Protocol conversion to resolve protocol mismatches is an active research area and a number of solutions have been proposed. Some approaches require signifi- cant user eﬀort, while some only partly address the protocol conversion problem. Most formal approaches work on protocols that have unidirectional communi- cation and use finite state machines to describe specifications. In this paper we propose a formal approach to protocol conversion which alleviates the above problems. Specifications are described in temporal logic and bidirectional com- munication is allowed. A tableau-based approach using the **model** **checking** framework is used to generate converters in polynomial time. We use invari- ants to handle data-width issues. Fairness properties are used to generate fair converters. We prove that the approach is sound and complete and provide implementation results.

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Propositional -calculus [1-4] **model** **checking** technique is widely used in the design and verification of the finite-control concurrent system. **Model** **checking** algorithms can be segmented into two categories. One is global **model** **checking** that obtains all the sets of states which satisfy a given logic expression in a finite-control concurrent system. The other is local **model** **checking**, which is not always necessary to examine all the states. As we know, the state space explosion problem is the main problem that the propositional -calculus **model** **checking** algorithm faces with, so it is one of the hot topics to reduce time complexity and space complexity effectively.

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In this thesis MRMs, the logic CSRL and its characterization with state-based reward rate have been extended to incorporate impulse rewards. Algorithms for **model** **checking** Markov Reward Models with impulse rewards and to compute er- ror bounds for transient measures have been developed. The algorithms developed are simple to implement and are numerically stable. A prototype **model** checker has been implemented. An example application to demonstrate the applicability of **model** **checking** MRMs has been developed. The correctness of the imple- mentation has been demonstrated by empirical comparison to reference values in [Hav02] when impulse rewards are not present. The correctness of the implemen- tation when impulse rewards are present has been demonstrated by equivalence of values obtained by the use of two different methods viz. uniformization and discretization for transient measures.

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tems, where we have concentrated on modelling and analysis of molecular networks. There are two established frameworks for modelling molecular reactions, the continuous deterministic approach and the discrete stochastic approach [14,32]. In the deterministic approach, one approximates the number of molecules using a continuous function that represents the change in molecular concentrations using differential equations (ODEs) based on mass action kinetics. The ODE approach is suitable for modelling average be- haviour and assumes large numbers of molecules. The discrete stochastic approach, on the other hand, models the stochastic evolution of populations of molecules, where reac- tions are discrete events, governed by stochastic rates typically assumed to be constant and dependent on the number of molecules, which admits their modelling in terms of continuous-time Markov chains. This approach is more accurate in cases where the num- ber of molecules are small, since it can capture the situation when the system behaviour becomes non-continuous due to, e.g., molecules degrading [22]. Conventionally, discrete stochastic models have been analysed using stochastic simulation; here, we focus on the complementary technique of probabilistic **model** **checking** [16], which, in contrast to simulation, is exhaustive and able to discover best- and worst-case scenarios.

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HASL. As HASL is inherently based on simulation for assessing measures of a **model**, it naturally allows for releasing the constraints imposed by logics that rely on numerical solution of stochastic models. From a modelling point of view, HASL allows for studying a broad class of stochastic models (i.e. DESP), which includes, but is not limited to, CTMCs. From an expressiveness point of view, the use of LHAs allows for generic variables, which include, but are not limited to, clock variables (as per DTA). This means that sophisticated temporal conditions as well as elaborate performance measures of a **model** can be accounted for in a single HASL formula, rendering HASL a unified framework suitable for both **model**-**checking** and performance and dependability studies. Note that the nature of the (real-valued) expression Z, available in grammar (1), generalises the common approach of stochastic **model** **checking** where the outcome of verification is (an approximation of) the mean value of a certain measure (with CSL, asCSL, CSL TA and DTA a measure of probability).

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equipped with a finite set of real synchronous clocks. These clocks are synchronously increased by special delay transitions, they may be compared with constants for guards and also be reset by firings. Although they can generate an infinite state space, most decision problems remain decidable. Among Time Transition Systems (TTS) variants, Time PN (TPN) associate time with transitions and **model** urgency or time out, but they cannot disable transitions that become obsolete. Conversely, Timed PN (TdPN) more subtly associate age to tokens. Their input arcs specify an age interval during which tokens may be consumed, and their output arcs give initial ages to created tokens. Their lazy semantics do not **model** urgency but allow for disabling transitions when time elapses. The state descriptions and firings become far more complex for all TTS with elapsing of time, durations of transitions, minimum and maximum delays for firing. The often assumed instantaneity of some actions or guard evaluations may be not always compatible with real hardware speed. Temporal logic CTL must be ex- tended for timing, giving in particular CTLT. Strong or weak equivalences between time automata may also be defined. Despite the difficulties, these new logics with their rather efficient and scalable **model** **checking** algorithms, provide time modeling and verification for industrial systems.

