The use of biodiesel (BD) or its blends with petroleum diesel (D100) is contemplated to be a justifiable approach to reduce occupational and environmental exposures to particulate matter (PM). Exposure to diesel exhaust in humans has been shown to cause a number of adverse health outcomes, including pulmonary, cardiovascular dis- eases, and cancer [Tokiwa and Ohnishi, 1986; Watkinson et al., 1998; Holgate et al., 2003a; Garshick et al., 2004; Mills et al., 2005, 2007; Rivero et al., 2005; Nemmar et al., 2007, 2009; Tornqvist et al., 2007; Peretz et al., 2008; Pronk et al., 2009; Sawyer et al., 2010; Hazari et al., 2011; Silverman et al., 2012]. Diesel exhaust par- ticulates (DEPs) have also been reported to cause the dis- ruption of malereproductive function. Prior studies have shown that DEP exposure disturbed spermatogenesis, resulting in reduction of daily sperm production and motility, increased morphological sperm abnormalities, and ultrastructural changes in Leydig cells in mice [Yosh- ida et al., 1999; Yoshida and Takeda, 2004; Izawa et al., 2008; Li et al., 2012]. Inmale rats, the regulation of tes- ticular function was altered resulting in elevation of serum testosterone and reduction of luteinizing hormone (LH) and sperm production after DEP exposure [Wata- nabe and Oonuki, 1999; Tsukue et al., 2001, 2002; Izawa et al., 2007; Li et al., 2007, 2009b; Ramdhan et al., 2009].
We suggest that our results are due to differences inthe amount or type of seminal substances that males transfer to females during copulation. Female repro- ductive responses are often mediated by male acces- sory gland proteins (ACPs) in insects (Wolfner 1997, 2002; Chapman 2001; Gillot 2003). Such proteins are known to be polymorphic within species (Begun et al. 2000; Swanson & Vacquier 2002b) and to evolve rapidly (Civetta & Singh 1995). In Drosophila fruit- flies, ACPs are known to modulate egg production (Chapman et al. 2001); this is also true for another bruchid beetle, Acanthoscelides obtectus (Das et al. 1980). Moreover, the fact that female C. maculatus emerge with only about eight mature eggs (Wilson & Hill 1989) suggests that the results seen in our experiments on egg production during the 24 h following the first mating (some 25 eggs) may involve differential effects of male ACPs on female egg maturation. In fruitflies, ACPs and the act of mating itself affect a multitude of behavioural and physiological traits in females, includ- ing ovulation rate and egg maturation rate (Wolfner 1997, 2002; Chapman 2001), as well as the pattern of female gene expression (McGraw et al. 2004). It is, per- haps, less clear whether different fruitfly populations are generally distinct with regard to ACPs. Although some allopatric populations show divergence of ACPs apparently caused by directional selection (Aguadé 1998, 1999), others show little genetic differentiation across ACP loci (Panhuis, Swanson & Nunney 2003). In some taxa, such as free-spawning marine organ- isms (Palumbi 1999; Swanson & Vacquier 2002b), reproductive proteins are known to be polymorphic within and between species and to contribute to assor- tative mating. Genes coding for ACPs are thus obvious candidates for genes contributing to reproductive isolation and ultimately speciation. Further, work on fruitflies has revealed evidence for coevolution of male and female postmating reproductive traits within spe- cies (Pitnick et al. 2003), and there is some support for the idea that this can result in at least partial reproduc- tive isolation (Alipaz et al. 2001). Despite the fact that there is clearly variation in postmating prezygotic traits across conspecific populations of C. maculatus (Brown & Eady 2001; Fricke & Arnqvist 2004b), we failed to find evidence for a role of such divergence in terms of generating partial reproductive isolation in this system.
Malereproductive failure has been linked to successive development of various urologic diseases including prostate cancer. There is strong epi- demiologic data in support of this association, it is important therefore to identify the fundamental grounds that lay beneath such a connection. Malereproductive biology, as sex determined, is significantly dependent upon the hormonal regulation of androgens. With the advancement of knowledge on androgen receptivity and epigenetic regulation, the role of new regulatory factors such as microRNAs becomes essential. This review focuses on unraveling the role of microRNA tight incorporation in androgen-dependent malereproductive biology inthe context of recent prostate cancer data.
