A design of an English objective-reading test for Junior High School students.

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f o t n e m ll if l u F l a it r a P s a d e t n e s e r

P et h Requ riements o

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M A R G O R P Y D U T S N O I T A C U D E E G A U G N A L H S I L G N E

T R A P E

D MENTOFLANGUAGEANDARTSEDUCATION N O I T A C U D E D N A G N I N I A R T S R E H C A E T F O Y T L U C A F

Y T I S R E V I N U A M R A H D A T A N A S

A T R A K A Y G O Y

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f o t n e m ll if l u F l a it r a P s a d e t n e s e r

P et h Requ riements o

t Obtaint heSarjanaPendidikanDegree n o it a c u d E e g a u g n a L h s il g n E n i

y B

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M A R G O R P Y D U T S N O I T A C U D E E G A U G N A L H S I L G N E

T R A P E

D MENTOFLANGUAGEANDARTSEDUCATION N O I T A C U D E D N A G N I N I A R T S R E H C A E T F O Y T L U C A F

Y T I S R E V I N U A M R A H D A T A N A S

A T R A K A Y G O Y

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d n a s n o it a t o u q e h t n i d e ti c e s o h t t p e c x e , e l p o e p r e h t o f o k r o w e h t f o s tr a p r o

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i x

T N E T N O C F O E L B A

T S

e g a P .. .. . … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … E G A P E L T I

T i

S E G A P L A V O R P P

A ………. ii ..

… … … … … … … … … … … Y T I L A N I G I R O S ’ K R O W F O T N E M E T A T

S v

I S A K I L B U P N A U J U T E S R E P N A A T A Y N R E P R A B M E

L ………... v i

.. . … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … T C A R T S B

A v ii

K A R T S B

A ………... vi ii S

T N E M E G D E L W O N K C

A ………... ix ..

. … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … S T N E T N O C F O E L B A

T x i

. … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … S E L B A T F O T S I

L x iii

.. . … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … S E R U G I F F O T S I

L x iv

… … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … S E C I D N E P P A F O T S I

L x v

N O I T C U D O R T N I .I R E T P A H C

.

A ResearchBackground……….. .

B ProblemFormulaiton………... .

C ProblemLimtiaiton……….. .

D ResearchObjecitve s……… .

E ResearchBenefti s……… .

F Deifniitono fTerm s……….

1 4 4 5 5 5 E

R U T A R E T I L D E T A L E R F O W E I V E R . I I R E T P A H C

.

A Theoreitca lDesc irp iton……… .

1 Tesitngi nLanguageTeaching. ... .

2 Crtieirono faGoodTes t...……… .

3 ObjecitveTest. ...……… .

4 TesitngReading ... .

5 Tes tDevelopmen t... .

6 Mate ira lAdaptaiton s... .

B Theoreitca lFramework………

9 9 0 1

7 1

9 1

0 2

5 2

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ii x H

C R A E S E R . I I I R E T P A H

C METHODOLOGY .

A ResearchMethod………. .

B ResearchParitcipant s………... .

C Insrtument sandDataGatheirngTechnique……… .

D DataAnalysi s…………..………. .

E ResearchProcedure……….. 8 2

6 3

7 3

8 3

9 3 R

E T P A H

C IV .RESEARCHRESULTS ANDDISCUSSION .

A T he Proces s o f Designing an Engilsh Objecitve- .t

s e T g n i d a e

R ... .

1 ResearchandI nformaitonCollecitng ... .

2 Planning. ... .

3 DevelopingPreilminaryFormo fProduct. ... .

4 PreilminaryFieldTesitng ... .

5 MainProduc tRevision ... .

B ThePresentaiton o fEngilsh Objecitve-ReadingTestf o r .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. … s t n e d u t S l o o h c S h g i H r o i n u J

1 4 14 4 4

6 4

7 4

8 6

2 7 S

N O I T A D N E M M O C E R D N A S N O I S U L C N O C . V R E T P A H C

.

A Conclusion s……….. .

B Recommendaiton s……… 3 7

5 7 S

E C N E R E F E

R ……….. 7 7 ..

. … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … S E C I D N E P P

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ii i x

S E L B A T F O T S I L

1 . 2 e l b a

T Method so fEsitmaitngReilablitiy. ... 15

1 . 4 e l b a

T DesignStatemen t... 43

2 . 4 e l b a

T Tes tBluep irn t... 45

3 . 4 e l b a

T QuesitonnarieResutl. ... 47 ....

4 . 4 e l b a

T Grammaitca lMistake sonText s... 52

5 . 4 e l b a

T GrammarI nconsistencybetweenQuesiton sandChoices. .. 54

6 . 4 e l b a

T DicitonProblem sFoundi nt heText s... 56

Table4 .7 Mistypingi nTes t1Texts. ... 57

8 . 4 e l b a

T Mistypingi nTes t1Quesitons / tIem s... 58

9 . 4 e l b a

T Mistypingi nTes t2Texts. ... 58

0 1 . 4 e l b a

T Mistypingi nTes t2Quesiton s... 59

1 1 . 4 e l b a

T tIemFaclitiyi nTes t1andTes t2. ... 06

2 1 . 4 e l b a

T tIemDisc irminaitoni nTes t1andTest2. ... 62

3 1 . 4 e l b a

T SecondRevisiononTes t1Basedon tIemDiscirminaiton .... 64

4 1 . 4 e l b a

T SecondRevisiononTes t2Basedon tIemDiscirminaiton. ..65

5 1 . 4 e l b a

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E R U G I F F O T S I

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F 12 . Tes tDevelopmen tStage s... 12 1

. 3 e r u g i

F TheCombinaitono fR&DMode land

.. … … … … … … … … … … … … s e g a t S t n e m p o l e v e D t s e

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v x

S E C I D N E P P A F O T S I L

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. r e tt e L n o i s s i m r e P : 1 x i d n e p p

A .. 79 ..

w e i v r e t n I : 2 x i d n e p p

A Resutl . ... ... 8 0

s u b a ll y S : 3 x i d n e p p

A ... 82 ..

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . e ri a n n o it s e u Q : 4 x i d n e p p

A ... 9 0 ..

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. x ir t a M t s e T : 5 x i d n e p p

A ... 93

1 t s e T : 6 x i d n e p p

A ... 96 Appendix7 :Tes t2 ... 1 3 0

x i d n e p p

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s i h t f o r e tt a m t c e j b u s e h t o t d e t a l e r n o it a m r o f n i c i s a b s e d i v o r p r e t p a h c s i h T

e r e h T . y d u t

s are ifve patr so fthi schapter, namely the research background ,

research problem ,problem limtiaiton ,research objecitves ,research beneftis and

de ifniitono fterms .

.

A ResearchBackground

. t n a tr o p m i s i a r e s i h t n i h s il g n E g n ir e t s a

M A s we know ,nowaday sal l

e l p o e p n i s t c e p s

a ’ s daliy lfie are using Engilsh .Adveritsements ,computer sand

s e n o h p l l e

c are some examples on the use o fEngilsh in people’ sdaliy lfie .

e , e r o f e r e h

T ducaitona l ifeldworkshardt ogiveagoodserviceo frtainingstudent s

,s t c e p s a s ti f o l l a h g u o r h T . h s il g n E n r a e l o

t et h educaiton ha sto suppor tthe

s t n e d u t

s tol earnEngilshi nalls kills , eilst ning,s peaking,r eadingandw iritng.

n r a e l f o s ll i k s r u o f g n o m

A ing Engilsh , reading ha s a big use . To

li a m e , s r e tt e l , s t n e m e s it r e v d a f o m r o f e h t n i s t x e t h s il g n E d n a t s r e d n

u s o reven

s i s e g a s s e m t r o h

s neededt osurvivei n t hi sera ,otherwiset heywli lbel ef tbehind .

i b a g n i d a e r f o r e w o p e h t g n i w o n

K ltiy, I ndonesian educaiton rtains ti sstudents to

ll e w s t x e t h s il g n E d a e

r . I ti sprovedby t hewaythegovernmen tconducts naitona l

. n o it a n i m a x

e Thereareatl eas t11 r eading t extsi n every naitona lexaminaiton. I t

a s

i bigporitonamong othe rskills .Thus ,beingf amiila rand being ableto do t he

e r a t s e t g n i d a e

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o

T assessstudents’r eadings k li lisi mpo tranttoi mprovet herir eadings kill .