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The major disadvantages of specifying requirements only in Natural language “are inherent imprecision, such as ambiguity, incompleteness and inaccuracy” [2]. It has also been found that they are often error-prone and this is partially caused by interpretation problems due to the use of Natural language itself [3]. Although the aim of object- oriented analysis e.g. using (semi-)formalized models like UML or formal models like KAOS is to have a better requirement specification, most of the requirements documentation or specification of a software system is still often written in – or at least derived from - free text expressed in Natural language. This is often vague, informal and contradictory and may or may not express the users’ needs. Much research has been devoted to the **checking** of inconsistency of requirements in a formal or semi-formal **model**. For example, XLinkit uses first order logic, object-Z specifications and utilizes tests of the specification, **model** abstraction and **model** **checking** for their verification. A “formal reasoning approach including the goal elaboration, ordered abduction and morphing of path” [8] is applied together with the use of knowledge base and rule base approach in detecting the inconsistency. Key limitations of using formal specification are the users needing to have deep understanding of the formal modelling language or continually have the formal specification explained to them. Users can not usually directly modify the specifications. Additionally, some of the algorithms “check only the self consistency of each class of a specification which does not guarantee the consistency of a specification”[7].

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1. Dari pemaparan penulis di atas bahwa fact **checking** yang diupayakan dua media daring arus utama itu mampu menjawab polemik berkepanjangan yang diakibatkan disinformasi atau hoax, fake news dan false news. Penyajian fakta yang dilakukan melalui pola kerja jurnalistik yang terukur etika dan profesionalitas membuat fakta-fakta tersebut nyaris tak bisa dibantah. Bukanlah upaya mudah melakukan fact **checking** terhadap masalah- masalah yang ditimbulkan oleh hoax, fake news dan false news. Butuh kemampuan profesional dengan jumlah tenaga yang tidak sedikit, termasuk biaya yang lumayan besar. Untuk itu perlunya keterlibatan lembaga-lembaga pers untuk lebih sering melakukan fact **checking** atas polemic yang muncul di masyarakat. Namun fact **checking** tidak serta merta menyasar individu-individu yang sebelumnya telah terpapar hoax, fake news dan false news, untuk itulah penulis memberikan saran-saran sebagai berikut: Institusi pers, termasuk asosiasi wartawan, untuk lebih masif lagi melakukan fact

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Due to the mentioned drawbacks of message authenticity **checking** based on conventional cryptography, such as message authentication codes, and the special requirements of MC- MTC, a more promising approach is to use characteristics of the wireless channel and the physical layer to decide about the origin of a received message. In our work, we focus on channel estimations which are computed at the receiver in any OFDM based system to perform for example channel equalization. In contrast to PHYSEC techniques such as secret key generation, which are based on the assumption that there is a lot of temporal variation in the wireless channel, our approach relies on the fact that the wireless channel does not vary significantly during subsequent channel measurements. However, the same idea that yields for both is to make use of the advantage of the fast spatial decorrelation property of wireless channels. For our work in particular, this means, that e.g. Alice receives messages from the legal transmit node Bob and estimates the actual channel H ˆ as

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Label similirarity has three techniques is syntatic, semantic and contextual. This research focus on syntatic similarity. **Checking** similarity use calculations based syntac. To calculate syntac, it can be mapped to find similar word between business process. After these calculations, to find similarity degree of business process we can do calculations label matching similarity. Modelling was done to describe the business process is Business Process Modelling and Notation (BPMN).

The reliability of satellite data communication can be enhanced by designing two subsystems involving data communication among subsystem and data communication between satellie and Ground Station (GS). In this paper, Error Control Coding (ECC) is applied in satellite data communication with Automatic Repeat Request (ARQ) method. Further, bit error **checking** uses the calculation of 15 bit Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC) Controller Area Network (CAN) standard. The calculation of CRC is attached in CAN frame over IP communication protocol between primary OBC and secondary OBC. OBC is designed by implementing Triple Modular Redundant system on a Linux-based operating system. The CAN frame over IP simulation with manual input is found to correct all corrupted data. When the simulation uses NetEM, the system corrects 100 % data with 0-10 % value of corruption with maximum time transfer of 84.472 seconds. ION DTN is also found to correct all corrupted data with values from 0 to 2 % and maximum delay at an altitude of 50,000 kilometer orbit using NetEm for TMTC mission. The testing results show that the system will keep carrying out its mission as long as a fault does not occur on all three OBC at the same time.

