 population and CFR 0,8% (in 2010). The vector density data can be used to determine the appropriate vector control. The purpose of this study was to calculate HI, CI, BI, DF and figures larva free (ABJ) of Aedes sp in endemic, sporadic, and potential area. This study was descriptive with cross sectional study. Larvae survey with single larvae method. The population of this study are all of houses in Sendangmulyo, Terboyo Wetan, and Pesantren. The sample had taken by purpossive sampling method. The result of study showed that HI (53.75%), CI (30.77%), BI (75%) and DF (7) highest in Terboyo Wetan (sporadic area). ABJ at all research location < 95%. The density of larvae in sporadic area was higher than endemic areas. The density of larvae was not correlated with stratification of dengue endemicity region.
Nutrition are needed for growth and development processes, including teeth. The need of nutrition for tooth development have to be supplied during a period of pregnancy because the tooth development process was started intra uteri. Thyroid hormone as growth hormone, its secretion depends on the presence of iodine. Iodine deficiency can be associated with caries and tooth eruption. This research was done in Jember, an endemicarea of goiter.
An efficacy assessment of insecticide impregnated bed nets PermaNet “Vestegaard – Frandsen” effectiveness was conducted in some villages of the malaria endemic areas around the Bukit Manoreh (Magelang, Purworejo and Kulonprogo Regency). The nsecticide impregnated bed nets PermaNet “Vestegard –Frandsen” were distributed on May 2003 and to be evaluated on February 2004. The efficacy assessment was conducted using bioassay method according to WHO standard against wild female Anopheles aconitus from each regency showed that insecticide impregnated bed nets PermaNet” Vestegaard –Frandsen” have been used for about one year was not effective for controlling mosquitoes (The mortality of An. aconitus < 70%). Bioassay test of new bed net PermaNet “Vestegard –Frandsen” using An. aconitus from laboratory koloni revealed 90% mortality
Results of this research indicate that there is no interaction between mulched seedling method and application of maize as a barrier to the rate attack of pepper yellow disease in yellow virus endemicarea. Seedling with double mulch and with barrier cannot lessen significantly the intensity of pepper yellow disease yet, in pepper planting. The rate attack of pepper yellow disease can reduce yield quality in Kalibening village. Mulched seedling method and application of maize as a barrier indicate interaction and significantly influence to high accretion crop at age of 2 week after planting and chlorophyll content at age 8 week after planting. Application of maize as a barrier significantly influence to diameter of pepper stem at age of 2 and 8 week after planting.
Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF) is one of the serious health problems in Indonesia. There are always DHF cases every year. East Java is a province with high cases of DHF every year, with the peak of burden was 86,52 cases per 100.000 people in 2010. This study, conducted in 2011, was aimed to know the larval density figure and key container in the dengue endemic areas in East Java. In total, there were 10 villages from three districts (Tulungagung, Malang and Kediri) were surveied. One hundred houses were visualy surveied to count the larvae indices: House Index (HI), Container Index (CI), and Breteau Index (BI) based on the WHO regulation. Larvae-Free Index based on the Indonesian Ministry of Health regulation was also measured. The larvae indices measured indicated that eight villages were categorized as middle risk (density figure 5) and two villages (Bago Village from Tulungagung and Mojoroto Village from Kediri) were categorized as high risk (density figure 6). Cement bath tub was the key container of all location. Based on these results known that three districts were potential for dengue transmission.
Abstract. Vector control programs using chemical insecticide e.g organochlorin, organophosphate, carbamate, and pyrethroid (cypermethrin). When those insecticides were applied continuously, it may lead to vector resistance. The aim of this research was to detect any resistance of Ae. aegypti to cypermethrin in endemic areas of Cimahi. This research is a laboratory study that used biochemical test which referred to Lee’s method. Larva samples were collected from 8 villages, which are endemicarea. Samples of larvae were collected from 15 villages belonged to dengue endemic areas in town of Cimahi, however, villages that meet the availability of larvae were only 8 villages. To detect the activity of monooxygenase enzyme, a biochemical assay was used in this research by created a reaction between larvae homogenate and sodium acetate substrate. The results of reaction were read using ELISA reader with spectrophotometer wave length of 595 nm. Overall, the results showed that most of the larvae in eight villages of Cimahi is still susceptible to cypermethrin. However, larvae from Cibabat village were 4% resistant, 2% tolerant, and 94% susceptible. On the other hand, Cigugur village showed that 12.7% larvae were tolerant and 87.3% still susceptible. Other villages like Cimahi, Cibeureum, Melong, Baros, Cipageran, and Pasirkaliki still remains susceptible. Resistance detection using biochemical assay of cypermethrin insecticide for Ae.aegypti resulting data stated that in 6 villages were still susceptible but in 3 other villages were already tolerant and 1 village was already resistance.
Spirulina is seawater microalgae that have potential as natural source of iodine and contain of 94.5 ppm iodine. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of spirulina consumption on TSH and fT4 level at women of childbearing age in IDD (Iodine Deficiency Disorder) endemicarea, who at risk of hypothyroidism. This is a Randomized Control Trial (RCT), double-blind research. Subjects were women of childbearing age (18-40 years), with TSH levels 3 to 6.2 μIU /L, divided into 2 groups. The control group was given placebo and the treatment group were given spirulina, 1 g/day, for 3 months. Spirulina and placebo were capsulated in similar capsul. TSH and FT4 levels were analyzed by ELISA method from blood serum samples. Two cc of blood were taken from subject’s arm vein. The results showed that spirulina supplementation did not affect TSH levels (P > 0.05), but increasing thyroid hormone levels (fT4) higher than the control group (P < 0.05). Spirulina can be used as alternative source of iodine beside salt fortification to improve thyroid function.