. t n e m s s e s s a e t a ir p o r p p a n a h ti w m e h t g n it a ti li c a f y b e n o d e b n a c t

I According t o

( n w o r

B 2004) , an assessmen t i s needed to measure o r evaluate students ’

e c n a m r o f r e

p atfero rdu irng joining a ce train l esson o rteaching l earning process

4 . p p

( - )5 .Assessment scan also be used to check students ’understanding in a

c i p o t r o n o s s e l n i a tr e

c .The assessmen tmay be conducted du irng t hel esson ,fo r

n o it s e u q s ’ r e h c a e t r e w s n a o t e v a h s t n e d u t s n e h w e c n a t s n

i s o rwhent heyperforma

t f o t n o r f n i n o it c a n i a tr e

c heclass. Besides ,an assessmen tcanalso beconducted

. e s r u o c n i a tr e c a f o d n e e h t t a

, n o it i d d a n

I Brown (2004 )statest ha ta tt es i sone way t o asses sstudents ’

t n e m e v e i h c

a (p.4) .I tmean stha ta test can also be used to measure students ’

t n e m e v e i h c

a . By conducitngat est ,at eache rcan hold t he assessing proces sand

. tl u s e r g n i n r a e l ’ s t n e d u t s e r u s a e

m Besides ,at estalsoprovidesf eedbacks b rothfo

r e h c a e t e h

t s da n students .Inaddiiton , mfro ther esul to fat est,t eacher swli lknow

f o t l u s e r e h

t teachingl earningproces sandwha tneeds tobei mproved.

e c n i

S a t esti ssigniifcan ti n teaching l earning process , tii si mpo tran tfo r

s t n e d u t s r i e h t r o f t s e t d o o g a n g i s e d d n a n a l p o t s r e h c a e

t (Brown ,2004 ,p.4). A

m o t l o o t l u f r e w o p a s i t s e t d o o

g easure students ’achivement. Du irng teaching

r e tt e b m r o fr e p o t s r e h c a e t e h t o s l a d n a s t n e d u t s s p l e h t s e t d o o g a , s s e c o r p g n i n r a e l

d o h t e m g n i n r a e l d n a g n i h c a e t h t o b n i t n e m e v o r p m i n a e k a m n e v

e s .Fo rexample ,

e c n a h c e d i v o r p l li w g n i n e t s il n o t s e t e v it c e j b o d o o g

a s fo rthe student sto pay

t

aten iton t o how t heyt akenotes . A good objecitvet es ton r eading help sstudent s

.s t x e t h s il g n E f o s d n i k s u o ir a v g n i z y l a n a e c it c a r p o

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.

B ProblemFormula iton

s s i h

T tudywould ilket oaddresst woquesitons.

.

1 Howi st heproces so fdesigni nganEngilshobjecitve- readingt estf o rjunio r

highs choolstudents?

.

2 Wha tdoest heEngilshobjecitve- readingt estf orj unio rhighs chools tudent s

e k il k o o

l ?

.

C ProblemLimtia iton

r e h c r a e s e r e h

T ilmtied the scope o fthi sstudy in designing an objecitve

tI . ir a s o n o W n i l o o h c S h g i H r o i n u J r o f t s e t g n i d a e

r i son t hesecond semeste ro f

t h g i

e grade.Eigh tgrades tudent sarechosensincei nt hi sitmet hestudent shavet o

o t s e v l e s m e h t e r a p e r

p bef amiila rwtihr eadingt est .Therefore,i n theninth grade ,

y e h

t a rereadyf o rprepairngt henaitona lexaminaiton .

e t g n i d a e r f o n o i s r e v t s ri f g n i n g i s e d r e tf

A s,tt her esearche rwli levaluate the

n o s e s u c o f r e h c r a e s e r e h t , y ti d il a v e h t r o F . y ti li b a il e r d n a y ti d il a v f o s t c e p s

a the

t s n o c , y ti d il a v t n e t n o c , y ti d il a v e c a

f ruc tvaildtiy .Beside ,s ther esearche rwli lalso

t a m it s e y b t s e t e h t f o y ti li b a il e r e h t y fi t n e d

i ing them using crtieira affected

y ti li b a il e

r measuremen to facetraint est .

.

D ResearchObjecitves

e h

T re are two objecitve so fthi sstudy .The f tri s objecitve i sto descirbe

w o

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o t s i d n o c e s e h T . ll i k s g n i d a e r g n i c it c a r p d n a g n i n r a e l r e tf a t n e m e v e i h c

a designan

h s il g n

E objecitve- reading tes tbased on the step sdeifned through the study o f

. t s e t d o o g a f o a ir e ti r c e h t o s l a d n a t s e t a g n i n g i s e d

.

E ResearchBeneftis

Thi sstudy offersbeneftisf ort eacher sand students .Fort het eachers ,they

n g i s e d e b d l u o h s t s e t a w o h f o e r a w a e b l li

w ed .Besides ,the teachers wli lalso

g n i d a e r a n g i s e d o t e r a p e r p d n a t s e t g n i d a e r d o o g a f o s t n e m e ri u q e r e h t d n a t s r e d n u

, e c n e H . ll e w t s e

t a well- designed reading tes twli lshow the resul to fstudents ’

. t n e m e v e i h c

a The resul to fthe test provide sinformaiton o fwha tthe teachers

, t s e t e h t r e tf a o d d l u o h

s inordert or eachbetterr esutli nt henextt eachingl earning

. s s e c o r p

Fo rthe students ,thi sstudy provide sfeedbacks rf o thei rperformance o r

y B . tl u s e

r havingavaildandr eilablet es,tt herir eadings kli lachievemen tcan rtuly

. d e r u s a e m e

b Therefore ,student sare given chance to improve thei rqualtiy o f

. ll i k s g n i d a e r

.

F Deifni itono fTerms

e r e h

T ares omet erm swhicht hei rdeifniiton sneedtobeexplainedi norde r

u s r e d a e r e h t p l e h o

t nderstandt hiss tudy.Eacht ermi sexplainedasf ollows .

.

1 Tes tDevelopment

Tes tdevelopmen ta sstated by Bachman and Palmer( 1997 )i sunderstood

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y l e m a n , s e g a t

s design ,operaitonailzaiton and adminisrtaiton (p .93) .Moreove,r

e t a t s r e m l a P d n a n a m h c a

B tt ha thedesigni nclude ssevera lcomponent ssuch a sa

e

d scirp itonoft hepurposeoft het es,t a descirpitonoft argetl anguageuseandt ask

, s e p y

t adescirpiton oft estt akers ,adescirpitonoft heconsrtuctt obemeasured ,a

n a l

p o fconsrtuc tto be measured and an inventory o frequried and avaliable

s e c r u o s e

r andaplanf ort he itmeallocaitonandmanagement( p .88) .

.

2 ObjecitveReadingT est

o t g n i d r o c c

A Brown’ s(2004) , a tes ti sa method ro an insrtument fo

g n ir u s a e

m aperson’ sablitiy ,knowledgeor performancei nagivendomain(p .3).

, s u h

T ar eadingt es ti sthet estwhich isi ntended t omeasureperson’ spro ifciency

y ti li b a g n i d a e r f o e c n a m r o fr e p r

o .