Wholemount preparations making process was as follows: Fetuses were fixed into 95% alcohol for 3 days. Viscerasi is the disposal process of skin, fat tissue and internal organs of the fetus. This process was done very carefully as not to damage the fetus nor change the fetal organ position. White rat fetuses were put into acetone for 1 day to dissolve fat. Fetuses were stained on day 4 th using a double staining namely Allizarin red-S and Alcian blue for 1-3 days at 37 º C temperature. Fetuses were washed with running water for several times until they were clean. Fetuses were clarified with 1% of KOH solution in water for 2 days until the tissues that wrap the body become transparent and the ones that have red or blue color were only bone tissues. Fetus transferred into 20% of glycerin solution in 1% of KOH for 1-4 days. In a row, fetuses were inserted in a solution of glycerol 50% and 80% in KOH 1% respectively for 1 hour, and then were stored in 100% of glycerin for later observation. Observations on the results of ossification were based on of the dye absorption of skeleton. True normal bone turns red and inhibited growth bone will be blue or no color at all as a dyeing reaction of Allizarin Red-S. The photographing of fetal was performed at the time of abnormalities observation, both external (abnormalities of morphology, hemorrhage, and resorption) and internal (ossification abnormalities) using a digital camera.
A full-length cDNA encoding a new cytochrome P450, CYP6L1, was cloned from German cockroaches, Blattella germanica. CYP6L1 has an open reading frame of 1509 nucleotides with a deduced protein of 503 amino acids and molecular mass of 57 Kd. CYP6L1 is most similar to CYP6H1, a putative ecdysone 20-hydroxylase from Locusta migratoria. CYP6L1 mRNA was not detected in embryos nor nymphs, nor in adult females. CYP6L1 mRNA was detected only inthe testes and accessory glands of male adult German cockroaches. Given that the testes and accessory glands are the most important components of thereproductive system inmale insects, the expression of CYP6L1 mRNA exclusively in these tissues strongly suggests that CYP6L1 has a role in reproduction. Possible substrates for CYP6L1 are discussed. 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
Spermatozoa were produced and spawned all year round in Foveaux Strait oysters, although there was an increase inmale spawning between spring and autumn. Overall, ova were common among the oysters throughout the year. Phagocytosis of reproductive material inthe gonads became more extensive in summer–autumn, but occurred throughout the year. These seasonal patterns of gametogenesis are remarkably similar to those observed in other populations of O. chilensis in New Zealand, which have
Inthe opening chapters, Dr. Kime leads the reader through definitions of endocrine disruption and an excellent summary of the classes of chemical pollutants inthe aquatic environment and their structures. He then discusses the critical issue of bioconcentration in fish tissues. This is followed by a description of the steroidogenic pathways involved in normal fish reproduction, reproductive strategies and the significance of pollutant impacts on fecundity, fertility and sex differentiation. Dr. Kime then compares in vitro and in vivo approaches to the investigation of pollutant impacts and this leads to two detailed chapters on the disruption of male and female reproductive functions. Inthe former chapter, Dr. Kime points out the important difference in estrogenic potency between true estrogens such as ethynylestradiol, which can influence sex differentiation at very low concentrations, versus environmental estrogens such as nonylphenol, which have much weaker estrogenic potencies, but also exert other toxicological effects that are not related to their estrogenic activity. Inthe chapter on female reproduction, Dr. Kime discusses recent research on the impact on reproduction of compounds having aromatase inhibiting activity. These compounds can interfere either with estradiol synthesis inthe ovary or with feedback control mechanisms at the hypothalamic level. Subsequent chapters address the impact of endocrine disrupters on early develop- ment, liver, thyroid and interrenal function, growth, osmoregulation and the immune system. The closing chapter discusses the impact of consumption of fish containing endocrine disrupters on birds, marine and terrestrial mammals, and human populations. The text is accompanied by an appendix of tables that catalog the impact of various classes of pollutants on the fish endocrine system, an extensive bibliography, a species key and an index.
After the ampulla, glands add fluid to the developing semen as it moves through themale system during ejac- ulation. The paired seminal vesicles, located on the posterior base of the urinary bladder, are the first of these glands. They secrete an alkaline, fructose-rich fluid that ser ves two purposes. The high pH helps to neutralize the potentially lethal, acidic environment of themale urethra and the female reproductive tract. The fructose serves as an energy source for the sperm as they become motile. Prostaglandins are also released by the seminal vesicles. Prostaglandins have many physi- ological effects. They open airways, stimulate the sensa- tion of pain, reduce stomach acid production, and cause local irritation. Prostaglandins also seem to stim- ulate sperm motility. A final important component of seminal vesicle fluid is a clotting factor, which may be responsible for the coagulation of semen after ejacula- tion. In all, the seminal vesicles secrete approximately 60 percent of the total ejaculate volume.
suggesting an effect on the hypothalamus, the pituitary gland, or both. At the termination of the study, the average body weight of rats receiving atrazine at 100 mg/kg per day was found to be re- duced by approximately 9%. This suggested the possibility that the effects of atrazine on thereproductive tract may not be direct, but rather, the noted deficits of themalereproductive tract resulted from reduced food intake by the treated rats. We tested this by feeding control (vehicle-gavaged) rats amounts of food equivalent to that consumed by the atrazine-fed rats, and then assessing reproductive tract endpoints. Even mild food restriction resulted in reductions in serum testosterone concentration, inthe weights of androgen-de- pendent organs, and in serum LH concentration; the same deficits that were seen in atrazine-gavaged rats. Indeed, the effects of at- razine on themalereproductive tract seen in rats receiving atrazine at greater than 50 mg/kg per day could not be distinguished from the effects of reduced food consumption. These results suggest that caution must be exercised before concluding that atrazine (or any potentially toxic chemical) has direct, detrimental effects.