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Types of Checking Accounts •Interest-earning checking account also called negotiable order of withdrawal or NOW... Minimum Balance Requirements •Most of the accounts have a minimum-ba[r]

In Systems Biology **model** design, reliability evaluation constitutes a requirements challenge. In order to apply the models on a given process or on work for in silico study, a systems biologist needs to be ensured of the models quality. The key problem remains the relation between the **model** and the biologist question. Several algorithms was designed to validate models but they only check correctness of syntax (e.g. Online SBML validator). These algorithms do not consider semantic annotation of a **model** defining biological context of the **model**. In our approach we have measured the **model** reliability using a combination of meaning (semantic) and syntax. This approach allows researcher to identify a **model** that really fits his needs and application domain. It also provides unique identification to each **model** element (compound, reaction, and compartment) in order to facilitate any Systems Biology operation such as merging, splitting, and simulation. It is implemented in Java and connected to the **model** database BIOMODELS using Restful API, our algorithm implementation called SBMLChecker is

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Buka pelayar web Internet Explorer, sila layari ke laman utama ePerolehan, klik pada Tools.. Pilih pada Compatibility View Settings..[r]

Figure 2. shows inconsistency **checking** when the ordering of interactions has been changed. The related component change color to red and the textual requirement is highlighted (***) in order to show the user the affected requirement component from the modification. The problem marker will also shows the warning if change is made as the inconsistency will still exist in the textual requirement.

Instrumen untuk melakukan BI **checking** adalah KTP nasabah. Pengecekan BI **checking** harus dilakukan suami istri apabila sudah menikah, karena harta milik suami istri menjadi satu kepemilikan. Apabila salah satu dari suami atau istri memiliki riwayat macet maka pembiayaan tidak bisa disetujui. 41 BI **checking** mempunyai unsur-unsur di dalamnya yaitu Identitas debitur (nama, alamat, tanggal lahir) sesuai dengan KTP, tempat debitur bekerja, kode dan bank pelapor, golongan pembiayaan dan keterangan fasilitas, margin atau bagi hasil, plafon, kondisi pembiayaan, tangggal akad dan jatuh tempo.Sebelum membaca BI **checking** maka perlu mengetahui rumus di bawah ini : 42

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Logo ePerolehan dengan teks ͚Token Manager͛ akan keluar di sebelah kiri selepas klik butang ͚Start͛.. Logo ePerolehan dengan teks ͚Certificate register is ready͛ akan muncul di bawah seb[r]

At manufacturing practice, a quality conformation on the part manufactured using press method is inspected through a special tool called **checking** fixture. This tool is designed and fabricated for locating, holding and then **checking** a certain points on part. There are two types of **checking** fixture which the first is gauging fixtures and measuring fixtures. Gauging fixtures used to check the part against a standard of known size and can only determine if a part is in or out of tolerance and measuring actually measure a part and can indicate exactly where and by how much a part is out of tolerance.

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Pencocokan citra adalah dasar proses otomatisasi pada rangkaian proses fotogrametri. Pencocokan citra dapat diaplikasikan untuk orientasi dalam dengan menentukan tanda tepi secara otomatis antara foto yang memiliki tanda tepi (fiducial marks) dan bagian citra lain yang bertampalan sehingga menghasilkan posisi yang ideal dari tanda tepi tersebut. Pencocokan citra juga dapat digunakan dalam proses orientasi relatif untuk menentukan titik sekawan sebanyak minimal 5 titik pada citra yang bertampalan dengan mencocokan matriks pada citra kiri dengan titik sekawan pada citra kanan. Titik sekawan tersebut didefinisikan pada dua foto udara yang bertampalan sebagai titik indikator untuk mengetahui kelayakan **model** 3D hasil orientasi relatif.

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Auto-body parts include the stamping parts, subassemblies jointed with stamping parts, the auto-body framework and all kind of trims which are formed into complicated surfaces. The quality of covering these parts considerably affects car performance and airproofing. During the manufacturing process, in order to ensure parts quality, it is important to measure parts with **checking** fixtures which are used to locate and hold the workpiece in 3D space according to measure planning.