An objecitve tes t i s a kind o f tes t which the answer s are objecitve.

o t g n i d r o c c

A Hughes( 1989) , anobjecitvet esti sat es twhosesco irngsystems od

t o

n requrieanything(p.19). I tmeanst ha tanobjecitvet es tha sanaccurateanswe r

. m e t s y s g n ir o c s e v it c e j b o d n a y e

k Thesubjecitvtiy oft hescore rshould no texis t

. t s e t e v it c e j b o n i

e s u r e h c r a e s e r e h t , g n i d a e r g n it s e t r o f t s e t e v it c e j b o n a e k a m o

T s the macro

t o n o d h c i h w s ll i k s e h t s e s o o h c r e h c r a e s e r e h T . g n i d a e r f o s ll i k s o r c i m d n a

i y l e m a n , y ti v it c e j b u s s r e r o c s e h t o s l a d n a s r e k a t t s e t e h t e v l o v n

i dentfiying

,s n u o n o r p f o t n e r e f e

r using contex tto gues s meaning s o funfamiila rwords ,

scanning t extto l ocatespeciifci nformaiton and skimming t ext t o obtain t hegist

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.

3 Reilablitiy

. t c e p s a t n a tr o p m i n a s i y ti li b a il e r , y d u t s s i h t n

I Reilablitiy i s one

. t s e t d o o g a f o t n e m e ri u q e

r A t es thas t o bereilablemeans t ha ta t es thas t o be

d l u o h s t s e t e h t , y a w e l p m i s a n I . e l b a d n e p e d d n a t n e t s i s n o

c have simlia rresutls

s n o i s a c c o t n e r e f fi d n i d e t c u d n o c s i t i n e h w n e v

e (Brown , 2004 , p.21) .

s r e f e r y ti li b a il e r t a h t s e t a t s r e ll i M , e r o m r e h tr u

F tot heconsistencyo fmeasuremen t

. ) 7 0 1 . p , 9 0 0 2

( To an itcipate o resitmate how reilable a cetrain test si ,a tes t

r e f e r y a m r e n g i s e

d to the numbe ro ftasks ,the spread o fscore and also the

t s e t e h t f o y ti v it c e j b

o .

.

4 Vaildtiy

r e h t o n

A requriemen to fa good t esti s t hevaildtiy of t he t est .Gronlund a s

t n e t x e e h t “ s i y ti d il a v t a h t s e t a t s ) 4 0 0 2 ( n w o r B y b d e ti

c to whichi nference smade

tl u s e r t n e m s s e s s a m o r

f sare approp irate ,meaningfu land usefu lin term so fthe

n e m s s e s s a e h t f o s e s o p r u

p t”(p.22) .I tmeanst hatt he tiem so facetraint es thave to

r u s a e m n i e v it c e f f e e

b i ng a ce train i ndicator .Beside ,s t he t est i svaild when t he

. y l s u o i v e r p d e t a t s s r o t a c i d n i e h t e r u s a e m o t e l b a ti u s r o e t a ir p o r p p a e r a s m e ti

.

5 JuniorHighSchools tudents

r e h

T esearche rfocuse s he rstudy on junio rhigh schoo lstudents .SMP

o t d e d e e n s i t s e t e h t n e h w s r e k a t t s e t e h t s a n e s o h c e r a s t n e d u t s i r a s o n o W i r k p o B

w e n a t o n s i ti d n a i r a s o n o W n i s l o o h c s h g i h r o i n u j f o e n o s i l o o h c s s i h T . d e t s e t e b

c x i s e r a e r e h T . l o o h c

s lassesi nt hi sschool ,seventh ,eighth andfou trhgradewtih

(26)

j e h

T unio rhighschoo lhasr equried Engilsh asoneoft hesubjectst estedi n

naitona lexaminaiton .Hence ,sincet heseventh grade,j unio rhigh schoo lstudent s

a t o n s i h s il g n E t a h t s n a e m t I . y ti v it c a g n i n r a e l g n i h c a e t ri e h t n i h s il g n E d a h e v a h

(27)

9 I I R E T P A H C

E R U T A R E T I L D E T A L E R F O W E I V E R

r e t p a h c s i h

T provide stheo ire srelated to the subjec tmatte ro fthi sstudy .

n o it p ir c s e d l a c it e r o e h t , y l e m a n r e t p a h c s i h t f o s tr a p r o j a m o w t e r a e r e h T

d u t s ’ s r e h t o f o g n i n i a t n o

c i esandr esearchandt heoreitcalframeworkcontainingo f

. n o it p ir c s e d l a c it e r o e h t e h t o t d e t a l e r s i r e tt a m t c e j b u s e h t w o h

.

A Theoreitca lDescrip iton .

1 Tesitngi nLanguageTeaching , g n i h c a e t e g a u g n a l n

I at est ha san i mpo tran trole. tI srole a sasubse to f

t i s e k a m s s e c o r p t n e m s s e s s

a signi ifcan.tAccordingt oBrown( 2004) ,atesti sone

a s i tI . t n e m e v e i h c a ’ s t n e d u t s s s e s s a o t y a

w method or na insrtumen to fmeasu irng

e l p m i s a n I .) 3 . p ( n i a m o d n e v i g a n i e c n a m r o f r e p r o e g d e l w o n k , y ti li b a s ’ n o s r e p a

s r e h c a e t e h t y b d e s u s i t s e t a , d r o

w tocheckandmeasuret heris tudents ’ablitiy .

, r e v o e r o

M Carrolla sctiedbyBachmanandPalmer( 1997)s tatest ha tat es t

s

i “a psychologica lo reducaitona ltes ti sa procedure designed to eilci tce train

e c t u o b a s e c n e r e f n i e k a m n a c e n o h c i h w m o r f r o i v a h e

b train characteirsitc so fan

) 2 2 . p ( l a u d i v i d n

i ” .Here ,a tes ti san acitvtiy which i sdesigned to be used fo r

n e e b e v a h h c i h w s t n e d u t s e h t f o s c it s ir e t c a r a h c n i a tr e c g n i y fi t n e d i d n a g n i w o n k

. y l s u o i v e r p d e n if e d

o t g n i d r o c c

A Bachman and Palme r(1997) ,a test si needed f or severa l

.s e c n a tr o p m

(28)

. s s e c o r p g n i n r a e l ’ s t n e d u t s f

o A tes tno tonly gives the students feedback sand

n o it a m r o f n

i ,a test also gives the teacher sfeedbacks on the proces so fteaching

f o e c n a tr o p m i r e h t O . g n i n r a e

l at estin l anguaget eaching i st ha tatesti n lfuences

e h t s w o ll a t s e t e h t f o t l u s e r e h T . s t n e d u t s r i e h t t u o b a s n o i s i c e d g n i k a m n i s r e h c a e t

r e h c a e

t s to know the performance o f theri students , whethe r a studen t has

t o n r o l l e w d e m r o f r e

p (p.8).

.

2 Crtieriono fAGoodTest

e m o s l li fl u f d l u o h s s m e ti t s e t f o t e s a , t s e t d o o g a e b o t r e d r o n I

s t n e m e ri u q e

r ,namely,

.

a Prac itcaltiy n w o r

B (2004 )statest ha ta pracitcalt es ti sthet estwhichi sno texcessively

e v i s n e p x

e and i tstay swtihin approp irate itme consrtaints .Besides ,the test si

d e r e t s i n i m d a e b o t y s a e y l e v it a l e

r .I tmeanst hatt het es tha sspeciifcand accurate

e r u d e c o r p n o it a u l a v e r o m e t s y s g n ir o c

s (p.19) .