The seasonal patterns obser ved in under normal weather conditions are typical of Asian aseasonal tropics, with a single peak in ﬂowering after the initial dry season and a single peak in fruiting – months later (Medway, ; van Schaik, ; Corlett and Lanfrankii, ). Flowering patterns in and indicate that drought was probably a reproductive cue. Why does the ﬁrst dry season in a normal-weather year (rather than the second) trigger the sequence of defoliation triggering the flushing of new leaves, which leads to flowering? Van Schaik s ( ) hypothesis considers, and suggests that ( ) elevated pollination efﬁciency through the synchrony of flowering and pollinator activities, and ( ) survival ratios of seedlings through successive seasonal changes, are of greatest importance inthe expression of plant phenology inthe wet tropics.
Sperm abnormalities have long been associated with male infertility and sterility in most species studied. These abnormalities vary from morphological defects that are evident upon clinical examination, to those, which are more subtly defective. In general, sperm structure can play a substantial role in both fertilization and pregnancy outcome (Chenoweth, 2005). Eventhough the heritability of bull fertility is generally considered to be low, certain aspects of bull fertility, including sperm morphological abnormalities are under genetic control. Sperm abnormalities according to Chenoweth (2005) and
A BSTRACT .—Avian populations often consist of breeding residents and nonbreeding float- ers. It is usually assumed that floaters are lower-quality individuals that do not reproduce, but floater tactics and potential reproductive success have rarely been examined carefully. To assess the potential reproductive role of male floaters in Tree Swallows (Tachycineta bi- color), we compared their reproductive organs and morphology with those of resident males. Tree Swallows show high levels of extrapair paternity, but two studies attempting to find the fathers of the extrapair offspring have been remarkably unsuccessful. Floater males that father extrapair young would face intense sperm competition. Theory predicts that under intense sperm competition, selection favors males that produce more sperm. Comparative studies in birds and other taxa provide evidence that the level of sperm competition influ- ences relative testes size and sperm production. However, intraspecific adaptations to dif- ferent levels of sperm competition have received far less attention. Floater Tree Swallows did not differ from resident males in any of the characters we measured, including testes size, but floaters had significantly larger cloacal protuberances. Thus, our results do not confirm the general assumption that floaters are lower-quality individuals that do not reproduce. Furthermore, floaters showed high variation inthe volume of the cloacal protuberance (re- flecting sperm numbers), which suggests that they engage in copulations. We conclude that floater male Tree Swallows invest heavily in sperm production (as do resident males) to ex- ploit breeding opportunities through takeovers or extrapair copulations. Received 17 Novem- ber 1998, accepted 5 May 1999.
In addition to its contribution to cellular energy metabolism, carnitine can protect a variety of cells from apoptosis through several mechanisms. Addition of carnitine reduces apoptotic cell death in hepatocyte growth factor–deprived murine C2.8 hepatocytes 6 and lymphocytes. 7 Moreover, acetyl- L -carnitine has been reported to inhibit apoptosis triggered by serum deprivation in a teratocarcinoma cell line. 5 Car- nitine possesses antioxidant properties. Increased reactive oxygen species have been found in patients with idiopathic and postinflammatory oligoasthenozoospermia. Carnitine has been shown to reduce reactive oxygen species and increase sperm forward motility and viability in infertile patients with prostato-vesiculo- epididymitis. 17 This beneficial antioxidant property has also been shown in tissues such as peripheral blood lymphocytes from patients during acute HIV syndrome 18 and heart muscles subjected to ischemia. 19 Despite the potential role of carnitine as an antioxidant, its actual protective significance is open to argument. 20 Given that various medications that purport to be free radical scavengers may not improve sperm motility, 21 other mechanisms for carnitine’s action on spermatozoa may come into play. These alternative protective mechanisms have been investigated inin vitro studies of different tissues.
Phthalates have been shown to cause a variety of effects in laboratory animals; however, their adverse effects on development of thereproductive system of male animals have led to particular concern. Those ef - fects include infertility, decreased sperm count, crypt- orchidism (undescended testes), hypospadias (mal - formation of the penis) and other reproductive tract defects and are referred to as the phthalate syndrome. Given these common effects of phthalate exposure that have been observed in laboratory animals, the second question has been answered afirmatively. In addition, the phthalate syndrome in animals has many similarities to a hypothesized syndrome in humans— testicular dysgenesis syndrome—although there are no human data that directly link the hypothesized syndrome in humans with phthalate exposure.