Hampala bimaculata is an endemic species of Borneo, where it is a food fish, being popular sport fishing as well; however, little is known of the important aspects of its reproductive to assist with fisheries management planning. The objective of this study was to describe gonad development H. bimaculata macroscopically and microscopically. The fish samples were collected from February to October 2013 and the collection continued from July to November 2014 by using gill nets and anglings. Sampling sites in Betung Kerihun National Park included Embaloh and Sibau Watersheds. Analysis of macroscopic and histological observation showed that the testicles were classified into four stages: immature, maturing, mature and spent. The ovaries were classified into five stages: immature or resting, maturing, mature, ripe, and spawned-recovering. Histological observation revealed that the fish is an iteroparous with a group- synchronous of ovarian development. The presence of different oocytes development sizes in the spawned-recovering stage and the polymodal distribution of oocyte diameter in the ripe stage might indicate H. bimaculata being a batch spawner.
Secara umum ruang terbuka publik (open spaces) di perkotaan terdiri dari ruang terbuka hijau dan ruang terbuka nonhijau.Ruang Terbuka Hijau (RTH) perkotaan adalah bagian dari ruang-ruang terbuka (open spaces) suatu wilayah perkotaan yang diisi oleh tumbuhan, tanaman dan vegetasi (endemik maupun introduksi) guna mendukung manfaat ekologis, sosial-budaya dan arsitektural yang dapat memberikan manfaat ekonomi (kesejahteraan) bagi masyarakatnya. Sementara itu ruang terbuka non-hijau dapat berupa ruang terbuka yang diperkeras (paved) maupun ruang terbuka biru (RTB) yang berupa permukaan sungai, danau, maupun areal-areal yang diperuntukkan khusus sebagai area genangan atau retensi (retention basin).
This study focuses on managing the spreading of diseases in Semarang city by designing web based-Geographical Information System. The system that identifies the endemic and variant diseases will help the health department to react at the time endemic disease spreading extensively. On the other hand, it will recognize diseases spreading pattern in specific area. By viewing the location of the spreading, they can isolate the continuity of the endemic diseases. Therefore, the health department will have a quick reaction in order to prevent the diseases become widely. The manual method that has been used at this time is ineffective, comparing with the new online information system that will increase efficiency in reporting system. Finally, This Geographic Information System will increase the quality of healthcare management.
A new species of endemic Cnemaspis is described from Gunung Jerai (also known as Kedah Peak) in the northwestern state of Kedah, Peninsular Malaysia. Cnemaspis harimau sp. nov. differs from all other Sundaland congeners except C. affinis, C. biocellata, C. kumpoli, C. mcguirei, C. pseudomcguirei, and C. shahruli in having a black shoulder patch with a white or yellow ocellus anteriorly located. It is most similar in appearance to its sister species, C. affinis, but differs by having a smaller maximum SVL of 40.7 mm vs. 50.8 mm; three vs. five postmentals; caudal tubercles encircling vs. not encircling tail; lateral caudal tubercles on anterior 25% of tail highly spinose and protruding vs. slightly spinose; and an overall higher degree of scale keeling (most prominent on the tail). The discovery of another montane endemic once again highlights the understudied nature of Peninsular Malaysia’s extensive mountain ranges.
Segala puji dan syukur penulis panjatkan ke hadirat Tuhan Yang Maha Esa, Allah SWT, yang telah melimpahkan berkat, rahmat atas hidayah dan inayah-Nya, sehingga penulis dapat menyelesaikan skripsi yang berjudul “PEMBANGUNAN GAME ENDEMIC INDONESIA ISLAND ”. Tak lupa shalawat serta salam semoga selalu tercurah kepada Baginda Rasullullah SAW, kepada para sahabatnya, dan kepada para umatnya hingga akhir jaman.
diperoleh kerangka sampling. Kemudian dengan menggunakan daftar random diperoleh sampel yang diinginkan. Untuk memperkecil area akan dilakukan pemilihan desa yang menurut pertimbangan petugas kesehatan/gizi setempat mengetahui riwayat endemisitas desa ybs. Kemudian desa tersebut dikonfirmasi dengan kemungkinan masih didapatkan monumen hidup atau tanda-tanda defisiensi iodium. Hal ini dilakukan untuk mempertajam daerah sasaran.
The global high prevalence of Tuberculosis must be a concern, especially in Indonesia. The cases of Tuberculosis in Indonesia increase, but the Case Notification Rate (CNR) during 2011 to 2014 was stagnant due to the lack of public knowledge about tuberculosis. The behavioral changes of people with tuberculosis include depression as the result of long-term medication consumption, increased distance within family relationships and friendship, as well as difficulty in socialization due to the effect of the high disease transmission risk. As the consequences, people with tuberculosis experience low self-esteem resulting in the demotivation for consuming medicines and the decreased role both within the family and the community. The author initiates an idea to use an eudaimonic approach: Cafeku (Care for Endemic Tuberculosis) for tuberculosis patients. The rehabilitation means to exert influence through the mechanism of the search for meaning of life, individual behavior and social adjustment. The result of the eudaimonic approach can be a positive feeling, which can affect negatively to stress that occurs in people with tuberculosis. Stress and ANS-HPA have an inversely relationship. As the stress decreases, ANS and HPA increase, which supports the immune system in the body of patients with tuberculosis. The establishment of CAFEKU requires the active role of the health professionals in hospitals as well as in Government’s policy.