.

b Vaildtiy

t o n r o r e h t e h w o t s r e f e r y ti d il a v m r e t e h

T a tes tmeasure swhati tclaimst o

e r u s a e

m (Brown ,2004 ,p .19 .) In addiiton ,Gronlund a sctied by Brown (2004 )

t n e m s s e s s a m o r f e d a m s e c n e r e f n i h c i h w o t t n e t x e e h t “ s i y ti d il a v t a h t s n i a l p x e

e h t f o e s o p r u p e h t f o s m r e t n i l u f e s u d n a l u f g n i n a e m , e t a ir p o r p p a e r a t l u s e r

, s d r o w e l p m i s n I ” .) 2 2 . p ( t n e m s s e s s

a thevaildtiydeal swtihwhethert het es tmeet s

(29)
(30)

n o it a v it o m ’ s t n e d u t s n o t n e m s s e s s a n i a tr e c a f o s t c e f f e e h t r e d i s n o c o t t n a tr o p m i

.) 6 2 . p (

)

4 FaceVa ildtiy

e h t o t s r e f e r y ti d il a v e c a

F presentaiton o rappearance o fthe tes t tiems .

,r e v o e r o

M Mousavia sctiedbyBrown( 2003 )explainst hatf acevaild tiyi sclosely

h ti w d e t a l e r

e h t

“ degreet o whichat estl ook s irght ,appearst omeasuret heknowledge e h t f o t n e m g d u j e v it c e j b u s n o d e s a b , e r u s a e m o t s m i a l c t i s e it il i b a r o

e s u s ti n o e d i c e d o h w l e n n o s r e p e v it a rt s i n i m d a e h t ,t i e k a t o h w s e e n i m a x e

d e t a c it s i h p o s y ll a c ir t e m o h c y s p r e h t o d n

a observers(p.26). ”

i , n o it a n a l p x e e h t n o d e s a

B t mean stha tface vaildtiy i susually checked o r

. s tr e p x e r e h t o d n a s r e k a t t s e t h t o b , t n e m g d u j s ’ e l p o e p h g u o r h t d e t a u l a v e

d e r e d i s n o c e b o t s m e ti t s e t r o f s r o t a c i d n i l a r e v e s s e t a t s n w o r B , r e h tr u F

m r e t n i d il a

v s off acevaildtiy .Thesearet he ilst sofi ndicator so fat es twtih high

. y ti d il a v e c a f

)

a a w - ell consrtuctedexpectedf orma twtihf amiilart ask ,s

)

b a testt hati sclea lrydoablewtihint heallotted itme ilmi,t

)

c itemst ha tareclea randuncomp ilcated,

)

d driecitonst ha tarecrysta lclea,r

)

e taskst ha tarer elatet ot hei rcoursework( conten tvaildtiy) ,and

)

f a dfiifcutlyl evelt ha tpresent sar easonablechallenge.

)

(31)
(32)
(33)
(34)
(35)
(36)

r u o f r e d i s n o c o t s a h r e n g i s e d t s e t a , t s e t e c i o h c e l p it l u m a t c u rt s n o c o T

n a d n u l n o r G y b d e t a t s s e n il e d i u

g d Brown in Brown (2004) .These are the fou r

. s e n il e d i u g

.

a Designeach tiemt omeasures peci ifcobjecitves .

c if i c e p s e v a h d l u o h s t s e t e h t f o m e ti y r e v e t a h t g n i n a e m s a h t n i o p s i h T

f o n o i s n e h e r p m o c e r u s a e m o t e v it c e j b o s a h m e ti n i a tr e c a , e l p m a x e r o F . e v it c e j b o

g n i y fi t n e d

i themes .Thequesiton and ti schoicesi ncluding t hedisrtactor sshould

e v it c e j b o e h t r e v o

c (Brown ,2004 ,p.56) .

.

b State both stem and op iton sor distractor sa ssimply and direclty a s .

e l b i s s o

p

. e l p m i s d n a r a e l c m e ti e h t p e e k o t s i t n i o p s i h t f o m i a e h

T tI i sgood t o

n o it s e u q e h t p e e

k s and choicest o ge tdriecltyt ot hepoint .Bydoingso,t he tiems

s e c i o h c d n

a wli lbeunderstandable(Brown ,2004 ,p.57).I naddiiton ,ambigutiyo f

. d e d i o v a e b l li w e c n e t n e s a

.

c Makecertaint hatt hei ntendedansweri sclearlyt heonlycorrec tone. e

l p it l u m s

A choice test i sone type o fobjecitve tests ,i ti simpo trant to

m e ti y r e v e r o f r e w s n a e n o y l n o s i e r e h t t a h t e r u s e k a

m (Brown ,2004 ,p.58). I fa

. e v it c e j b o d e r e d i s n o c e b t o n n a c m e ti e h t ,r e w s n a e n o n a h t e r o m s a h m e ti t s e t

.

d Use tiemi ndicest oaccept ,discardorrevise tiem .s r

u s e k a m o t s i t n i o p s i h t f o g n i n a e m e h

T e whethert he tiemsareselected

r r a d n

a anged approp irately. I ti salso impo tran tto identfiy whethe rthe test s

y lt n e i c if f

e measu irng the objecitves .T his can be done by identfiying the tiem

h c a e f o y c n e i c if f e r o t c a rt s i d o s l a d n a y tl u c if fi d m e ti , y ti li c a

(37)

.

4 Tesitngreading

o d a L , li a t e d n I . h s il g n E g n i n r a e l n i s ll i k s d e ri u q e r f o e n o s i g n i d a e R

) 1 6 9 1

( alsos tatest hatr eadinga soneofs killsi nl anguagei sar ecep itveprocess in

n o s r e d n A , s e d i s e B . ) 3 2 2 . p ( m r o f n e tt ir w m o r f e g a u g n a l p s a r g s r e d a e r e h t h c i h w

.) 5 . p ( s t c u d o r p e h t g n i d n a t s r e d n u f o s s e c o r p t u o b a s i g n i d a e r t a h t s n i a l p x e ) 0 0 0 2 (

g n i s s e s s A . d e s s e s s a o s l a s i g n i d a e r , e g a u g n a l g n i n r a e l n i s ll i k s f o t r a p a s A

y b g n i d a e

r tesitngi sacommonway .Therefore,t herearesevera lskill sconsidered

when reading i sbeing tested . A lo to feducaitona lexpetr shave de ifned some

ll i k

s sassessed in testing reading .One o fthe expe tr si sHughes , he state stwo

g n i d a e

r skills ,macro and micro skills .These two skill sare basic skill swhich

. e s i c r e c x e g n i d a e r n i d e s u n e e b y ll a u s

u Theyareexplainedasf o llow .s

.

a MicroSkill sandMacros kills Ro f eading(Hughes ,1989) )

1 Micros kill so freading )

a Identfiying referen to fpronouns .Here ,the tes ttaker sare expected to

.t x e t n i a tr e c a n i n u o n o r p f o t n e r e f e r y fi t n e d i

)

b Using context t o gues smeaning so funfamiila rwords . tI i susually found

n a f o g n i n a e m l a u t x e t n o c s s e u g o t e v a h s r e k a t t s e t e h t h c i h w n i t x e t a n i

. d r o w r a il i m a f n u

)

c Understandingr elaiton sbetweenpatr soft het ex tbyr ecognizingi ndicator s

d n a n o it i s n a rt , t n e m p o l e v e d , n o it c u d o rt n i e h t r o f y ll a i c e p s e , e s r u o c s i d n i

(38)

)

2 Macros kill so freading )

a Scanning t ext to l ocatespeciifci nformaiton ,meaning t hat t est t aker sare

.t x e t n i a tr e c a f o n o it a m r o f n i c if i c e p s d n if o t d e t c e p x e

)

b Skimming tex tto obtain the g ist o rmain topic .Thi sskli li sintended to

m e ti e h T . t x e t a f o a e d i r o c i p o t n i a m e h t g n i y fi t n e d i n i y ti li b a ’ s t n e d u t s e r u s a e m

t u o b a y ll a u s u s

i thet hemeo facetraint e xt .