Radioimmunoassays were the first assay developed and ‘the Monash assay’ (McLachlan et al., 1986, 1987; Schneyer et al., 1990) provided a wealth of insight into reproductive physi- ology. However, the ‘Monash’ assay, which used a polyclonal antibody raised against 31 kDa bovine inhibin with epitopes for the antibody on the inhibin a subunit, is unable to discriminate between dimeric bioactive inhibin forms and various forms of free a subunit which circulate in 20-fold excess. Several groups prepared monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies with the inten- tion of producing two-site immunoassays to measure specifi- cally the bioactive dimeric forms of inhibin (Illingworth et al., 1991; Baly et al., 1993; Poncelet and Franchimont, 1994). However, due to the high degree of structural conservation of inhibin between species, it is a poor immunogen and the anti- bodies raised had limited affinity. More recently, a panel of monoclonal antibodies to synthetic peptide immunogens was used to construct ultrasensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) for dimeric inhibin A, inhibin B, and the inhi- bin precursor pro-alphaC (Groome et al., 1994, 1995, 1996; Knight and Muttukrishna, 1994; Evans et al., 1997). The inhi- bin A and inhibin B assays make use of a sample pre-treatment process with hydrogen peroxide (Knight and Muttukrishna, 1994) which oxidizes the methionine residues inthe b subunits and significantly increases the sensitivity of the assays. An additional specificity-enhancing step involves heating samples for these assays with a sodium dodecyl sulphate solution, which irreversibly disrupts activin – follistatin complexes and, inthe inhibin B assay, removes the effect of heterophil antibodies. A very high specificity and sensitivity is required for measuring concentrations of the various members of the inhibin family in serum where physiological concentrations may be detected at concentrations as low as 5 pg/ml. The Groome ELISA, which are now available commercially (Oxford Bioinnovation, UK or from Diagnostic System Laboratories, DSL, USA), provide pre- cise and replicable results for use in clinical and physiological research.
The majority of studies examining puberty, hormonal parameters and fertility are small, with a few of the males demonstrating abnormalities. In a study in young boys, three out of 12 had a history of cryptorchidism (Rubio-Gozalbo et al 2006), which suggests that the rate of cryptorchidism is higher than the expected rate of 3.68 % inthe population (Berkowitz et al 1993). While pubertal development was normal in most males with classic galactosemia (Kaufman et al 1986; Kaufman et al 1981; Waggoner et al 1990), it was delayed in up to 20 % (Schweitzer et al 1993; Waggoner et al 1990). Nevertheless, testosterone, basal follicle stimulat- ing hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels were normal in a majority of pre-pubertal and post-pubertal males (Irons et al 1986; Kaufman et al 1986; Kaufman et al 1981; Rubio-Gozalbo et al 2006; Steinmann et al 1981a, b; Waggoner et al 1990). Similarly, the LH and FSH response to luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH) was normal inthe majority of adult males, and inthe two cases in which baseline FSH concentration was elevated and the LHRH response was exaggerated, no clinical history was available including history of cryptorchidism (Kaufman et al 1986; Steinmann et al 1981a, b). Finally, semen analyses, the best indicator of fertility apart from pregnancy, were found to be normal in two men (Kaufman et al 1986). To our knowledge only one pregnancy has been reported inthe literature for a male with galactosemia (Panis et al 2006), proving that galactosemic men are able to father a child, but thus far no thorough systematic reproductive evaluation has been done.
Such a basal position of the genus Clibanarius is also supported by the molecular analyses performed by Morrison et al. (2002) and Mantelatto et al. (2006). Inthe current phylogenetic reconstruction, as previously mentioned, the position of P. eremita is uncertain between Clibanarius and all the other diogenid genera. This ﬂuidity of placement is also demonstrated inthe molecular phylogeny of Mantelatto et al. (2006), where their monophyletic Paguristes clade variously allied with the other diogenid taxa according to which cladistic metho- dology (NJ, MP or Bayesian) was applied. From a somatic morphological perspective the genera Clibanarius and Paguristes are quite similar to one another (e.g. equal or subequal chelae compared to the majority of the diogenids which have noticeably larger left chelae) and so their adjacent placement in this tree of reproductive characters is not so surprising. Inherent in this analysis, like many using solely reproductive characters, are the problems of low clade support and within-genus poly- tomies (e.g. the genus Calcinus in Fig. 5) associated with small numbers of characters, limited taxonomic sampling, and biased biogeographic sampling. Extending the analysis to more species within each genus, taxa from other geographic regions (this analysis is biased towards the Indo-West Paciﬁc by two-thirds), other morphological structures and characters, and even including molecular sequence data for these genera/species, would make an interesting comparison for the phylogeny generated here from reproductive characters alone.