)

c Identfiyings tage so fanargument.I ns impleword ,st hiss killi si ntendedt o

. s t x e t f o n o it a z i n a g r o e h t g n i y fi t n e d i n i y ti li b a ’ s t n e d u t s e r u s a e m

)

d Identfiying example spresented in suppor to fan argument . Thi sskli li s

e d i n i s t n e d u t s w o ll a o t d e m i

a ntfiying speciifcexample sori nformaiton obtained

. t x e t n i a tr e c a m o r f

.

5 Tes tDevelopment t

A es ta sa par twhich canno tbe separated from et h teaching learning

. t n a tr o p m i s i s s e c o r

p A sstated i nt hepreviou schapter , tii snecessary t o designa

t s e t d o o

g which i susefu lfo rboth t het eachers and t he students .T shati why ,in

, t s e t e h t g n i n g i s e

d thet es tdesigne rhas topayatteniton t o theprocedureorstages

e d f

o signingatest .

) 7 8 . p , 7 9 9 1 ( n a m h c a

B propose s a mode lo fdeveloping a tes twhich

t s i s n o

c s o f three main stages . They are design , operaitonailzaiton and

it c a e m o s s a h e g a t s y r e v E . n o it a rt s i n i m d

a viitesand each acitvtiycome supwtiha

d e n i a l p x e e r a s tl u s e r d n a s e it i v it c a s ti g n i d u l c n i e g a t s y r e v E . t c u d o r

p through t he

(39)
(40)

.

a Stage1 :Design

h c i h w n i p e t s a s i e g a t s n g i s e

D a tes tdesigner “descirbes in detai lthe

n o e c n a m r o f r e p t a h t e r u s n e o t m e h t e l b a n e l li w t a h t n g i s e d t s e t e h t f o s t n e n o p m o c

a u g n a l o t e l b i s s o p s a y l e s o l c s a d n o p s e r r o c l li w s k s a t t s e t e h

t geuse ,and t hatt he

e t n i ri e h t r o f l u f e s u y ll a m i x a m e b l li w s e r o c s t s e

t nded purpose”( Bachman ,1997 ,

. ) 6 8 .

p Thiss tager equriest es tdesignerst odothef ollowingacitviites .

)

1 Describingt hepurposeoft het ask

Thi sacitvtiy i sthe basi so fnex tstages .Here ,a tes tdesigne rha sto

l a o g e h t t u o b a r e d i s n o

c s o rpotenita leffect sexpectedt o beachieved atfert het est .

Moreover ,Bachman(1997 )say s“tii nvolve sclealrystaitngt hes peciifci nference s

f o s i s a b n o e k a m o t d n e t n i e w e s u e g a u g n a l r o f y ti c a p a c r o y ti li b a e g a u g n a l t u o b a

w h c i h w s n o i s i c e d c if i c e p s y n a d n a , s tl u s e r t s e

t i llbebasedupont hesei nferences”

) 8 8 . p

( . Thepurposeoft het estt ask should beclealrydeifnedand desc irbed ove r

. y ti v it c a s i h t

)

2 Identfiyinganddescribingt asksi nt het estl anguageuse

e h t s a s m e ti k s a t e h t f o n o it p ir c s e d l a r e n e g a e d i v o r p l li w y ti v it c a s i h T

. tl u s e

r Beside ,st hi sacitvtiyalsogive saclea rexplanaiton oft hecharacteirsitc so f

t n e m p o l e v e d t s e t l a u t c a e h t f o s i s a b e h t e m o c e b l li w h c i h w s e p y t k s a t e h t

n a m h c a B

( & Palmer ,1997 ,p .88) .

)

3 Describingt hecharacteris itc soft het estt akers

g n i d u l c n i , s r e k a t t s e t e h t f o e r u t a n e h t s n i a l p x e y lt i c il p x e y ti v it c a s i h T

l a it n e t o

p s and also t hecharacteirsitc soft he t estt aker ,s t o whom t he t es twli lbe

n a m h c a B ( d e n g i s e

(41)

e ri u q e

r s to look fo r a smany a s possible informaiton abou t the tes ttakers .

t c a p m i e v i g y ll a it n e t o p l li w t i , e r o f e r e h

T s tot hem.

)

4 De ifningt heconstructt obemeasured p e h t ti c il p x e s e k a m “ y ti v it c a s i h

T recise nature of t he ablitiy we wantt o

n a m h c a B ( ” y lt c a rt s b a g n i n if e d y b , e r u s a e

m & Palmer ,1997 ,p.89) .Moreover ,

. y ti v it c a s i h t f o t c u d o r p e h t s i n o it i n if e d l a c it e r o e h t a t a h t s e t a t s n a m h c a B

it s e v n i d n a g n ir e d i s n o c r o f s i s a b e h t s i n o it i n if e d l a c it e r o e h

T gaitng t he consrtuc t

s n o it a t e r p r e t n i e h t f o y ti d il a

v the tes tdesigner makes o ftes tscores .The tes t

r e n g i s e

d employs thi sacitvtiy by invesitgaitng theori es o flanguage ablitiy and

. n o it a c if i c e p s s u b a ll y s a o s l a

)

5 Developingaplanf orevalua itngt hequaliite so fusefulness it

c a n a s i n o it a u l a v e g n i n n a l

P vtiy in which the tes t designer p s lan

. s k c a b d e e f t c e ll o c o t s t n e m u rt s n

i According to Bachman (1997 ,p .89) ,thi s

e v it a ti l a u q d n a e v it a ti t n a u q h t o b , n o it a m r o f n i f o e g n a r a h ti w s l a e d y ti v it c

a . Fo r

t s e t l a u d i v i d n i d n a s e r o c s t s e t g n i s u n a l p y l n o m m o c s r e n g i s e d t s e t , e v it a ti t n a u q e h t

. s k s a

t Tocollectqualtiaitvefeedbacks,t het es tdesignerusuallyuses adescirpiton

fl e s l a b r e v , n o it a v r e s b o f

o - repor tfrom the student sand also from educaitona l

t g n i n n a l p d n a g n i d i c e D . s tr e p x

e he evaluaiton process ea r crucia lsince these

s e it i v it c

a wli lgiveclea rexplanaitonaboutt heactualt est .Theexplanaitonwli lbe

(42)

)

6 Identfiying resource sand developing a plan for their alloca iton and t

n e m e g a n a m

n a m u h s a h c u s s e c r u o s e r e h t ti c il p x e s e k a m y ti v it c a s i h

T s ,mateirals and

f o s s e c o r p e h t g n ir u d s e it i v it c a s u o ir a v r o f e l b a li a v a d n a d e ri u q e r e b l li w t a h t e m it

t n a tr o p m i n a o s l a s i tI . ) 9 8 . p , 7 9 9 1 , n a m h c a B ( t s e t e h t g n i p o l e v e d d n a g n i n g i s e d

e c n i s y ti v it c a r o p e t

s thet es tdesigner ah s toknowwel laboutt heparitcipant sand

s t n e m u rt s n i e h

t he o rshe wli luse du irng the process .Therefore ,they can also

.t n e m p o l e v e d t s e t e h t g n ir u d m e h t e t a c o ll a d n a e g a n a m

.

b Stage2 :Opera itonailza iton )

1 Developingt estt ask sandblueprint t , ) 7 9 9 1 ( n a m h c a B o t g n i d r o c c

A hi sacitvtiy allow sthe tes tdesigner to

p o l e v e

d at es tspeci ifcaiton and at es tbluep irnt .Thet es tspeciifcaiton provides a

s c it s ir e t c a r a h c k s a t t n a v e l e r e h t f o n o it p ir c s e d l i a t e

d andalsot hebasi so fwhatt he

r e n g i s e d t s e

t wli l wrtie in thei r actua l test . The test bluep irn t provide s an

n o it a n a l p x e d n a n o it a m r o f n

i abou tthe tes tsrtucture and overal lorganizaiton o f

, s e d i s e B . t s e t e h

t t hebluep irn talsodescirbe showt het es twli lbeconsrtuctedand

. ) 0 9 . p ( d e g n a r r a

)

2 Wriitngi nstrucitons a s i s n o it c u rt s n i g n it ir

W n impo tran tacitvtiys incet hi sacitvtiyr elfect show

w t s e t e h

t i ll be presented and administered .Fu trher ,Bachman (1997 )states t ha t

g n it ir

w theinsrtuciton acitvtiydescirbesf ullyt hesrtuctureoft het est .Besides,i t

f o e r u t a n e h t y lt i c il p x e s w o h s o s l

a thet es tandhowt het estt aker sareexpected t o

d n o p s e

(43)
(44)

)

d I f the mateiral s have dfiferen t learning objecitve s wtih the expected

.s e v it c e j b o

, e r o f e r e h T . n o it a t p a d a l a ir e t a m f o y a w t n e r e f fi d e v a h y a m n o s a e r h c a E

c i n h c e t e h T . s c i n h c e t e m o s e t a t s a r a h u s t a M d n a n o s n il m o

T s areactually used to

u

s ti themateiral swtih t hestiuaitonort henecesstiyoft heclas .s Thet echnic sare

o r e Z d n a s u n i M , s u l

P category .Each o fthem are descirbed a sthe following

. n o it a n a l p x e

)

a Plu scategory

n o i s n a p x e d n a y ti v it c a r o s t x e t n o it i d d a h g u o r h t d e t c u d n o c s i y r o g e t a c s u l P

h t p e d d n a y tl u c if fi d , t h g n e l e h

t o facetraint ex to racitvtiy .

)

b Minu scategory

n o it e l e d e h t h g u o r h t d e t c u d n o c s i y r o g e t a c s u n i

M some text so racitviites ,

n o it c a rt b u

s bydecreasingt henumbe ro fsentence s andr educitonbyr educing the

. s e it i v it c a r o s t x e t f o s r e b m u n r o y tl u c if fi d , t h g n e l

)

c Zerocategory t a c o r e z n

I egory ,the teacher s o rmate iral wrtiers do no tadd o r delete

g n i c n e u q e s e r , g n i z i n a g r o e r , g n i c a l p e r y b s l a ir e t a m e h t y fi d o m y e h t t u b , g n i h t y n a

g n i s r e v n o c r o d n

a theacitviite sors entences .

.

B Theoreitca lFramework n

o s i t s e t

A e acitvtiy conducted du irng o ratfer t eaching l earning proces s

o t s i m i a e s o h

w measu irng a person’ sablitiy ,knowledge o rperformance in a

( n i a m o d n e v i

(45)

t s e t d o o g a e d i v o r

p to measure students ’knowledge .A good tes tshould fuflli l

ir e ti r c e m o

s a ,namelypracitcaltiy ,vaild tiyandr eilablitiy .

n o it i d d a n

I ,eigh tgrader swho learn Engilsh, t hey aresupposed t o maste r

. d e t a u l a v e e b o t d e d e e n s i g n i d a e r n i y ti li b a d n a e g d e l w o n k r i e h T . ll i k s g n i d a e r

h c i h w t s e t f o d n i k y n A . e l o r t n a tr o p m i y r e v a s e k a t o s l a t s e t ,s u h

T i ssutiable i n

d l u o h s y ti li b a d n a e g d e l w o n k s r e d a r g t h g i e g n it a u l a v

e fulifllt hecrtieirao fagood

. t s e

t The t es thast o be vaild and reilable .Theva tild t es heremeanst hatt het es t

a h w s e r u s a e

m ti si ntended t o measure ,whliereilabletesti sclosely r elated t o et h

h t f o n o it a m it s

e e consistency o fa cetrain test .I tcan be achieved by presenitng

s t c e p s a l a r e v e

s orf actor saffecitngt e streilablitiy .

o

T design an objecitve reading tes t fo r eigh tgraders , the researche r

s r e d i s n o

c whatt ot esti nr eadingskillfo reigh tgraders .Int hi scase,t her esearche r

, r e v o e r o M . ) 9 8 9 1 ( s e h g u H y b d e t a t s s ll i k s o r c i m d n a o r c a m f o s e ir o e h t e h t s e s u

r e n g i s e d t s e t e h

t payattenito ont thes tep so fconsrtucitngat est .Inordert odesign

r e h c r a e s e r e h t , t s e t

a use sthe mode lo ftes tdevelopmen twhich i sstated yb

Bachman and Palmer (1997 .) There are three stage sproposed by Bachman and

it a r e p o , n g i s e d y l e m a n , r e m l a

P onailsaitonandadminisrtaiton.

e b o t s t x e t e t a ir p o r p p a d n if o t s a h r e h c r a e s e r e h t , t s e t e h t g n i p o l e v e d n I

t s e t e h t n i d e s

u .Hence ,she may have to conduc tmateira ladaptaitons .Thi s

. y ti s s e c e n ’ s t n e d u t s e h t h ti w s t x e t e h t t s u j d a o t r e d r o n i y r a s s e c e n s i y ti v it c

a T he

t c u d n o c y a m r e h c r a e s e

(46)

8 2

I I I R E T P A H C

H C R A E S E

R METHODOLOGY

r e t p a h c s i h

T provide s a b ire f explanaiton on how the research wa s

e s n e v e s h g u o r h T . d e t c u d n o

c citon ,st her esearche rexplains themethodology used

n

i thi s study . They are the research method ,research paritcipants, research

insrtuments ,d a gta atheirng techniques , research insrtuments ,d a ata nalysi sand

researchprocedure.

.

A ResearchMethod

s i h t f o s e v it c e j b o e h t e v e i h c a o t r e d r o n i d e t c u d n o c s a w h c r a e s e r s i h T

y d u t

s to solve the problem s stated previously . There were two quesiton s

t , d e t a l u m r o

f he fris twa show an objecitve reading tes twa sdesigned ,and the

j r o f t s e t g n i d a e r e v it c e j b o e h t t a h w s a w d n o c e

s unio rhigh schooll ooked ilke .The

d aa s t and informaiton were found and analyzed through the proces so fthi s

. h c r a e s e r

y d u t s s i h

T i s Educaitona lResearch and Development a speople usually

R t i ll a

c D& .Based on Borg andGall(1983) R , & D i saproces so fdeveloping

it a d il a v d n

a ng educaitona l product .s Educaitona l product s here are no t only

d o h t e m o s l a t u b , s m li f l a n o it c u rt s n i d n a s k o o b t x e t g n i n g i s e d n o d e ti m

il s o f

r o g n i h c a e

t methods o forganizingi nsrtucitons (p .772) .T R he &Dcycleconsists

s p e t s n e t f

(47)

T eh ten step sarecycle swhich arerepeated wtihmoreschoolso rsubjects

. s t c u d o r p e h t t n e m e l p m i o

t Every step h s a some acitvtii es to conduct .The ten .

n o it a n a l p x e g n i w o ll o f e h t h g u o r h t d e n i a l p x e e r a s p e t s

.

a Step1

d n a h c r a e s e

R informaiton collecitng by ifnding review o frelated ltierature,

n o it a r a p e r p r e h t o d n a s n o it a v r e s b o m o o r s s a l

c s. tIi susedt ocollec tnecessarydata

.t c u d o r p a g n i p o l e v e d e r o f e b n o it a m r o f n i d n a

.

b Step2

g n it s e t y ti li b i s a e f e l a c s l l a m s d n a s e v it c e j b o d n a s ll i k s g n i n if e d y b g n i n n a l

P s.

e r a s t c u d o r p e h t f o s e v it c e j b o d n a s ll i k s e h t , t c u d o r p e h t g n i p o l e v e d e r o f e B

. d e n if e

d Bydoings o,t heproducti sgoingt of ocu sonachieving ti sobjecitves .

.

c Step3

s l a ir e t a m l a n o it c u rt s n i g n ir a p e r p y b t c u d o r P f o m r o F y r a n i m il e r P p o l e v e D

d n o it a u l a v e d n

a evice .s This i s t he proces so fdeveloping and also prepari rng fo

e h

t evaluaitono rthefris tvaildaitonoft heproduc.t

.

d Step4

1 o t l a n o it c u rt s n i e h t g n it s e t y b g n it s e T d l e i F y r a n i m il e r

P -3s chool swtih6- 12

g n i s u , s t c e j b u

s na interview or a quesitonnarie. The tesitng i sused to frislty

t c u d o r p e h t e t a d il a

v before tii sr evised.

.

e Step5

b n o i s i v e R t c u d o r P n i a

M ased on the resul to fpreilminary ifeld tesitng to

.t c u d o r p e h t e s i v e

r The resul to fpreilminary tesitng i susefu lin giving clea r

n t a h w n o n o it p ir c s e

(48)

.f Step6

n i a

M field tesitng in which the produc trevised i s t ested i n 5-15 school s 0

3 h ti

w -100 subject .s Thi sstep i ssimlia rwtih the fou trh step ,bu twtih more

.t n e m e l p m i o t s l o o h c s

.

g Step7

e h t f o t l u s e r e h t n o d e s a b t c u d o r p e h t g n i s i v e r , n o i s i v e R t c u d o r P l a n o it a r e p O

. g n it s e t d l e if n i a

m Thi sstep i ssimlia rwtih t he iftfh step i n which t heproducti s

.t l u s e r g n it s e T d l e i F n i a M n o d e s a b d e s i v e r

.

h Step8

d e t c u d n o c s i ti , g n it s e T d l e i F l a n o it a r e p

O throughl argert esitngby i nvolving

0

4 - 200 subject .s Thi sstep i ssimlia rwtiht hef ou trh andsixthstep bu twtihmore

. s l o o h c s r o s t c e j b u s

.i Step9

l a n o it a r e p o f o t l u s e r e h t n o d e s a b t c u d o r p f o g n i s i v e r , n o i s i v e R t c u d o r P l a n i F

. g n it s e t d l e

if Thi si sthe las trevision a tfe rthe produc ti simplemented in many

.s l o o h c s

.j Step10

l a n o i s s e f o r p t a n i t c u d o r p e h t g n it r o p e r , n o it a t n e m e l p m I d n a n o it a n i m e s s i D

. s l a n r u o j n i d n a s g n it e e

m Thi si sthe las tacitvtiy of developing educaitona l

, s p e t s e h t g n it e l p m o c r e tf A . t c u d o r

p the resul ti srepo tred through meeitng so r

s l a n r u

j .

c f o m r o f e h t n i s i l e d o m D & R s i h t , y l s u o i v e r p d e t a t s s

A yclei nwhicht he

s t c e j b u

(49)

s p e t s e v if d e y o l p m

e and i mplemente ti d in oneschoo lwtih 22subjects .The ifve

s p e t

s were :research and informaiton collecitng ,planning ,develop preilminary .

n o i s i v e r t c u d o r p n i a m d n a g n it s e t d l e if y r a n i m il e r p , t c u d o r p f o m r o f

s e t a n g i s e d o

T ,t t her esearche ralso adapted amode loft es tdevelopment

n a m h c a B y b d e s o p o r

p and Palmer(1996 ,pp .86- )9 .3 Theyproposed somestage s

e h T . t n e m p o l e v e d t s e t f

o re weret hreemain stages i n t hi s model,namely Design ,

n o it a z il a n o it a r e p

O and Adminisrtaiton .Eachstagehad someacitviitest oconduct

tl u s e r r o s t c u d o r p c if i c e p s e c u d o r p o t d e t c e p x e d n

a s.

1 1 0 2 ( i r a s a y d i

W , p . 23 ) who had conducted simlia r research also

e h S . s p e t s n e t e h t r e v o s p e t s e v if y l n o d e t c u d n o

c proposedacombinaitonbetween

ll a G d n a g r o B d n a s e g a t s r e m l a P d n a n a m h c a

B model .the combinaiton wa s

h g u o r h t d e n i a l p x

e et h fo llowing ifgure.

s p e t

S Acitviites Products

d n a h c r a e s e R : 1 p e t S

g n it c e ll o C n o it a m r o f n

I LatinerdaI tunrteerr veivewiew DesignStatement g

n i n n a l P : 2 p e t

S Selecitngand

e h t g n i y fi c e p s

s l a ir e t a m

t n ir p e u l B t s e T

g n i p o l e v e D : 3 p e t S

t c u d o r P f o m r o f y r a n i m il e r

P W iritngt het est Insrtucitosncso ,pirnrogcedureo f d

l e i F y r a n i m il e r P : 4 p e t S

g n it s e

T  Tes tAdminisrtaiton

t c u d o r P n i a M : 5 p e t S

n o i s i v e R

2 . 3 e r u g i

F The combina iton o f R & D by Borg and Gal l and Tes t r

e m l a P d n a n a m h c a B y b t n e m p o l e v e D

f o s p e t s e v if y l n o g n it c u d n o

C R&DcyclepresentedbyBorgandGal land

e h t g n it l u s n o

c stages oft es tdevelopment proposed byBachman and Palmer, t he

t c u d n o c r e h c r a e s e

(50)
(51)

.

2 Planning

e h t e t a t s , s ll i k s e h t e n if e d “ r e h c r a e s e r e h t h c i h w n i p e t s e h t s a w g n i n n a l P

& g r o B ( ” g n it s e t y ti li b i s a e f l l a m s d n a , e c n e u q e s e s r u o c g n i n i m r e t e d s e v it c e j b o

. ) 5 7 7 . p , 3 8 9 1 , ll a

G Moreover ,BorgandGall(1997) saidt hatt hestepo fdeifning

s a w s e v it c e j b o e h

t very impo tran tsince i twould determine the resul to fthe

d e n g i s e

d product (p .779- 07 )8 .To deifne skill sand state the objecitve o fthe

e h t d e k c e h c r e h c r a e s e r e h t , t c u d o r

p resul to fthe previou sstep .They were the

i f o t l u s e

r nterview ,and also t hesyllabus fo eigh tgraders. Hence, i n t hi sstep t he

v e d o t d e ir t y lt s ri f r e h c r a e s e

r elop a bluep irn tcontaining oft es tsrtuctureand t es t k

s a

t speciifcaiton.

t s e t e h

T srtucture wa sdeveloped t o give t he detali sof t he appearance o f

e h t g n i d u l c n i t s e t e h

t numbe rof t he tes tand t ype sof t es t tiems ,whlie t es ttask

n o it a c if i c e p

s gaveclea rexplanaitonoff actualt ests .Ther esearche rwass taritngt o

d n a t s e t g n i d a e r e v it c e j b o e h t f o e s o p r u p e h t y fi c e p

s w iritng the tiem so ftest .

e d i s e

B ,st es tspeci ifcaiton alsoga ev a b ire fand clearexplanaiton abou tdeifniiton

t c u rt s n o c f

o s , setitngs , itme , insrtucitons , expected responses, a nd sco irng d

o h t e

m s.

g n i n n a l p e h t s a w t a h t p e t s s i h t n i d e y o l p m e y ti v it c a e r o m e n o l li t s s a w e r e h T

n o it a u l a v e f

o thequailite soft het est(Bachman&Palmer ,1997 ,p .87) .Here, the

e k a m o t d e n n a l p r e h c r a e s e

r a quesitonnariefo rat eache randeducaitonall ecturer s

. d e n g i s e d t s e t e h t g n it a u l a v e r o

f Ther esearche rdevelopedt hequesitonnariebased

ti li b a il e r , y ti l a c it c a r p f o s e ir o e h t e h t n

(52)
(53)
(54)

h g u o r h t , y ll a c if i c e p

S thetes tadminisrtaiton t her esearche rcould ge tclea r

e h t n o t l u s e

r consrtuct lvaidtiy o fthe test .Consrtuc tvaildtiy wa sidenitifed by e

h t g n it n u o

c item faclitiy ,item dfiifcutly and identfiying disrtacto refifciency

w o h

s n byt hedist irbuitono fansweri neverychoice.

.

5 MainProduc tRevi iso n

, d e t c u d n o c s a w t s e t d l e if y r a n i m il e r p r e tf

A ther esearche remployed main

. n o i s i v e r t c u d o r

p Bachman’ s tes tdevelopmen tmode l(1997 ,p .92 )provides

t u o b a n o it a n a l p x

e theanalyzingacitviite .sI ti sastageo fdescirbingt het estr esul t

d n

a making revision based on ti .In thi sstep ,the researche rconducted two y

b d e k c e h c g n i e b r e tf a n o i s i v e r t s ri f e r e w y e h T . s n o i s i v e

r et h evaluator sand

. d e t n e m e l p m i g n i e b r e tf a n o i s i v e r d n o c e s

.

B ResearchParitcipants

d e n g i s e d t s e t e h t d e t s e t r e h c r a e s e r e h t , g n it s e t d l e if y r a n i m il e r p e h t g n ir u D

. s tr e p x e l a n o it a c u d e y b d e t a u l a v e t s e t e h t t e l o s l a d n

a There were three

y e h T . y d u t s s i h t f o s t n a p i c it r a

p w ere a teacher ,two lecturer sand eighth grade s

h g i h r o i n u j f o s t n e d u t

s chool .There were students in Clas sA and Clas sB o f

f o e d a r g t h g i

e SMPBopkr iWonosa ir .

a d n a e n o d e c n e ir e p x e d a h y e h t e c n i s n e s o h c e r e w s t n e d u t s e d a r g t h g i E

t I . l o o h c s h g i h r o i n u j n i r a e y f l a

h wa s assumed tha t they were prepairng

w m r o f r e p o t s e v l e s m e h

t elli nEngilshr eadingt est .Thet eache randl ecturer swere

e h t e t a u l a v e d n a k c e h c o t d e n g i s s

(55)

.

C Instrument sandDataGatheringTechnique

y lt s ri f r e h c r a e s e r e h

T interviewed Engilsh teache r o f SMP Bopkr i tI

. ir a s o n o

W aw sconducted t o ge tsufifcien tinformaiton about t eachingl earning

t s e t g n i d a e r t u o b a y ll a i c e p s e s s e c o r

p s in tha tschool .A tfe rthat ,the researche r

it c e j b o n a f o t e s a d e n g i s e

d ver eadingt es tandt henaskedateachero fSMPBopkr i

ir a s o n o

W and 2 PB Ilecturersto check i .t Thedatawa sgathered byaski ng them

e ri a n n o it s e u q e h t ll if o

t . Beside ,s t het es tdesigned wa salso t ested t o students i n

. ir a s o n o W i r k p o B P M S

a t a d t n e i c if f u s n i a t b o o

T s and i nformaitonf ordesigningat es tandalsof or ,t

s e t e h t f o y ti l a u q e h t g n it a u l a v

e the researche rused some insrtuments .The

n e m u rt s n

i t susedi nt hiss tudywereaquesitonnarie da n aninterviewguideilne.

.

1 InterviewGuide

, 6 0 0 2 ( k c o c n a H y b d e t a t s s

A p.40) t here were t hree t ype sof i nterviews ,

y l e m a

n srtuctured ,semisrtuctured and unsrtuctured interview .The researche r

e f e r

p rred t o conduc tasemisrtuctured i nterview i n which t heresearche rprovided

e u q g n i d i u

g sitons o r ilst so fquesitons ,bu tthe researche rcould ask folow up n

o it s e u

q s inordert oen ircht hei nformaiton.

i e h t , g n it c e ll o c n o it a m r o f n i g n ir u

D nterview sw a needed t o beconducted

r e h t a g o

t informaiton needed before consrtucitng the test .The interview wa s

o t d e t e g r a

t the teacher in relaiton wtih t he teaching learning process ,

s c it s ir e t c a r a h

c o fthe students and abou treading tests .The datas gathered from

w y ti v it c a s i h

(56)

.

2 Quesitonn e air

s e ri a n n o it s e u

Q were used a sa usefu linsrtumen tin terms fo et h data d

n a , a t a d l a c ir e m u n n e tf o , d e r u t c u rt s g n i d i v o r p , y e v r u s n o it c e ll o

c beingablet obe

d e r e t s i n i m d

a (Wlison & McLean in Cohen te a .l ,2000). The quesitonnarie wa s

o t d e t u b ir t s i

d thet eache randeducaitona lexpe trsi nordert ogathe rdatas relatedt o

e h

t vaildtiy and reilablitiy o fthe tes tdesigned . tI sw oa a ls used to give a lcea r

e h t n o n o it a n a l p x

e presentaitonoft es ttiems .

s a w e ri a n n o it s e u q e h

T iflled du irng the preilminary ifeld tesitng .I twa s

p e h t e t a u l a v e y l p e e d o t d e s

u resentaiton o f the tes t tiems . Through this o

it s e u

q nnai er , theteache rand educaitona lexpetrschecked whethert hei dea so fa

, y ti li b a il e r d n a y ti d il a v , t s e t d o o

g hadbeen flfu illed .

.

D DataAnalysis

.

1 AnalysisonI nterview

n i d e s u s a w y ti v it c a s i h T . r e h c a e t e h t d r a w o t d e t c u d n o c s a w w e i v r e t n i e h T

e h

t informaiton collecitng step .A tfe rconducitng the interview ,the researche r a

m d n a t l u s e r e h t d e b ir c s n a

rt desomecatego ire sbasedonteacher’ sanswers. The

t u o b a e r e w s e ir o g e t a

c students ’characteirsitc ,sr eadingmateiral sandalsot ype so f

t s e

t s thatt eache rusuallyusesi nt ha tclass .A tfert ha,tt her esul toft hesecatego ire s

d e z y l a n a s a

w usingdesc irpitveanalysis .

.

2 AnalysisonQues itonnaire

o t n e v i g s a w e ri a n n o it s e u

Q the three evaluators . The quesitonnarie

t n a p i c it r a p e h t d n a s t n e m e t a t s f o d e t s i s n o

(57)

tl u s e r e h

T wa sanalyzed through the calculaiton o fMode o rstatemen tmos t

d e t c e l e

s .Since there were only three evaluator swho were assigned to fli lthe ,

e ri a n n o it s e u

q calculaitngt heModeo feachstatemen twast hemos tefifcien tway

. tl u s e r e h t w o n k o t

s t n e m m o c e h t e z y l a n a o t s e l b a t e m o s e d a m o s l a r e h c r a e s e r e h t , n o it i d d a n I

s e g g u s d n

a it s on given by the evaluators .Thi s following table wa s used in

. e ri a n n o it s e u q e h t g n i z y l a n a

e l b a t s i s y l a n a a t a D 3 . 3 e l b a T t x e t / r e b m u n m e t I

r e b m u n

s m e l b o r

P Revision

.

E ResearchProcedure

e r u d e c o r p g n i w o ll o f e h

T w asappiledi nt hiss tudy.

.

1 ResearchandInforma itonCollecitng .

c r e h c r a e s e r e h

T ollecte d theo ire srelated to t heproces so fdesigning and .

t s e t a g n it c u d n o

c In addiiton ,the researche ralso gathered some informaiton

. s l a ir e t a m d n a s t n e d u t s e h t o t d e t a l e

r Thi sbecameanimpo trants teps incet hiss tep

d l u o

w leadt het es tdesignert oconsrtuc thert es.t

.

2 Planning

Thi sstep wa sconducted by selecitng and specfiyingt heobjecitve soft he

. t s e

t Bydoing t heseacitviite ,s t her esearche rcameup wtih et h tes tspeci ifcaiton .

,s e d i s e

Figur

gambar / cerita popular

gambar /

cerita popular p.105

Referensi

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